It's hardly easy to be softly hard: freedom and control in learning spaces

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Terry Anderson and Jon Dron presentation from Networked Learning 2012

Terry Anderson and Jon Dron presentation from Networked Learning 2012

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  • 1. 1
  • 2. Its  hardly  easy  to  be  so0ly  hard:  freedom  and  control  in  learning  spaces Terry  Anderson Jon  Dron
  • 3. Agenda• The  nature  of   technologies  and   pedagogies CollecAve• Reviewing  GeneraAons   of  Distance  EducaAon   and  Pedagogy net set• Aligning  them  with   Groups,  Sets  and  Nets Me group• Case  study  using   Athabasca’s  Landing   Elgg  installaAon
  • 4. Overview: Genera.ons  of  distance  learning  pedagogies 1. Instruc(vist  –  Self  Paced,   indiv-­‐ Individual  Study,  etc Hardclosed idual 2. Social  construc(vist  –   Groups,  classes,  etc group So0 3. Connec(vist  –  Networks,   net MOOCs,  etcopen 4. Holist  -­‐  Sets  and   set Collec@ves
  • 5. ProposiAon  #1The  Next  GeneraAon  Learning  Evolves   From  and  With  Past  GeneraAons
  • 6. Proposi.on  #2• Different  Structures/Pedagogies/Technologies,   with  different  affordances  and  degrees  of   hardness  affect  our  use. We  shape   We shape our  dwellings   our tools and   and a0erwards   thereafter our  dwellings   our tools shape  our   shape us lives
  • 7. Learning  as  Dance   (Anderson,  2008) • Technology   sets  the   beat  and   the  Aming. •  Pedagogy   defines  the   moves.  
  • 8. Technologies• The  orchestraAon  of  phenomena  to  some  use   (Arthur,  2009)• Assemblies  of  hard  and  so0  components• Pedagogies  are  among  the  so0  components  of   all  learning  technologies
  • 9. technologies So5   Hard  the  adjacent  possible path  dependenciesflexibility  and  freedom freedom  from  errorCreaAvity UniformityOrchestraAon  of   OrchestraAon  of  phenomena  by  humans phenomena  embeddedSo5  is  hard Hard  is  easy
  • 10. 1.  Behavioural/CogniAve  Pedagogies InstrucAvist• “tell  ‘em  what  you’re   gonna  tell  ‘em,• tell  ‘em  • then  tell  ‘em  what  you   told  ‘em”Direct  InstrucAonISD
  • 11. Enhanced  by  the  “cogniAve  revoluAon”• Chunking  • CogniAve  Load• Working  Memory• MulAple  RepresentaAons• Split-­‐afenAon  effect• Variability  Effect• MulA-­‐media  effect   – (Sorden,  2005) “learning  as  acquiring  and  using  conceptual  and  cogni.ve  structures”   Greeno,  Collins  and  Resnick,  1996
  • 12. Behaviourist/CogniAvist  –   Knowledge  As  a  Thing:• Logically  coherent,  exisAng   independent  of  perspecAve• Largely  context  free• Capable  of  being  transmifed• Assumes  closed  systems  with   discoverable  relaAonships   between  inputs  and  outputs• Readily  defined  through   learning  objecAves
  • 13. Technologies  of  Ist  genera.on• CAI,  Text  books,  Classic  Correspondence   Course  Packages,  One  way  Lectures,  Video  and   Audio  Broadcast Con.nuous  adap.vity
  • 14. Social  Focus  of  Ist  generaAon Individual  Learner
  • 15.  Instruc.vist  freedoms net set group • Loca(on • Subject   where?  what? • Time     • Delegability   when? choosing  to  choose • Pace   • Technology   how  fast? using  what  (medium/tools)? • Sociability • Approach with  whom  (if  anyone)? how  (pedagogy,  process)?noAonal  levels  of  choice  once  a  typical  course  is  in  progress 15
  • 16. Hardness  ear’s  bed learning Papa  B of  individual  
  • 17. Future  of  Ist  genera.on• OERU• Limitless,  very  low  cost  content• Challenges  of  accreditaAon• The  (forever?)  just  around  the   corner,  ‘learner  adaptaAon’   technologies
  • 18. Content:A  bargain  even  at  80%  off??Interac.ve  MIT  coursesMITX  Announced Most  of  us  like  Free!
