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Its	  hardly	  easy	  to	  be	  so0ly	  hard:	  freedom	  and	  control	  in	  learning	  spaces                   Terry	 ...
Agenda• The	  nature	  of	    technologies	  and	    pedagogies                              CollecAve• Reviewing	  Genera...
Overview:         Genera.ons	  of	  distance	  learning	  pedagogies          1. Instruc(vist	  –	  Self	  Paced,	        ...
ProposiAon	  #1The	  Next	  GeneraAon	  Learning	  Evolves	    From	  and	  With	  Past	  GeneraAons
Proposi.on	  #2• Different	  Structures/Pedagogies/Technologies,	    with	  different	  affordances	  and	  degrees	  of	    ...
Learning	  as	  Dance	        (Anderson,	  2008)                            • Technology	                                s...
Technologies• The	  orchestraAon	  of	  phenomena	  to	  some	  use	    (Arthur,	  2009)• Assemblies	  of	  hard	  and	  s...
technologies        So5	                             Hard	  the	  adjacent	  possible        path	  dependenciesflexibility...
1.	  Behavioural/CogniAve	  Pedagogies                      InstrucAvist• “tell	  ‘em	  what	  you’re	    gonna	  tell	  ‘...
Enhanced	  by	  the	  “cogniAve	  revoluAon”•    Chunking	  •    CogniAve	  Load•    Working	  Memory•    MulAple	  Repres...
Behaviourist/CogniAvist	  –	                  Knowledge	  As	  a	  Thing:• Logically	  coherent,	  exisAng	    independent...
Technologies	  of	  Ist	  genera.on• CAI,	  Text	  books,	  Classic	  Correspondence	    Course	  Packages,	  One	  way	  ...
Social	  Focus	  of	  Ist	  generaAon      Individual	  Learner
 Instruc.vist	  freedoms                                                                                         net      ...
Hardness	  ear’s	  bed learning Papa	  B  of	  individual	  
Future	  of	  Ist	  genera.on•   OERU•   Limitless,	  very	  low	  cost	  content•   Challenges	  of	  accreditaAon•   The...
Content:A	  bargain	  even	  at	  80%	  off??Interac.ve	  MIT	  coursesMITX	  Announced   Most	  of	  us	  like	  Free!
Shameless	  Plug	  and	  Giveaways!Issues	  in	  DistanceEducaAon	  Serieshfp://aupress.ca
2nd	  GeneraAon	  DESocial	  ConstrucAvist	  Pedagogy
Construc.vist	  Learning	  is: “learning	  is	  a	  con.nual	  conversa.on	  with	  the	   external	  world	  and	  its	  ...
Group	  as	  the	  Social	  Unit	  of	  Social	      ConstrucAvist	  Pedagogy
Why	  Groups?• “Students	  who	  learn	  in	  small	  groups	    generally	  demonstrate	  greater	    academic	  achievem...
Problems	  with	  Groups• RestricAons	  in	  Ame,	  space,	  pace,	  &	    relaAonship	  -­‐	  NOT	  OPEN• Overly	  confine...
Group	  model•   Membership	  and	  exclusion,	  closed	  •   Hierarchies	  of	  control•   Focus	  on	  collaboraAon	  an...
 Social	  construc.vist	  freedoms                                                                                net     ...
Baby	  Bear’s	  bed?• Trust	  both	  opens	  and	  constrains• Typically	  a	  structured	  process• But…• OpportuniAes	  ...
3rd	  GeneraAon	                	  	  Connec(vist	  Pedagogy• Learning	  is	  building	  capacity	  -­‐	  networks	  of	  ...
ConnecAvist	  Knowledge	  is                     A	  Process•   Emergent•   Distributed	  and	  diverse•   ChaoAc•   Fragm...
What	  is	  Connected	  Knowledge?• Knowledge	  is	  defined	  by	  its	  creaAon	  through	    acAviAes   – Accessing	  in...
Networks	  add	  diversity	  to	  learning“People	  who	  live	  in	   the	  intersecAon	  of	   social	  worlds	  are	  a...
Networks	  Celebrate	  and	  SAmulate	        CogniAve	  DiversityArises	  when	  from:• different	  types	  of	  informaAo...
The	  net	  model•   bofom-­‐up,	  open•   inclusive•   focus	  on	  individual	  and	  connecAons•   teachers:	  role	  m...
net           set 	  Connec.vist	  freedoms                                                                               ...
