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  1. 1. McCarthyism <ul>The Rise and Fall of Joseph McCarthy </ul>
  2. 2. Who was Joseph McCarthy? <ul><li>Senator from Wisconsin during the 1950s
  3. 3. Former U.S. Marine
  4. 4. Gained national recognition due to a speech he gave in 1950 in Wheeling, WV </li></ul>
  5. 5. What did McCarthy do? <ul><li>In his speech, McCarthy accused a list of 205 members of the U.S. State Department, claiming they were members of the Communist Party.
  6. 6. He did this during the Cold War, a time of great hysteria throughout the world, so his allegations seemed reasonable to most Americans. </li></ul>
  7. 7. John Service <ul><li>In his speech, McCarthy went on to list specific individuals, one being John Service.
  8. 8. According to the Senator, Service, who had been working in China, sent back reports saying Communism was in China's best interests.
  9. 9. McCarthy instantly condemned him as a communist . </li></ul>
  10. 10. What happened to John Service? <ul><li>McCarthy felt that Service should be punished and prosecuted for his actions, but instead the State Department promoted him.
  11. 11. On top of that, the man who wanted to prosecute Service, Joseph Grew, was forced to resign.
  12. 12. McCarthy then fledged a full-force attack on the State Department. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Why all the craziness? <ul><li>McCarthy, along with many other Americans, radically feared Communism and all things related to it. </li></ul><ul><li>McCarthy quoted a historical figure, agreeing that, “When a democracy is destroyed, it will not be because of enemies from without, but rather because of enemies from within.” </li></ul>
  14. 14. McCarthy's Plan <ul><li>On February 20, 1950, McCarthy brought a plan to the Senate. He provided a list of 81 cases. The Senate set up a committee and began investigations for each of the cases. </li></ul><ul><li>The trials were extremely unfair. If accused refused trial, the committee said it was because they wouldn't own up to their Communist actions. If found guilty, their reputation and career were in jeopardy, and they faced a possibility of jail time along with a fine. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Where did McCarthy get his information? <ul><li>A Jesuit priest from Georgetown University informed McCarthy that Communism was a major issue in U.S. Politics. </li></ul><ul><li>He supposedly received inside information from a friend, J. Edgar Hoover, who was head of the Federal Bureau of Investigations. </li></ul>
  16. 16. What next? <ul><li>McCarthy did not stop after accusing the State Department.
  17. 17. He went on to affirm that Communists had penetrated American life at all levels.
  18. 18. McCarthyism had only begun, and the accusations continued. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Hollywood <ul><li>McCarthyism had a huge effect on Hollywood.
  20. 20. Studios would no longer hire anyone associated with the Communist Party.
  21. 21. Many talented artists moved to England, Mexico, or elsewhere to continue their work.
  22. 22. Lucille Ball and Shirley temple were among those questioned. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Arthur Miller <ul><li>Miller, married to Marilyn Monroe, was accused and asked to sign an anti-Communist declaration.
  24. 24. He was subpoenaed in 1956 for contempt of Congress because he would not name others.
  25. 25. The hearing cost him $40,000 in lawyer fees, and $500 fine, and a one year suspension. </li></ul><ul><li>The process inspired Miller to write The Crucible , which is one of few pieces of writing left from the McCarthy era. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Subject Matter <ul><li>Beyond traumatizing the lives of numerous actors, screenwriters, and producers, McCarthyism had an impact on the finished products that made their way out of Hollywood.
  27. 27. Anything referring to Communism was not allowed.
  28. 28. Controversial topics were to be avoided.
  29. 29. Entertainment became sillier and less meaningful. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Beyond Hollywood <ul><li>No one was safe from his accusations.
  31. 31. He accused Hollywood, government workers, gays Jews, etc.
  32. 32. McCarthy attacked universities.
  33. 33. State governments and school boards followed suit.
  34. 34. Books were taken off of shelves for “Communist-like” material. </li></ul><ul><li>One book taken was Robbin Hood , due to its message regarding taking from the rich and giving to the poor. </li></ul>
  35. 35. How far is too far? <ul><li>Rather than quit while he was ahead, McCarthy took his witch hunt to the next level and began attacking the U.S. Army in 1954.
