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  1. 1. Einstein and Relativity (and why you should care) <ul><li>Relativity: What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this change anything? </li></ul><ul><li>Existentialism </li></ul>
  2. 2. Einstein <ul><li>What is Einstein’s famous equation? </li></ul><ul><li>What do the letters stand for? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is Einstein originally from? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Einstein leave? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is Einstein and important figure in history? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why Einstein? <ul><li>E=MC 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Energy=Mass x Speed of Light 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Nazi and Hitler </li></ul><ul><li>Relativity changed physics and western thought forever </li></ul>
  4. 4. Einstein and Light <ul><li>What is the big deal about light? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you are in a car going the speed of light and you turn on your head lights, will a bystander see them? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Before Einstein no one really understood how light worked </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it a wave, particles, quanta… no one was really sure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light did not follow Newtonian physics </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Einstein and Light <ul><li>Einstein decided that light is both a wave and a particle… that’s right… BOTH </li></ul><ul><li>Light is the fundamental measure of the Universe just like time is here on Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Since the Universe is so big, our understanding of time and space and physics and basically everything just does not apply… </li></ul>
  6. 6. Einstein and Relativity <ul><li>Understanding light leads to a different understanding of… Everything </li></ul><ul><li>Einstein realized that everything we consider concrete is really related to our current position in the Universe. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer: A bystander would not see the headlights in front of the car </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Frame of Reference <ul><li>Your entire perception of mass, time, and light is based on where you are currently sitting (this is a whole new meaning to the idea of time zones) </li></ul><ul><li>Think of riding in a car. Does it appear that the inside of the car is moving or the outside world… </li></ul>
  8. 8. Twins Scenario <ul><li>Two twins are born here on Earth. One is selected to travel 8 light years away at 80% the speed of light. (Why can’t he be going the speed of light?) He takes an atomic clock with him. What will he find when he returns to Earth? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Atomic Clock Experiment <ul><li>To test Einstein’s theory, an atomic clock was placed in a stealth aircraft that flies above the atmosphere at very high speeds. The plane was flown around the earth for an entire day and then the atomic clock was compared to one that stayed on Earth all day. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Atomic Clock Experiment <ul><li>According to Einstein, what should be true about the clock that comes off of the airplane? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Why does this matter to history? <ul><li>How did the enlightenment and scientific revolution change history? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Philosophy and Relativity <ul><li>What is philosophy? </li></ul><ul><li>Love and pursuit of wisdom by intellectual means and moral self-discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>The critical analysis of fundamental assumptions or beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>A system of values by which one lives </li></ul>
  13. 13. Existentialism <ul><li>Read the following statement. Write 1-2 sentences describing how you feel about the statement. Is it true? Baloney? Insulting? What do you think? </li></ul><ul><li>Life is not inherently valuable. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Existentialism <ul><li>Life only has meaning to the extent to which we assign it meaning. Individual decisions make the life worthwhile. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of choice is essential to humanity </li></ul><ul><li>Denies inherent rationality of universe </li></ul>
  15. 15. Existentialism <ul><li>Martin Heidegger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being and Time (1927) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laid the groundwork for existentialist thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation, alienation, focus on the individual experience </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Existentialism <ul><li>Kierkegaard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we define meaning of life? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If it is based on a religious sense of morality, then it is defined by the extent to which we conform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem… we lose our individuality by conforming to ethical and moral standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But what happens when religion directly contradicts morals and ethics… </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Abraham and his son <ul><li>Christian tradition tells the parable of Abraham being ordered by God to kill his son as a sacrifice to the Lord </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem- Thou Shalt not kill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since this order is directly against the “moral standard” how can Abraham be considered faithful for listening to the command? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Here lies the problem… no universal measurement </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Reason and Faith <ul><li>Why should Abraham believe that the directive to kill is from God? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasonable this would make no sense… why would God tell someone to go against his own stated standards? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abraham has no RATIONAL reason to believe that the order is really from God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So why does he listen… FAITH ALONE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abraham makes a personal decision against the crowd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore: Truth is defined individually and not by “the crowd” </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Crowds and the Untruth <ul><li>Truth is defined individually </li></ul><ul><li>The moral standards do not apply equally to all universally </li></ul><ul><li>Conforming to the accepted norms of the time is in direct contrast to this individuality that defines existence </li></ul>