Mama	  Bear’s	  bed•   Limitless	  assembly•   Limitless	  choice•   Limitless	  dialogue•   But	  too	  so0?
But	  do	  learning	  networks	  really	  work??• Network	  ghost	    towns• Build	  it	  and	  they	  may	    come,	  but...
Fear	  of	  open	  spaces• “The	  property	  of	  knowledge	  as	  as	  a	    body	  of	  vefed	  works	  comes	    direct...
choice	  !=	  controlit’s	  not	  just	  about	          networks
Set	  model         #nlc2012•   cooperaAon,	  anonymity•   focus	  on	  filtering	  and	  selecAon•   tags	  and	  categori...
Sustaining	  AesMaking	  Aes                                              Social	  interest	  sites,	  Wikipedia,	        ...
4th	  generaAon	  of	  learning	  pedagogy• reducing	  choices	  to	  only	  those	  choices	  that	    learners	  want	  ...
GeneraAons	  of	  distance	  learning	  pedagogies         1. Instruc(vist	  –	  Self	  Paced,	                           ...
net           set              	  Holist	  freedoms                                                                       ...
How	  holist?                   re            ru ctu       • plenty       ra stI nf           • openness	  (resources,	  p...
The	  collec.ve• Emergent	  structure             collecAve• Individual	    behaviours	    aggregated                     ...
Collec.ves
Some	  concerns                                   Deliberate	  aXack                                                      ...
So0-­‐to-­‐hardIn	  pracAce…   GeneraAons	  1-­‐3	  (and	  4)                 Sets,	  nets	  and	  groups
The	  Landing	  Placorm1,424	  plugins	  available,	  our	  installaAon	  using	  about	  90Fairly	  strong	  development	...
What	  is	  the	  Landing?• Walled	  Garden	  with	  Windows• A	  Private	  space	  for	  AU• A	  user	  controlled	  crea...
A	  sod	  space                    24
Mul.ple	  ra.onales                                      collecAveSustaining	  .es                                        ...
group        net                      set        Where	  to	  look	  first
Popular	  ac.vi.es                   Wiki	                photosub-­‐         wiki      page                     Blog	  po...
Hard	  spaces“Opening	  up	  small	  spaces	  within	  what	  exists”	  Tara	  Fenwick
Filling	  gaps	  with	  people
Stretching	  tools
Filling	  gaps	  the	  Landing	  way
New	  Users	  Added	  per	  week                               Currently:	  3250	  users
Landing	  Groups• 271	  Groups• Average	  of	  10.79	  members	  each
Sets,	  groups,	  nets	  (in	  that	  order)100 75  50  25      0           blogs            wikis         bookmarks    ph...
• hfps://landing.athabascau.ca• terrya@athabascau.ca• jond@athabascau.ca
It's hardly easy to be softly hard: freedom and control in learning spaces
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It's hardly easy to be softly hard: freedom and control in learning spaces

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It's hardly easy to be softly hard: freedom and control in learning spaces

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Its  hardly  easy  to  be  so0ly  hard:  freedom  and  control  in  learning  spaces Terry  Anderson Jon  Dron
  3. 3. Agenda• The  nature  of   technologies  and   pedagogies CollecAve• Reviewing  GeneraAons   of  Distance  EducaAon   and  Pedagogy net set• Aligning  them  with   Groups,  Sets  and  Nets Me group• Case  study  using   Athabasca’s  Landing   Elgg  installaAon
  4. 4. Overview: Genera.ons  of  distance  learning  pedagogies 1. Instruc(vist  –  Self  Paced,   indiv-­‐ Individual  Study,  etc Hardclosed idual 2. Social  construc(vist  –   Groups,  classes,  etc group So0 3. Connec(vist  –  Networks,   net MOOCs,  etcopen 4. Holist  -­‐  Sets  and   set Collec@ves
  5. 5. ProposiAon  #1The  Next  GeneraAon  Learning  Evolves   From  and  With  Past  GeneraAons
  6. 6. Proposi.on  #2• Different  Structures/Pedagogies/Technologies,   with  different  affordances  and  degrees  of   hardness  affect  our  use. We  shape   We shape our  dwellings   our tools and   and a0erwards   thereafter our  dwellings   our tools shape  our   shape us lives
  7. 7. Learning  as  Dance   (Anderson,  2008) • Technology   sets  the   beat  and   the  Aming. •  Pedagogy   defines  the   moves.  