  • 19. Shameless  Plug  and  Giveaways!Issues  in  DistanceEducaAon  Serieshfp://aupress.ca
  • 20. 2nd  GeneraAon  DESocial  ConstrucAvist  Pedagogy
  • 21. Construc.vist  Learning  is: “learning  is  a  con.nual  conversa.on  with  the   external  world  and  its  artefacts,  with  oneself  and   with  other  learners  and  teachers”  (Sharples,   Taylor  &  Vavoula,  2007)• “Learning is located in contexts and relationships rather than merely in the minds of individuals” Greenhow, Robelia & Hughes (2009), Kathy  Sierra  hXp://www.speedofcrea.vity.org/
  • 22. Group  as  the  Social  Unit  of  Social   ConstrucAvist  Pedagogy
  • 23. Why  Groups?• “Students  who  learn  in  small  groups   generally  demonstrate  greater   academic  achievement,  express  more   favorable  altudes  toward  learning,   and  persist  …• small-­‐group  learning  may  have   parAcularly  large  effects  on  the   academic  achievement  of  members  of   underrepresented  groups  and  the   learning-­‐related  altudes  of  women…”   • Springer;  Stanne,  &  Donovan,  (1999)  P.42  
  • 24. Problems  with  Groups• RestricAons  in  Ame,  space,  pace,  &   relaAonship  -­‐  NOT  OPEN• Overly  confined  by  leader  expectaAon  and   insAtuAonal    &    curriculum  control• Usually  Isolated  from  the  authenAc      world   of  pracAce• “low  tolerance  of  internal  difference,   sexist  and  ethicized  regulaAon,  high   demand  for  obedience  to  its  norms  and   $ exclusionary  pracAces.”  Cousin  &  Deepwell  2005• “Pathological  politeness”  and  fear  of   debate• Group  think  (Baron,  2005)• Poor  preparaAon  for  Lifelong  Learning   beyond  the  course• Unscalable
  • 25. Group  model• Membership  and  exclusion,  closed  • Hierarchies  of  control• Focus  on  collaboraAon  and  shared  purpose• teachers:  guides group 25
  • 26.  Social  construc.vist  freedoms net set group • Loca(on • Subject   where?  what? • Time     • Delegability   when? choosing  to  choose • Pace   • Technology   how  fast? using  what  (medium/tools)? • Sociability • Approach with  whom  (if  anyone)? how  (pedagogy,  process)?noAonal  levels  of  choice  once  a  typical  course  is  in  progress 26
  • 27. Baby  Bear’s  bed?• Trust  both  opens  and  constrains• Typically  a  structured  process• But…• OpportuniAes  for  negoAaAon  of   control• Shi0ing  boundaries• Diversity  valorized• Big  issue:  gelng  it  just  right  for   everyone  (assessment?)
  • 28. 3rd  GeneraAon      Connec(vist  Pedagogy• Learning  is  building  capacity  -­‐  networks  of   informaAon,  contacts  and  resources  that  can   be  applied  to  real  problems.
  • 29. ConnecAvist  Knowledge  is A  Process• Emergent• Distributed  and  diverse• ChaoAc• Fragmented• Non  sequenAal• Contextualized
  • 30. What  is  Connected  Knowledge?• Knowledge  is  defined  by  its  creaAon  through   acAviAes – Accessing  informaAon – EvaluaAng,  filtering – Conveying  ideas – Reformalng,  mashing – Analyzing,   – CollaboraAng  (Barth  2004)
  • 31. Networks  add  diversity  to  learning“People  who  live  in   the  intersecAon  of   social  worlds  are  at   higher  risk  of  having   good  ideas”  Burt,   2005,  p.  90
  • 32. Networks  Celebrate  and  SAmulate   CogniAve  DiversityArises  when  from:• different  types  of  informaAon  and   knowledge  perspecAves• different  ways  of  viewing  the  world  or  a   specific  problem  interpretaAons• different  ways  of  categorizing  a  problem   or  parAAoning  perspecAves  • heurisAcs  yielding  different  ways  of   generaAng  soluAons  to  problems• predicAve  models  -­‐  different  ways  of   inferring  causes  and  effects  (Fisher,  L.   (2009)
  • 33. The  net  model• bofom-­‐up,  open• inclusive• focus  on  individual  and  connecAons• teachers:  role  models  and  co-­‐travellers net 33
  • 34. net set  Connec.vist  freedoms group • Loca(on • Subject   where?  what? • Time     • Delegability   when? choosing  to  choose • Pace   • Technology   how  fast? using  what  (medium/tools)? • Sociability • Approach with  whom  (if  anyone)? how  (pedagogy,  process)?noAonal  levels  of  choice  once  a  typical  ‘course’  is  in  progress 34
  • 35. Mama  Bear’s  bed• Limitless  assembly• Limitless  choice• Limitless  dialogue• But  too  so0?
  • 36. But  do  learning  networks  really  work??• Network  ghost   towns• Build  it  and  they  may   come,  but  not  likely• When  is  the  last  Ame   you  checked  into   your  Friendster   account?
