Powerpoint circulatory system

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Powerpoint circulatory system

  1. 1. HUMAN BODYCIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  2. 2. COMPOSITION OF BLOOD• RED CELLS• WHITE CELLS• PLATELETS floating in a liquid called PLASMA
  3. 3. COMPOSITION OF BLOOD
  4. 4. COMPOSITION OF BLOOD
  5. 5. RED BLOOD CELLS• Biconcave discs• No nuclei• Spongy cytoplasm enclosed in an elastic cell membrane• Red pigment called haemoglobin• Are made by the red bone marrow of certain bones in the skeleton: ribs, vertebrae and breastbone
  6. 6. Red blood cells: hystology
  7. 7. Red bone marrow
  8. 8. HAEMOGLOBIN
  9. 9. Haemoglobin (Hb)• Hb + O₂ oxyhaemoglobin (OHb)In places where the O₂ concentration is low, OHb breaks down and releases its O₂. Where??• Oxygenated blood : contains mainly OHb.• Deoxygenated blood : with little OHb.
  10. 10. Oxyhaemoglobin
  11. 11. Red blood cells After 4 months Hb IronBilirubin Stored in the liver Bile
  12. 12. WHITE CELLS• Different types• Larger than red cells• They have nuclei• They are made in the same bone marrow that red cells• The two more numerous types are: - Phagocytes - Lymphocytes
  13. 13. White blood cells
  14. 14. White blood cells
  15. 15. White blood cells: Phagocytes• They collect at the site of an infection, engulfing (ingesting) and digesting harmful bacteria. They prevent the spread of infection through the body.
  16. 16. Phagocytes
  17. 17. White blood cells: LymphocytesProduction of antibodies (proteins)
  18. 18. PLATELETSThey help to clot the blood
  19. 19. PLASMA• Ions: sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, hydrogen carbonate.• Proteins: fibrinogen (clotting), albumin and globulins (antibodies).• Food substances: aa, glucose and fats.• Hormones• Urea
  20. 20. Functions of the blood• Homeostatic functions• Transport• Defence against infections - Clotting - White cells
  21. 21. Functions of blood: TransportSubstance From ToOxygen Lungs Whole bodyCarbon dioxide Whole body lungsUrea liver kidneysHormones glands Target organsDigested food intestine Whole bodyHeat (opening and closing of Abdomen and muscle Whole bodyblood vessels)
  22. 22. Blood functions: DEFENCE AGAINST INFECTIONS• WHITE CELLS: - Phagocytes: - at the sites of a wound - in the blood capillaries - in lymph nodes ingest harmful bacteria and stop them entering the general circulation - Lymphocytes: Production of antibodies• CLOTTING
  23. 23. CLOTTING• When tissue is damaged and blood vessels cut• Platelets clump together and block the smaller capillaries.• Fibrinogen fibrin (network of fibres across the wound)• Red cells become trapped in this network and form a blood clot. ↓ entry of harmful bacteria prevents further loss of blood
  24. 24. Clotting
  25. 25. Blood clotting
  26. 26. THE HEART
  27. 27. Human Heart• 4 chambers: - 2 atria (thin-walled) - 2 ventricles (thick- walled)• Veins: deoxygenated blood except pulmonary vein• Arteries: Oxygenated blood except pulmonary artery• Valves: They stop blood flowing backwards.• Coronary arteries: They supply the heart muscle with food and oxygen.
  28. 28. Human heart
  29. 29. Valves of the heart
  30. 30. CONTROL OF THE HEART BEAT• At rest: normal heart rate, 50-100 beats per minutes.• During exercise: 200 beats/min• The heart beat is initiated by the pacemaker, a small group of specialized muscles cells at the top of the right atrium.
  31. 31. Control of the heart beat• Blood pressure ↑ ↓ heart rate• Blood pressure ↓ ↑ heart rate• ↓ O₂ concentration• ↑ CO₂ concentration• Hormone adrenaline
  32. 32. THE CIRCULATION
  33. 33. CIRCULATION
  34. 34. BLOOD VESSELS
  35. 35. Blood vessels Function Structure of wall Width of lumenARTERIES Carry blood away from Thick and strong, Relatively narrow, it the heart containing muscles and varies with heart beat, as elastic tissue. it can stretch and recoil.CAPILLARIES supply all cells with their Very thin, only one cell Very narrow, just one cell requirements and take thick. can pass through. away waste products.VEINS Return blood to the heart Quite thin, containing Wide, contains valves less muscle and elastic tissue.
  36. 36. Arteries, veins: hystology
  37. 37. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
  38. 38. Lymphatic system• Thin-walled vessels called lymphatics.• They empty their contents into the blood system.• The fluid is called lymph.• Most of the lymph flow results from the vessels being compressed when the body muscles contract in movements such as walking or breathing.• There are valves, which force the fluid in one direction: towards the heart.• Lymph nodes: storage of lymphocytes. There are also phagocytes.• Lymphatic organs: Spleen and thymus
  39. 39. Lymph nodes: part of the body defence system
  40. 40. Lymphatic organs: spleen and thymus
  41. 41. SPLEEN: functions• Remove worn-out red cells, bacteria and cell fragments from the blood.• Produce lymphocytes and antibodies.
  42. 42. THYMUS: functions• Particularly important lymphoid organ in the newborn: - controls the development of the spleen and the lymph nodes. - produces lymphocytes (immunity)• After puberty , important immunological organ, although it becomes smaller. - storage of white cells - production of a large population of lymphocytes T.
  43. 43. ATHEROMA and THROMBOSIS
  44. 44. CORONARY HEART DISEASES
  45. 45. Possible causes of coronary heart diseases• SMOKING• FATTY DIET• STRESS• LACK OF EXERCISE

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