  8. 8. Technologies• The  orchestraAon  of  phenomena  to  some  use   (Arthur,  2009)• Assemblies  of  hard  and  so0  components• Pedagogies  are  among  the  so0  components  of   all  learning  technologies
  9. 9. technologies So5   Hard  the  adjacent  possible path  dependenciesflexibility  and  freedom freedom  from  errorCreaAvity UniformityOrchestraAon  of   OrchestraAon  of  phenomena  by  humans phenomena  embeddedSo5  is  hard Hard  is  easy
  10. 10. 1.  Behavioural/CogniAve  Pedagogies InstrucAvist• “tell  ‘em  what  you’re   gonna  tell  ‘em,• tell  ‘em  • then  tell  ‘em  what  you   told  ‘em”Direct  InstrucAonISD
  11. 11. Enhanced  by  the  “cogniAve  revoluAon”• Chunking  • CogniAve  Load• Working  Memory• MulAple  RepresentaAons• Split-­‐afenAon  effect• Variability  Effect• MulA-­‐media  effect   – (Sorden,  2005) “learning  as  acquiring  and  using  conceptual  and  cogni.ve  structures”   Greeno,  Collins  and  Resnick,  1996
  12. 12. Behaviourist/CogniAvist  –   Knowledge  As  a  Thing:• Logically  coherent,  exisAng   independent  of  perspecAve• Largely  context  free• Capable  of  being  transmifed• Assumes  closed  systems  with   discoverable  relaAonships   between  inputs  and  outputs• Readily  defined  through   learning  objecAves
  13. 13. Technologies  of  Ist  genera.on• CAI,  Text  books,  Classic  Correspondence   Course  Packages,  One  way  Lectures,  Video  and   Audio  Broadcast Con.nuous  adap.vity
  14. 14. Social  Focus  of  Ist  generaAon Individual  Learner
  15. 15.  Instruc.vist  freedoms net set group • Loca(on • Subject   where?  what? • Time     • Delegability   when? choosing  to  choose • Pace   • Technology   how  fast? using  what  (medium/tools)? • Sociability • Approach with  whom  (if  anyone)? how  (pedagogy,  process)?noAonal  levels  of  choice  once  a  typical  course  is  in  progress 15
  16. 16. Hardness  ear’s  bed learning Papa  B of  individual  
  17. 17. Future  of  Ist  genera.on• OERU• Limitless,  very  low  cost  content• Challenges  of  accreditaAon• The  (forever?)  just  around  the   corner,  ‘learner  adaptaAon’   technologies
  18. 18. Content:A  bargain  even  at  80%  off??Interac.ve  MIT  coursesMITX  Announced Most  of  us  like  Free!
  19. 19. Shameless  Plug  and  Giveaways!Issues  in  DistanceEducaAon  Serieshfp://aupress.ca
  20. 20. 2nd  GeneraAon  DESocial  ConstrucAvist  Pedagogy
  21. 21. Construc.vist  Learning  is: “learning  is  a  con.nual  conversa.on  with  the   external  world  and  its  artefacts,  with  oneself  and   with  other  learners  and  teachers”  (Sharples,   Taylor  &  Vavoula,  2007)• “Learning is located in contexts and relationships rather than merely in the minds of individuals” Greenhow, Robelia & Hughes (2009), Kathy  Sierra  hXp://www.speedofcrea.vity.org/
  22. 22. Group  as  the  Social  Unit  of  Social   ConstrucAvist  Pedagogy
  23. 23. Why  Groups?• “Students  who  learn  in  small  groups   generally  demonstrate  greater   academic  achievement,  express  more   favorable  altudes  toward  learning,   and  persist  …• small-­‐group  learning  may  have   parAcularly  large  effects  on  the   academic  achievement  of  members  of   underrepresented  groups  and  the   learning-­‐related  altudes  of  women…”   • Springer;  Stanne,  &  Donovan,  (1999)  P.42  
  24. 24. Problems  with  Groups• RestricAons  in  Ame,  space,  pace,  &   relaAonship  -­‐  NOT  OPEN• Overly  confined  by  leader  expectaAon  and   insAtuAonal    &    curriculum  control• Usually  Isolated  from  the  authenAc      world   of  pracAce• “low  tolerance  of  internal  difference,   sexist  and  ethicized  regulaAon,  high   demand  for  obedience  to  its  norms  and   $ exclusionary  pracAces.”  Cousin  &  Deepwell  2005• “Pathological  politeness”  and  fear  of   debate• Group  think  (Baron,  2005)• Poor  preparaAon  for  Lifelong  Learning   beyond  the  course• Unscalable
  25. 25. Group  model• Membership  and  exclusion,  closed  • Hierarchies  of  control• Focus  on  collaboraAon  and  shared  purpose• teachers:  guides group 25
  26. 26.  Social  construc.vist  freedoms net set group • Loca(on • Subject   where?  what? • Time     • Delegability   when? choosing  to  choose • Pace   • Technology   how  fast? using  what  (medium/tools)? • Sociability • Approach with  whom  (if  anyone)? how  (pedagogy,  process)?noAonal  levels  of  choice  once  a  typical  course  is  in  progress 26
  27. 27. Baby  Bear’s  bed?• Trust  both  opens  and  constrains• Typically  a  structured  process• But…• OpportuniAes  for  negoAaAon  of   control• Shi0ing  boundaries• Diversity  valorized• Big  issue:  gelng  it  just  right  for   everyone  (assessment?)