  36. 36. The hearings were televised, and the trials lasted eight weeks.
  37. 37. This allowed Americans to see McCarthyism for what it truly was, a cruel, unfair witch-hunt.
  38. 38. The army lashed back, questioning methods and credibility.
  39. 39. Council for the Army asked, “At long last, have you no sence of decency left?” </li></ul>
  40. 40. Military Officials <ul><li>Rising doubts did not slow McCarthy.
  41. 41. He began attacking even higher military officials, including Robert Stevens, the Secretary of the Army.
  42. 42. Stevens released evidence of unjust strategies used by the committee, including intimidation, offers of protection, and promises of promotion. </li></ul>
  43. 43. President Eisenhower <ul><li>The President had had enough.
  44. 44. McCarthy then went on to accuse Eisenhower himself of having Communist connections.
  45. 45. More people began to doubt McCarthy's accuracy.
  46. 46. Eisenhower asked Vice President, Richard Nixon, to attack McCarthy. </li></ul>
  47. 47. The Results <ul><li>In the end, not a single charge against a government official was ever proven to be true.
  48. 48. Everyone was getting tired of McCarthyism, from fellow Republicans to the American public.
  49. 49. A subcommittee was formed to look into his claims.
  50. 50. The committee found that his accusations were unjust and unreasonable. </li></ul>
  51. 51. The Downfall <ul><li>McCarthyism lived a powerful but short life.
  52. 52. McCarthy lost his chairmanship of the Government Committee on Operations of the Senate.
  53. 53. The government and media lost interest in him.
  54. 54. The hearings ended, and the Senator was removed from the public eye. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Aftermath <ul><li>People were angry after the charade was over.
  56. 56. Senate decided to have McCarthy condemned for charging the Senate itself.
  57. 57. People got more confident in their statements against McCarthy, including writers and cartoonists.
  58. 58. Many felt he gave anti-Communism a bad name. </li></ul>
  59. 59. What happened next? <ul><li>The state of paranoia calmed down, but the results did not disappear.
  60. 60. For years after the era, movies, books, and television upheld their anti-Communist approach.
  61. 61. People were less open about their views because they feared being interrogated.
  62. 62. McCarthy's popularity waned, and he died of alcohol abuse in 1957. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Why did this happen? <ul><li>McCarthy became too powerful and didn't know what to do with himself.
  64. 64. He took advantage of the power given to him, eventually taking things too far.
  65. 65. Much like in The Crucible , the accusations started out plausible only to become extremely unreasonable, causing great unrest. </li></ul><ul><li>McCarthy out-did himself, and it cost him. </li></ul>
  66. 66. THE END
  67. 67. Works Cited Bjornlund, Britta. The Cold War. Lucent Books, 2002. 57-62. Print. Ferrell, Robert H., and Peter Szatmary. “The Villains of the ‘Red Scares’ of 1950”. Phi Kappa Phi 90.3 Fall 2010. 10-11. MAS Ultra-School Edition. Web. 8 May 2011. Isserman, Maurice. “Academia Nuts.” Nation 4 Oct. 1986: 317-321. Web. 19 Apr. 2011. &quot;McCarthyism.&quot; BBC . h2g2, 01 nov 2001. Web. 19 Apr 2011. <>. “ McCarthyism’s War on Tinseltown”. Express, 21 Aug 2009. Web. 19 Apr. 2011. Miller, Arthur. “Are You Now or Were You Ever?”. Guardian 17 Jun. 2000: n. pag. Web. 8 May 2011. Schrecker, Ellen. “Blacklists and Other Economic Sanctions”. The Literature & Culture of the American 1950s. Al Filreis, 31 May 2007. Web. 4 Apr. 2011. Simkin, John. “McCarthyism.” Sparctacus Educatjional. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2011. . Trilling, Diana. “How McCarthy Gave Anti-Communism a Bad Name”. Newsweek. 11 Jan. 1993: 32-33. Print. &quot;Witch Hunts, Pledges, and Blacklists.&quot; Borndigital . N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Apr 2011. <>. &quot;53a. McCarthyism.&quot; U.S. History . Independence Hall Association, n.d. Web. 19 Apr 2011. <>. .