15 part 1


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15 part 1

  1. 1. 15 Part 1The Beginning of the Cold War<br />
  2. 2. Intro to Cold War<br />The Cold War was a war of words and threatened military actions between the United States and the USSR<br />1946 until 1990.<br />No major battles happened during the Cold War.<br />Indirect wars: Korean and Vietnam wars<br />The Cold War was a race between the two world’s superpowers in everything from nuclear bombs, exploring space, fashion, music, and spying. <br />VS<br />
  3. 3. Conflicting Postwar GoalsAmerican and Soviet Goals<br />American Goals after WWII:<br />FREEDOM, DEMOCRACY, AND CAPITALISM IN EUROPE<br />Wanted conquered European nations to experience the democracy and economic opportunity that the United States had fought for during the war<br />Wanted to develop strong capitalist economies, which would provide good markets for American products<br />
  4. 4. Conflicting Postwar GoalsAmerican and Soviet Goals<br />Soviet Goals<br />Wanted to rebuild Europe in ways that would help the Soviet Union recover from the huge losses it suffered during the war<br />Wanted to establish Soviet satellite nations, countries subject to Soviet dominationand sympathetic to Soviet goals<br />Wanted to promote the spread of communismthroughout the world<br />
  5. 5. Potsdam Conference<br />Following WWII, Berlin was divided into four zones:<br /> 1. American 3. French<br /> 2. British 4. Soviet Union<br />US, Britian, and Russian leaders met in Potsdam Germany in July of 1945 to discuss the outcome of Germany (and Europe’s stability) following the war.<br />Stalin already took Poland and established a Communist government…and we know he wants more land<br />At the conference the results of the British election are announced—Clement Attlee is new Prime Minister<br />Everyone knows we have nuclear weapons<br />This meeting created tension between the two superpowers. <br />
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  7. 7. Potsdam Conference<br />
  8. 8. Potsdam<br />
  9. 9. Potsdam Conference<br />
  10. 10. Iron Curtain<br />Winston Churchill first used the term “Iron Curtain” in a telegram to Truman<br />"[a]n iron curtain is drawn down upon their front. We do not know what is going on behind.”<br />The Iron curtain was an imaginary dividing line between Eastern Europe (Communist) and Western Europe (Democratic).<br />
  11. 11. Truman doctrine <br />The Truman Doctrine, which applied the principles of containment,keeping the Soviets out of other countries. He stated that the United States would support free peoples who resist attempted conquest. The Truman Doctrine was first applied in the cases of Greece and Turkey.<br />
  12. 12. The Marshall Plan<br />The U.S. Secretary of State was George C. Marshall.<br />In 1947 he proposed to give money to nations that were not communist.<br />European countries received $13 billion from this plan.<br />The Soviet set up a rival plan known as COMECON with its neighboring Communist nations.<br />This stands for Council for Mutual Economic Assistance.<br />
  13. 13. Red = Marshal Plan Money<br />
  14. 14. Labeling used on aid packages<br />
  15. 15. 1960 German stamp with Marshall’s picture<br />
  16. 16. Why did we fear letting countries be Communist?<br /><ul><li>Domino Theory – if we let one country fall to Communism then others would fall</li></li></ul><li>
  17. 17. The Berlin Airlift<br />In June of 1948, Soviet troops cut all road and rail traffic to West Berlin.<br />This created a crisis for the people living there because they needed supplies.<br />Russia wanted West Berlin to fall into their hands<br />Not wanting West Berlin to fall to the Soviets, President Truman ordered supplies to be flown in from Britain.<br />For 11 months various supplies were flown to West Berlin.<br />
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  20. 20. Loading milk onto a plane heading to West Berlin<br />
  21. 21. British Flying Boat<br />
  22. 22. NATO and Warsaw Pact<br />NATO stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organization.<br />It was created by 12 democratic countries as a mutual defense alliance.<br />When the Soviets found out about NATO, they created their own alliance with fellow communist countries called the Warsaw Pact.<br />
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  24. 24. Rise of Communism in China<br />The Nationalist government of China was headed by Chiang Kai-shek.<br />The Communist Party was headed by Mao Zedong.<br />The Communist revolution finally took over in 1949.<br />In 1949 the People’s Republic of China took over.<br />The Chinese Nationalist government fled to the small island of Taiwan.<br />
  25. 25. The Korean War<br />After the communist took over in China, they started for Korea.<br />Korea had been a Japanese colony, and after WWII the US and the Soviets occupied it until a government could be setup<br />On June 25th 1950, North Korean troops (communist) attacked South Korea.<br />President Truman sent Douglass MacArthur with UN troops to stop them.<br />Eventually a cease fire was reached and Korea was divided along the 38th parallel. North Korea (Communist) and South Korea (Democratic).<br />In April of 1951, Truman fired MacArthur for insubordination. <br />
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  33. 33. Bombing of South Korean railroad<br />
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  35. 35. Fighting in Seoul<br />
  36. 36. Chinese communist troops coming to aid North Korean army<br />
  37. 37. Chinese soldiers surrendering<br />
  38. 38. Dump for empty military shells<br />
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  40. 40. USS Missouri<br />
  41. 41. Dead political prisoners in North Korea<br />
  42. 42. Hill 303 Massacre of US POWs by North Korean Army<br />
  43. 43. Executed US POW<br />
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  45. 45. South Korea’s GDP<br />