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8. Empires And Imperialism
 

8. Empires And Imperialism

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    8. Empires And Imperialism 8. Empires And Imperialism Presentation Transcript

    • Empires and Imperialism
    • The Ottoman Empire
      • What do you remember about the Ottoman Empire? Who were the important people?
    • Selim III
      • Selim III (r. 1789-1807)
        • Intelligent and forward thinking
        • Looks to European models to solve the problems of the Ottoman Empire
      • Attempted Improvements
        • European style military units
        • Control of provincial governors
        • Reform the tax system
    • Selim III
      • Why did Selim III’s attempts to reform the Ottoman empire fail?
        • Janissaries
          • Serbian uprising
        • Ulma
      • Executed before his cousin and supporters could retake control
      • No success for reforms because people benefited from old systems
    • Crimean War
      • Greek Independence showcases Ottoman weakness
      • Peter the Great pushing to expand southward into Ottoman territory
        • Desires access to the Mediterranean sea
      • Russians, in exchange for help during the Egyptian invasion of Syria, named the protector of all Orthodox subjects
        • Sultan names French the protector of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem
    • Crimean War
      • The Eastern Question
        • Should the Ottoman Empire continue to exist?
        • If not, who should rule the territory?
    • Crimean War
      • Fought between 1853 and 1856
      • Britain, France, and Italian kingdoms side with Ottomans
        • Why does this decision seem out of character?
        • What were the motives of these countries?
    • Crimean War
      • Nothing goes right for the Russians
        • Navy trapped in Black Sea
        • Corruption and lack of effective transportation leaves troops without supplies
        • Disease
      • Forced to seek peace agreement when their main fort in Crimea falls
    • Outcomes of the Crimean War
      • Peace treaty
        • Blocked Russians from expanding southward to the Mediterranean
        • Stopped the French and British from taking Ottoman territory for their exclusive use
          • Meant they could seize land as long as they shared with everyone else too
    • Changes due to the Crimean War
      • First time Newspaper propaganda campaigns were important in Britain and France
      • MARKED THE CHANGE FROM TRADITIONAL TO MODERN WARFARE
    • Ottoman Changes
      • Extraterritoriality
        • Allowing the Europeans to live in their own little areas in Istanbul
      • Intense integration into European trading network
      • Population movement to the cities
        • Inflation
        • Lack of exports
      • Movement for a secular government in 1860s and 1870’s
    • Ottoman Empire Decline
      • What forces led to the decline of the Ottoman Empire?
      • Does this list seem familiar?
    • The Russian Empire
      • Really big, lots of potential, but somewhat backwards compared to Europe
        • Only about 6% of population lives in cities by mid 1800s
        • Very agricultural society
        • Lack of effective, reliable transportation system
      • Industrialization and development relied heavily on the importation of knowledge and skill from Europe
        • Uneducated, traditional, diverse society
    • Liberal vs Conservative Leadership
      • Alexander I
        • Attempted to force reforms on Russia including
          • Encouraging more education including more Universities and studying abroad
          • Modernizing the army
          • New Bureaucratic regime
      • Decembrist movement
        • Death of Alexander brings chaos and confusion to empire in 1825
        • Army Officers attempt a coup to take control
          • Exposed to the Western European system
          • Want to see reform in government
        • Movement fails and Nicholas I learns to distrust the Liberal contingents within his own government
    • Liberal vs Conservative Leadership
      • Nicholas I
        • Conservative, reactionary
        • Liberal ideas discouraged
        • Bureaucracy begins to take effect and flourish despite efforts by ruling families to discourage
    • The Russian Empire
      • Nicholas I feared potential political challenges if a middle class developed
        • Kept literacy to a minimum
        • Bought industrial goods and paid with exports of grain and timber
      • Slavophiles
        • Opposed to westernization
        • Orthodox faith the bedrock of society
    • Liberal Vs Conservative Leadership
      • Alexander II
        • Returns to a more reform-minded approach
        • Slavophile thinking begins to emerge as a prominent cultural current
          • Narodniki movement
        • Feodor Dostoyevsky writes in this time period
    • Qing Empire
      • What things aren’t going well for the Qing?
    • Qing Empire
      • Population growth and pressures
        • Destroys environment
        • Landless, homeless vagabonds
        • Annoyance growing with subjugated minorities
      • Distrust of government officials
        • Growing presence of European traders
        • Inability of the Qing officials to maintain control in parts of the empire
    • White Lotus Rebellion 1794-1804
      • Takes hold in parts of central China
      • Hatred for the Qing foreign rule grows
      • Predict the return of the Ming dynasty and the coming of the Buddha
      • Militias of some areas able to successfully defend themselves from the Qing forces and attach others
      • Chaos ensues
    • Opium War
      • British response to growing trade deficit with China was to sell Opium
        • Huge problem for Chinese as large portions of the population become addicted
      • Chinese Emperor seeks a meeting with the British to discuss stopping the importation of the drug
        • English Refuse
    • Opium War
      • Chinese forces inadequate
        • Bannerman outdated
          • Most fight with swords, knives, and clubs
        • No navy
        • Old technology
        • Slow movement
      • British Marines move at will along the coast and up the Chinese Rivers
    • Treaty of Nanking
      • Chinese forced to admit defeat
      • End of the Canton system
        • Five ports opened to European trade
        • Hong Kong becomes English colony
      • Most-favored-nation status
        • Granted to Britain in the following year
        • Any privilege granted to another country is automatically granted to the British
    • The Taiping Rebellion 1851-1864
      • What were some of the forces conspiring to start a civil war in China?
        • Unhappiness with the Qing
        • Inability to control territory
        • Foreign invasion into territory and trade
    • The Taiping Rebellion
      • Hong Xiuquan
        • Member of the minority group
          • Hakkas
        • Founder of the rebellion
        • Attempted to become a bureaucrat but failed the examinations repeatedly
          • Had a mental breakdown
        • Met protestant missionaries in Canton
          • Believed himself the younger brother of Jesus
          • Commissioned by God to drive the Manchus out of China
        • “ Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace”
    • The Taiping Rebellion
      • Spread throughout parts of the country
        • Many feared the coming of the rebellion
          • Did not want to be forced into their army
          • Confucian bureaucrats feared the adoption of foreign gods and a change in the system
      • Settle the Kingdom of Heaven in Nanjing
        • City is seiged by the Qing but is well fortified and supplied
      • Eventual European involvement in conflict and second round of opium wars brings the Qing to the knees