  28. 28. 3rd  GeneraAon      Connec(vist  Pedagogy• Learning  is  building  capacity  -­‐  networks  of   informaAon,  contacts  and  resources  that  can   be  applied  to  real  problems.
  29. 29. ConnecAvist  Knowledge  is A  Process• Emergent• Distributed  and  diverse• ChaoAc• Fragmented• Non  sequenAal• Contextualized
  30. 30. What  is  Connected  Knowledge?• Knowledge  is  defined  by  its  creaAon  through   acAviAes – Accessing  informaAon – EvaluaAng,  filtering – Conveying  ideas – Reformalng,  mashing – Analyzing,   – CollaboraAng  (Barth  2004)
  31. 31. Networks  add  diversity  to  learning“People  who  live  in   the  intersecAon  of   social  worlds  are  at   higher  risk  of  having   good  ideas”  Burt,   2005,  p.  90
  32. 32. Networks  Celebrate  and  SAmulate   CogniAve  DiversityArises  when  from:• different  types  of  informaAon  and   knowledge  perspecAves• different  ways  of  viewing  the  world  or  a   specific  problem  interpretaAons• different  ways  of  categorizing  a  problem   or  parAAoning  perspecAves  • heurisAcs  yielding  different  ways  of   generaAng  soluAons  to  problems• predicAve  models  -­‐  different  ways  of   inferring  causes  and  effects  (Fisher,  L.   (2009)
  33. 33. The  net  model• bofom-­‐up,  open• inclusive• focus  on  individual  and  connecAons• teachers:  role  models  and  co-­‐travellers net 33
  34. 34. net set  Connec.vist  freedoms group • Loca(on • Subject   where?  what? • Time     • Delegability   when? choosing  to  choose • Pace   • Technology   how  fast? using  what  (medium/tools)? • Sociability • Approach with  whom  (if  anyone)? how  (pedagogy,  process)?noAonal  levels  of  choice  once  a  typical  ‘course’  is  in  progress 34
  35. 35. Mama  Bear’s  bed• Limitless  assembly• Limitless  choice• Limitless  dialogue• But  too  so0?
  36. 36. But  do  learning  networks  really  work??• Network  ghost   towns• Build  it  and  they  may   come,  but  not  likely• When  is  the  last  Ame   you  checked  into   your  Friendster   account?
