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15 part 1 15 part 1 Presentation Transcript

  • 15 Part 1The Beginning of the Cold War
  • Intro to Cold War
    The Cold War was a war of words and threatened military actions between the United States and the USSR
    1946 until 1990.
    No major battles happened during the Cold War.
    Indirect wars: Korean and Vietnam wars
    The Cold War was a race between the two world’s superpowers in everything from nuclear bombs, exploring space, fashion, music, and spying.
    VS
  • Conflicting Postwar GoalsAmerican and Soviet Goals
    American Goals after WWII:
    FREEDOM, DEMOCRACY, AND CAPITALISM IN EUROPE
    Wanted conquered European nations to experience the democracy and economic opportunity that the United States had fought for during the war
    Wanted to develop strong capitalist economies, which would provide good markets for American products
    View slide
  • Conflicting Postwar GoalsAmerican and Soviet Goals
    Soviet Goals
    Wanted to rebuild Europe in ways that would help the Soviet Union recover from the huge losses it suffered during the war
    Wanted to establish Soviet satellite nations, countries subject to Soviet dominationand sympathetic to Soviet goals
    Wanted to promote the spread of communismthroughout the world
    View slide
  • Potsdam Conference
    Following WWII, Berlin was divided into four zones:
    1. American 3. French
    2. British 4. Soviet Union
    US, Britian, and Russian leaders met in Potsdam Germany in July of 1945 to discuss the outcome of Germany (and Europe’s stability) following the war.
    Stalin already took Poland and established a Communist government…and we know he wants more land
    At the conference the results of the British election are announced—Clement Attlee is new Prime Minister
    Everyone knows we have nuclear weapons
    This meeting created tension between the two superpowers.
  • Potsdam Conference
  • Potsdam
  • Potsdam Conference
  • Iron Curtain
    Winston Churchill first used the term “Iron Curtain” in a telegram to Truman
    "[a]n iron curtain is drawn down upon their front. We do not know what is going on behind.”
    The Iron curtain was an imaginary dividing line between Eastern Europe (Communist) and Western Europe (Democratic).
  • Truman doctrine
    The Truman Doctrine, which applied the principles of containment,keeping the Soviets out of other countries. He stated that the United States would support free peoples who resist attempted conquest. The Truman Doctrine was first applied in the cases of Greece and Turkey.
  • The Marshall Plan
    The U.S. Secretary of State was George C. Marshall.
    In 1947 he proposed to give money to nations that were not communist.
    European countries received $13 billion from this plan.
    The Soviet set up a rival plan known as COMECON with its neighboring Communist nations.
    This stands for Council for Mutual Economic Assistance.
  • Red = Marshal Plan Money
  • Labeling used on aid packages
  • 1960 German stamp with Marshall’s picture
  • Why did we fear letting countries be Communist?
    • Domino Theory – if we let one country fall to Communism then others would fall
  • The Berlin Airlift
    In June of 1948, Soviet troops cut all road and rail traffic to West Berlin.
    This created a crisis for the people living there because they needed supplies.
    Russia wanted West Berlin to fall into their hands
    Not wanting West Berlin to fall to the Soviets, President Truman ordered supplies to be flown in from Britain.
    For 11 months various supplies were flown to West Berlin.
  • Loading milk onto a plane heading to West Berlin
  • British Flying Boat
  • NATO and Warsaw Pact
    NATO stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
    It was created by 12 democratic countries as a mutual defense alliance.
    When the Soviets found out about NATO, they created their own alliance with fellow communist countries called the Warsaw Pact.
  • Rise of Communism in China
    The Nationalist government of China was headed by Chiang Kai-shek.
    The Communist Party was headed by Mao Zedong.
    The Communist revolution finally took over in 1949.
    In 1949 the People’s Republic of China took over.
    The Chinese Nationalist government fled to the small island of Taiwan.
  • The Korean War
    After the communist took over in China, they started for Korea.
    Korea had been a Japanese colony, and after WWII the US and the Soviets occupied it until a government could be setup
    On June 25th 1950, North Korean troops (communist) attacked South Korea.
    President Truman sent Douglass MacArthur with UN troops to stop them.
    Eventually a cease fire was reached and Korea was divided along the 38th parallel. North Korea (Communist) and South Korea (Democratic).
    In April of 1951, Truman fired MacArthur for insubordination.
  • Bombing of South Korean railroad
  • Fighting in Seoul
  • Chinese communist troops coming to aid North Korean army
  • Chinese soldiers surrendering
  • Dump for empty military shells
  • USS Missouri
  • Dead political prisoners in North Korea
  • Hill 303 Massacre of US POWs by North Korean Army
  • Executed US POW
  • South Korea’s GDP