Rome and Its Empire

1,863 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,863
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
30
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
86
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Rome and Its Empire

  1. 2. <ul><li>I. The Development of Rome’s Republic II. Roman Culture III. The Institutions of Empire IV. The Evolution of Rome’s Economic and Social Structure V. The Origins of Christianity VI. The Decline of Rome </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>I. The Development of Rome’s Republic. </li></ul><ul><li>Aristocracy v. people </li></ul><ul><li>Senatusque populus romanorum </li></ul><ul><li>The senate and people of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Tradition v. expansion </li></ul><ul><li>A. Etruscan Beginnings and the Early Republic Complex racial makeup </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous Italians </li></ul><ul><li>Indo-Europeans from north </li></ul><ul><li>Greek colonies in the south </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscan </li></ul><ul><li>City-states </li></ul><ul><li>Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Independent from Etruscans c. 510 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Republic </li></ul><ul><li>v. monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Senate holds most power </li></ul><ul><li>Two consuls </li></ul>Italy and the Aegean
  3. 4. <ul><li>I. The Development of Rome’s Republic </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Expansion of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Rivalry with neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>Central, southern Italy by mid-4th century B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel developments as territory expands </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of military </li></ul><ul><li>Punic Wars </li></ul><ul><li>146 B.C.E. , Roman victory </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Results of Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Polarization of rich and poor </li></ul><ul><li>Weakens traditional balance </li></ul><ul><li>Larger estates </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers of slaves increase </li></ul>The Expansion of the Roman Empire, 133 B.C.E.
  4. 5. <ul><li>I. The Development of Rome’s Republic </li></ul><ul><li>D. The Crisis of the Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Class conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Tiberius Gracchus </li></ul><ul><li>Program to redistribute land </li></ul><ul><li>Assassinated </li></ul><ul><li>Gaius Gracchus </li></ul><ul><li>Brother of Tiberius </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to continue program </li></ul><ul><li>Enforced suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Generals take the initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Marius forces Senate's hand </li></ul><ul><li>Sulla supports Senate, defeats Marius </li></ul><ul><li>Julius Caesar </li></ul><ul><li>49 B.C.E. , takes power </li></ul><ul><li>44 B.C.E. , assassination </li></ul><ul><li>Civil War follows </li></ul><ul><li>Caesar's nephew, Octavian victorious, 31 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Initiates period of Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Augustus </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>II. Roman Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Period of social and constitutional crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Increased borrowing from Greece, Hellenistic world </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Range of Roman Art </li></ul><ul><li>Much inspired or copied from Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Roman differences </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on rhetoric </li></ul><ul><li>Roman engineering superior </li></ul><ul><li>Arches </li></ul><ul><li>Urban planning </li></ul><ul><li>B. Major Themes in Roman Literature </li></ul><ul><li>General move to court patronage </li></ul><ul><li>Away from public </li></ul><ul><li>Horace </li></ul><ul><li>Ovid </li></ul><ul><li>Livy </li></ul><ul><li>Histories </li></ul><ul><li>Vergil </li></ul><ul><li>Aeneid </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>III. The Institutions of Empire </li></ul><ul><li>A. Imperial Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Unification </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion, citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of one law </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal of Roman culture </li></ul><ul><li>Military, especially at margins </li></ul><ul><li>B. Augustus and His Successors </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Mystery religions banned </li></ul><ul><li>Laws supporting marriage, family </li></ul><ul><li>Building program </li></ul><ul><li>Restructured provincial government </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards to veterans </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>III. The Institutions of Empire </li></ul><ul><li>C. Government and Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Control of economy </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce regulated </li></ul><ul><li>especially grain supply </li></ul><ul><li>Taxations system </li></ul><ul><li>Public works: baths, stadiums, aqueducts </li></ul><ul><li>Official religions supported </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Trajan (101-106 C.E. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Greatest extent </li></ul><ul><li>Stagnation, difficulties by 180 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>D. Roman Law </li></ul><ul><li>Codification </li></ul><ul><li>Precedent </li></ul><ul><li>Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens gain protection of law </li></ul>The Expansion of the Roman Empire, 133 B.C.E.
  8. 9. <ul><li>IV. The Evolution of Rome’s Economic and Social Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Agrarian initially </li></ul><ul><li>Merchant class added </li></ul><ul><li>Family important </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal </li></ul><ul><li>Fathers had power of life and death in Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Women had relative freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Right to divorce </li></ul><ul><li>A. Slavery in Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Increases as a result of empire </li></ul><ul><li>From captives </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to stagnation in technology </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers displaced by slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Turn to military for employment </li></ul><ul><li>B. Rome’s Economic Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Variations across empire </li></ul><ul><li>Some areas kept pre-Roman traditions </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>V. The Origins of Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity arises in Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>but distanced from Roman culture </li></ul><ul><li>A. Life and Death of Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>Called for reform in Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Taught importance of love, charity, humility </li></ul><ul><li>Especially popular among lower classes </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonized leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Crucified, 30 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Popular following, but many Jews remain loyal to Judaism </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>V. The Origins of Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>B. Christianity Gains Converts and Religious Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 10 % of Roman Empire by 4th century C.E. Offered salvation to all </li></ul><ul><li>Filled spiritual needs as had mystery religions </li></ul><ul><li>Spread via communication offered by empire </li></ul><ul><li>Used roman-style structure </li></ul><ul><li>Paul of Tarsus </li></ul><ul><li>Greek follower </li></ul><ul><li>Important in spread of Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>C. Relations with the Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Christian religion Synthesis with Greek and Roman ideologies </li></ul><ul><li>Refused to recognize imperial cult </li></ul><ul><li> Persecution </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>VI. The Decline of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Declining revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Borders threatened </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer slaves result from lack of new conquest </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemics </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Classical Mediterranean Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Passed on Greek culture </li></ul><ul><li>With contributions in law, architecture, empire </li></ul>

×