  20. 20. Life is not inherently valuable <ul><li>Why do existentialists make this claim? </li></ul><ul><li>Truth (and meaning) is a personal decision and realization that cannot be defined by an outward imposition of morality or ethics </li></ul><ul><li>We must ASSIGN something truth and believe it passionately (such as Abraham believed in the voice of God) in order for our life and our actions to have true meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Following the crowd mindlessly does not allow for these individual decisions that define our existence </li></ul>
  21. 21. Nietzsche <ul><li>Father was a Lutheran Pastor </li></ul><ul><li>Originally a teacher but illness keeps him from continuing his career </li></ul><ul><li>Begins to write prolifically </li></ul>
  22. 22. Nietzsche and Existentialism <ul><li>Nietzsche saw standard morals as a means to an end for powerful individuals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morality used as a tool </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Following the herd benefits certain people in power </li></ul><ul><li>“God is dead” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The morality no longer means the same thing it used to therefore humanity has removed its meaning </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Nietzsche and Existentialism <ul><li>SUPERMAN </li></ul><ul><li>Nietzsche believed in superman that was secure, independent, and highly individualist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberated from all values except those he deems valid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on this world and not the rewards promised in the next </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creator of a whole new “master” morality that is grounded in the here and now </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. WWI <ul><li>Devastated the European economies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy bombing of cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retooling of the entire economy towards war is costly to realign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population losses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>United States and Japan come out strong </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No fighting on their soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplied goods to the warring countries </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. WWI Results <ul><li>End of Absolutism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New governments begin to form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracies begin to form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many parties divide country </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coalition governments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No one could gain a majority in many countries leading to deadlock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary alliances between parties were necessary to form majorities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. WWI Results <ul><li>Changing governments cause instability in the countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People in these countries wanted a return to better times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willing to forfeit their right in hopes that a stronger leader would be able to solve the problems the coalition governments could not </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Weimar Republic <ul><li>Germany develops a democracy after the war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack democratic tradition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous political parties decentralizes decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germans blamed the new government for the defeat and the conditions of Versailles because they were the ones who signed the official surrender and treaty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General unrest in population due to poor conditions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Weimar Republic <ul><li>Inflation-a persistent, substantial rise in the general level of prices related to an increase in the volume of money and resulting in the loss of value of currency </li></ul><ul><li>Germany had not raised taxes during the war and now faced significant war debt, rebuilding costs, and reparation payments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Money becomes useless as new government attempts to pay off loans by printing more money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone on a fixed income saw their lives become worthless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bread cost billions of marks </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Dawes Plan <ul><li>International community realizes the German situation will lead to revolt </li></ul><ul><li>Reparation payments would begin at 1 billion marks for the first year and should rise over a period of four years to 2.5 billion marks per year. </li></ul><ul><li>The German Reichsbank would be reorganized under Allied supervision. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign loans (primarily from the United States) would be made available to Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>The sources for the reparation money should include transportation, excise, and custom taxes. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Europe Plays Nice.. For A While <ul><li>1925 leaders from Germany, France and other nations meet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign a treaty agreeing not to go to war with each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany agrees to respect the boundaries of France and Belgium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany admitted to the League of Nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Spirit of Locarno” </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact <ul><li>US Secretary of State worked with France to come to an agreement to end all wars </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all countries in the world signed </li></ul><ul><li>No teeth in the treaty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you enforce this? Threaten a country with war? </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Ripple Effect <ul><li>Newtonian Physics: Every action has an equal and opposite reaction </li></ul><ul><li>The American economy was holding up the rest of the world through their booming manufacturing and foreign investing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recall the foreign loans trying to cover domestic losses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans consume less foreign goods </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Trade Wars <ul><li>Congress passes protective tariffs to try and revive the economy </li></ul><ul><li>World Trade drops off by 65% </li></ul>
  34. 34. Panic at the Disco… I mean Bank <ul><li>AH well imagine as walked threw the lines of a bank corridor and I can’t help but to hear no I can’t help but to hear an exchanging of words </li></ul><ul><li>JUST GIVE ME MY MONEY says the man in the suit to the banker (yea I know it doesn’t fit…_ </li></ul><ul><li>Think Mary Poppins at the bank with the children </li></ul>