  37. 37. Fear  of  open  spaces• “The  property  of  knowledge  as  as  a   body  of  vefed  works  comes   directly  from  the  properAes  of   paper  ….  There  is  lifle  to  none  of   the  permanence,  stability  and   community  fealty  that  a  body  of   knowledge  requires  and  implies.   The  Internet  is  what  you  get  when   everyone  is  a  curator  and   everything  is  linked”   – David  Weinberger  P.  45
  38. 38. choice  !=  controlit’s  not  just  about   networks
  39. 39. Set  model #nlc2012• cooperaAon,  anonymity• focus  on  filtering  and  selecAon• tags  and  categorisaAon• teachers:  analyzers,  curators   and  publishers• AnalyAcs• CollecAves set 40
  40. 40. Sustaining  AesMaking  Aes Social  interest  sites,  Wikipedia,    Ad  hoc  networks Google  Search,  TwiOer,  Knowledge  diffusion Pinterest,  etcSocial  capitalSocial  presence CooperaAonEmergence SharingShi0ing net set SerendipityContextual Interest  -­‐orientaAon MOOCs,  blogs,   Sense-­‐making LinkedIn,  social   group CollecAve  intelligence IntenAonal  discovery networks,  etc CollaboraAon Structure Roles classes,  tutorial  groups,   Membership learning  management   IntenAon  and  purpose systems,  etc Hierarchies The  classical  ‘class’  model
  41. 41. 4th  generaAon  of  learning  pedagogy• reducing  choices  to  only  those  choices  that   learners  want  or  need  to  make
  42. 42. GeneraAons  of  distance  learning  pedagogies 1. Instruc(vist  –  Self  Paced,   indiv-­‐ Individual  Study,  etc Hardclosed idual 2. Social  construc(vist  –   Groups,  classes,  etc group So0 3. Connec(vist  –  Networks,   net MOOCs,  etcopen 4. Holist  -­‐  Sets  and   set Collec@ves
  43. 43. net set  Holist  freedoms group • Loca(on • Subject   where?  what? • Time     • Delegability   when? choosing  to  choose • Pace   • Technology   how  fast? using  what  (medium/tools)? • Sociability • Approach with  whom  (if  anyone)? how  (pedagogy,  process)?noAonal  levels  of  choice  once  a  typical  ‘course’  is  in  progress 44
  44. 44. How  holist? re ru ctu • plenty ra stI nf • openness  (resources,  people) • so0  and  malleable  systems tu re • feedback  loops rucSt • sAgmergy,  social  navigaAon • sociability • adapAve  hypermedia • collaboraAve  filtering • learning  and  process  analyAcs • Hard  when  wanted,  so0  when  not 45
  45. 45. The  collec.ve• Emergent  structure collecAve• Individual   behaviours   aggregated net set• The  crowd   becomes  an  acAve   agent  that  advises,   filters,  suggests  or   group shapes
  46. 46. Collec.ves
  47. 47. Some  concerns Deliberate  aXack ConfirmaAon  bias The  Mafhew  Effect Filter  bubbles PreferenAal  afachment Mob  stupidity Cold  start  problems ValorisaAon  of  narcissism Mismatched  social  forms So0  is  hard Lost  in  social  space Blind  leading  blind Loss  of  narraAve Making  landscapes  for  emergent  pedagogy Context  separaAon   Control  of  privacy
  48. 48. So0-­‐to-­‐hardIn  pracAce… GeneraAons  1-­‐3  (and  4) Sets,  nets  and  groups
  49. 49. The  Landing  Placorm1,424  plugins  available,  our  installaAon  using  about  90Fairly  strong  development  team,  plofed  roadmap   50
  50. 50. What  is  the  Landing?• Walled  Garden  with  Windows• A  Private  space  for  AU• A  user  controlled  creaAve  space• BouAque  social  system• Networking,  blogging,  photos,   microblogging,  polls,  calendars,   groups  and  more• DifferenAaAng  and  merging    work,   from  school,  from  fun
  51. 51. A  sod  space 24
  52. 52. Mul.ple  ra.onales collecAveSustaining  .es Coopera.onMaking  .es SharingAd  hoc  networks SerendipityKnowledge  diffusion net set Interest  -­‐orienta.onSocial  capital Sense-­‐makingSocial  presence Collec.ve  intelligence Inten.onal  discovery group Courses CommiXees Research  groups Study  groups Centres  and  departments 53 67
  53. 53. group net set Where  to  look  first
  54. 54. Popular  ac.vi.es Wiki   photosub-­‐ wiki page Blog  posts  (4135)Discussion  topics bookmarks Files  (4023) Wire  posts  (2335)
  55. 55. Hard  spaces“Opening  up  small  spaces  within  what  exists”  Tara  Fenwick
  56. 56. Filling  gaps  with  people
  57. 57. Stretching  tools
  58. 58. Filling  gaps  the  Landing  way
  59. 59. New  Users  Added  per  week Currently:  3250  users
  60. 60. Landing  Groups• 271  Groups• Average  of  10.79  members  each
  61. 61. Sets,  groups,  nets  (in  that  order)100 75 50 25 0 blogs wikis bookmarks photos public Set Net Group 62 80
  62. 62. • hfps://landing.athabascau.ca• terrya@athabascau.ca• jond@athabascau.ca
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