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Second Red Scare - Cold War II

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Second Red Scare - Cold War II

  1. 1. The Second Red Scare The Cold War Begins 1945-1953
  2. 2. Growing Fear of Communism Soviet Atomic Weapons Communist China • In September 1949 Truman • Communists in China had announced that the Soviet gained nearly full control of Union had detonated an the country. atomic bomb. • The Nationalist government • This was a shock to the (supported by U.S.) of Chiang nation. Kai-shek fled to Taiwan • Truman began to strengthen • China now controlled by the nation’s military against a Communist Party under the possible Soviet nuclear leadership of Mao Zedong. threat. • Americans worried that China increased the Communist threat to the U.S.
  3. 3. Fighting Communism at Home • House Un-American Activities Committee investigated radical groups in the United States – Focused on battling communism – Created in the 1930’s – Most famous investigation • HUAC collected names of 10 Hollywood writers and directors thought to have radical political views • The “Hollywood Ten” refused to answer questions and were arrested for contempt
  4. 4. Newspaper 1952
  5. 5. Fighting Communism at Home • President Truman felt he had to take action b/c of pressure from Republicans • Created a plan to investigate all federal employees and bar those were found to be disloyal from federal employment. – 3 million people investigated – 200 found to be disloyal
  6. 6. Fighting Communism at Home The Smith Act The McCarran Act • Passed in 1940 • Passed in 1950 • Made it a crime to call for • Required communist the overthrow of the U.S. organizations to register government or belong to an with the U.S. government organization that did so • Established a board to • Upheld by court in 1951 investigate Communist Dennis vs. U.S. involvement – Justified limits on free speech • Prevented communists and • Communist officials radicals from entering U.S. convicted
  7. 7. Fighting Communism at Home • Spy cases fueled fear of communism • Alger Hiss - accused of being part of 1930’s plot to place Communists inside the government • Couldn’t be charged with spying • Later convicted for lying under oath
  8. 8. Fighting Communism at Home Klaus Fuchs Ethel and Julius Rosenberg • Manhattan Project scientist • Accused leading a spy ring who gave atomic bomb • Convicted of conspiracy and information to the Soviets executed in 1953
  9. 9. Senator Joseph McCarthy • McCarthy claimed that there were 205 known Communists working for the U.S. Department of State • Though evidence proved otherwise, his accusations stirred fear in many Americans • Became famous for “fighting” Communism • His tactic of spreading fear and making baseless charges became known as “McCarthyism”
  10. 10. Election of 1950 • McCarthy made special effort to bring about the defeat of Senator Millard Tydings – Investigated McCarthy’s first claims – Huge supporter of President Truman • McCarthy produced fake photos of Tydings talking to the head of the American Communist Party • Tydings lost the election • McCarthyism spread to universities, labor unions, businesses – no one wanted to appear too “soft on communism”
  11. 11. McCarthy’s Fall • Became even more wild with his charges • Attacked fellow Republicans, the U.S. Army • Public came to view his tactics as unfair
  12. 12. For next class…

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