  • 37. Fear  of  open  spaces• “The  property  of  knowledge  as  as  a   body  of  vefed  works  comes   directly  from  the  properAes  of   paper  ….  There  is  lifle  to  none  of   the  permanence,  stability  and   community  fealty  that  a  body  of   knowledge  requires  and  implies.   The  Internet  is  what  you  get  when   everyone  is  a  curator  and   everything  is  linked”   – David  Weinberger  P.  45
  • 38. choice  !=  controlit’s  not  just  about   networks
  • 39. Set  model #nlc2012• cooperaAon,  anonymity• focus  on  filtering  and  selecAon• tags  and  categorisaAon• teachers:  analyzers,  curators   and  publishers• AnalyAcs• CollecAves set 40
  • 40. Sustaining  AesMaking  Aes Social  interest  sites,  Wikipedia,    Ad  hoc  networks Google  Search,  TwiOer,  Knowledge  diffusion Pinterest,  etcSocial  capitalSocial  presence CooperaAonEmergence SharingShi0ing net set SerendipityContextual Interest  -­‐orientaAon MOOCs,  blogs,   Sense-­‐making LinkedIn,  social   group CollecAve  intelligence IntenAonal  discovery networks,  etc CollaboraAon Structure Roles classes,  tutorial  groups,   Membership learning  management   IntenAon  and  purpose systems,  etc Hierarchies The  classical  ‘class’  model
  • 41. 4th  generaAon  of  learning  pedagogy• reducing  choices  to  only  those  choices  that   learners  want  or  need  to  make
  • 42. GeneraAons  of  distance  learning  pedagogies 1. Instruc(vist  –  Self  Paced,   indiv-­‐ Individual  Study,  etc Hardclosed idual 2. Social  construc(vist  –   Groups,  classes,  etc group So0 3. Connec(vist  –  Networks,   net MOOCs,  etcopen 4. Holist  -­‐  Sets  and   set Collec@ves
  • 43. net set  Holist  freedoms group • Loca(on • Subject   where?  what? • Time     • Delegability   when? choosing  to  choose • Pace   • Technology   how  fast? using  what  (medium/tools)? • Sociability • Approach with  whom  (if  anyone)? how  (pedagogy,  process)?noAonal  levels  of  choice  once  a  typical  ‘course’  is  in  progress 44
  • 44. How  holist? re ru ctu • plenty ra stI nf • openness  (resources,  people) • so0  and  malleable  systems tu re • feedback  loops rucSt • sAgmergy,  social  navigaAon • sociability • adapAve  hypermedia • collaboraAve  filtering • learning  and  process  analyAcs • Hard  when  wanted,  so0  when  not 45
  • 45. The  collec.ve• Emergent  structure collecAve• Individual   behaviours   aggregated net set• The  crowd   becomes  an  acAve   agent  that  advises,   filters,  suggests  or   group shapes
  • 46. Collec.ves
  • 47. Some  concerns Deliberate  aXack ConfirmaAon  bias The  Mafhew  Effect Filter  bubbles PreferenAal  afachment Mob  stupidity Cold  start  problems ValorisaAon  of  narcissism Mismatched  social  forms So0  is  hard Lost  in  social  space Blind  leading  blind Loss  of  narraAve Making  landscapes  for  emergent  pedagogy Context  separaAon   Control  of  privacy
  • 48. So0-­‐to-­‐hardIn  pracAce… GeneraAons  1-­‐3  (and  4) Sets,  nets  and  groups
  • 49. The  Landing  Placorm1,424  plugins  available,  our  installaAon  using  about  90Fairly  strong  development  team,  plofed  roadmap   50
  • 50. What  is  the  Landing?• Walled  Garden  with  Windows• A  Private  space  for  AU• A  user  controlled  creaAve  space• BouAque  social  system• Networking,  blogging,  photos,   microblogging,  polls,  calendars,   groups  and  more• DifferenAaAng  and  merging    work,   from  school,  from  fun
  • 51. A  sod  space 24
  • 52. Mul.ple  ra.onales collecAveSustaining  .es Coopera.onMaking  .es SharingAd  hoc  networks SerendipityKnowledge  diffusion net set Interest  -­‐orienta.onSocial  capital Sense-­‐makingSocial  presence Collec.ve  intelligence Inten.onal  discovery group Courses CommiXees Research  groups Study  groups Centres  and  departments 53 67
  • 53. group net set Where  to  look  first
  • 54. Popular  ac.vi.es Wiki   photosub-­‐ wiki page Blog  posts  (4135)Discussion  topics bookmarks Files  (4023) Wire  posts  (2335)
  • 55. Hard  spaces“Opening  up  small  spaces  within  what  exists”  Tara  Fenwick
  • 56. Filling  gaps  with  people
  • 57. Stretching  tools
  • 58. Filling  gaps  the  Landing  way
  • 59. New  Users  Added  per  week Currently:  3250  users
  • 60. Landing  Groups• 271  Groups• Average  of  10.79  members  each
  • 61. Sets,  groups,  nets  (in  that  order)100 75 50 25 0 blogs wikis bookmarks photos public Set Net Group 62 80
  • 62. • hfps://landing.athabascau.ca• terrya@athabascau.ca• jond@athabascau.ca