4. The Middle East


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4. The Middle East

  1. 1. The Modern Middle East, World War I to Present
  2. 2. Pre-WWI: Ottoman Empire <ul><li>“ Sick Man of Europe” </li></ul><ul><li>Sided with Germans/Central Powers in WWI </li></ul>
  3. 3. Nationalism in the Region <ul><li>Regions get increasing autonomy as central gov’t stagnates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Want complete independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religious diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims, Christians, Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See: Balkans </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Strategic Location of Middle East <ul><li>“ Middle East” coined 1850s </li></ul><ul><li>Location near vital UK holdings (India, Egypt) </li></ul><ul><li>Weak Ottoman Gov’t = Easy Pickings </li></ul><ul><li>Oil-Rich </li></ul>
  5. 5. British Wheelings And Dealings <ul><li>Muslims: </li></ul><ul><li>Promise disgruntled regions full independence if they help Allied Powers in WWI (TE Lawrence, “Lawrence of Arabia” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Zionism <ul><li>What is Zionism? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The belief that Jews should have their own nation; Jewish nationalism. Zionism gained much support among Jews and others in the early twentieth century, and the hoped-for nation was established in the late 1940s in Palestine, as the state of Israel. Zionism is opposed by most Arabs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;zionism.&quot; The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition . Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005. 17 Dec. 2007. <Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ zionism >. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. British Wheelings and Dealings <ul><li>Jews- Balfour Declaration: </li></ul><ul><li>His Majesty’s Government views with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine … </li></ul>Sir Arthur James Balfour, Br. Foreign Sec.
  9. 9. Chaim Weizmann <ul><li>Leader of the Zionist movement in Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Convinces politicians in Britain that forming a homeland in Palestine is the answer to everyone’s problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take land from the crumbling Ottoman Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British protectorate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jewish people would have somewhere to go to escape the anti-Semitic persecution </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. BRITISH WHEELINGS AND DEALINGS <ul><li>FRENCH: </li></ul><ul><li>SYKES-PICOT TREATY </li></ul><ul><li>HOW FR. & UK WILL DIVIDE UP M.E. AFTER WAR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT ABOUT INDEPENDENCE? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RUSSIA TO BE CONSULTED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXCEPT AFTER 1917 - WILL NOT WORK WITH BOLSHEVIKS </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Sykes-picot treaty <ul><li>The Sykes-Picot(-Sazonov) Agreement [ of 1916 was a secret agreement between the governments of Britain and France, with the assent of Russia, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain Jordan, Iraq and a small area around Haifa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France was allocated control of south-eastern Turkey northern Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia was to get Constantinople, the Turkish Straits and the Ottoman Armenian vilayets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The region of Palestine was undecided territory for international control </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Sykes-Picot Conflicts <ul><li>This agreement is seen by many as conflicting with the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence of 1915–1916. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promised independence to Muslim Territories </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. END OF WWI <ul><li>Arab regions expect British to hold to word </li></ul><ul><li>USSR leaks Sykes-Picot - MISTRUST! </li></ul>
  14. 14. Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Allied Powers “Win” </li></ul><ul><li>Central Powers lose colonies, see territories broken up </li></ul><ul><li>League of Nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandate System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UK, France administer regions until they’re “Ready” for independence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How is this different from a colony? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Middle East, Arab Peoples, and Imperialistic Blunders <ul><li>Britain, France, Italy, and Japan want to divide the Ottoman Empire and German territories between themselves as spoils of war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Woodrow Wilson unhappy with this because of his belief in self-determination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Mandate System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial rulers would administer the territories but would be accountable to the League of Nations for the wellbeing of the inhabitants </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Middle East, Arab Peoples, and Imperialistic Blunders <ul><li>Class C Mandates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallest populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treated exactly like straight territories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class B Mandates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly larger populations but still underdeveloped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would eventually achieve independence as some unspecified date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of German African territory in this category </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class A Mandates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Former Ottoman Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ existence as independent nations can be provisionally recognized subject to administrative advice” </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Mandate System <ul><li>UK- Mandates of: </li></ul><ul><li>Mesopotamia (Iraq) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Install puppet king </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish 75-year-long oil concession </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transjordan (Israel, Jordan, Palestine) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t give full independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support more power, land for jews in region </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Mandate System <ul><li>France- Mandates of: </li></ul><ul><li>Lebanon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports Maronite (christian) minority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kicks King Faisal out of power </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. “New” Countries, Leaders: <ul><li>Prince Faisal: “ruler” of Trans-Jordan. </li></ul><ul><li>Prince Abdullah: “ruler” of a newly-created Iraq [pasted together from three distinct geographic regions]. </li></ul><ul><li>The House of Saud: put on the throne of the newly-created Saud i Arabia. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pahlavi Family: put on the throne of a new Iran. </li></ul><ul><li>Mustafa Kemal (KEMAL ATATURK): leads a military/nationalist movement in Turkey. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Turkey - Treaty of Lausanne, 1923 <ul><li>Set boundaries between Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey gave up claims on Cyprus, Iraq, Syria </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey recognized as successor to Ottoman Empire, with capital at Ankara (no longer Istanbul) </li></ul><ul><li>Ended capitulation agreements that had plagued empire </li></ul>
  21. 21. Secularizing Turkey <ul><li>Secularism : Qur’an in Turkish translation. </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of a republican constitution and a Swiss civil code. </li></ul><ul><li>Westernization & nationalism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compulsory, secular education. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banning the fez. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western [Roman] script. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western clothing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women unveiled & given full citizenship and the right to vote. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Mustafa Kemal “Ataturk”
  23. 23. Oil and Mesopotamia <ul><li>First discovered in Persia in 1908. </li></ul><ul><li>Turkish-Petroleum Co. [TPC] founded in 1911 à drill for oil in Mosul, Mesopotamia. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain signed a secret agreement with the sheikh of Kuwait who, while outwardly pledging allegiance to the Ottoman Sultan in Istanbul, promised exclusive oil rights to the British. </li></ul><ul><li>Kuwait became a British protectorate in November, 1914. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1927, oil was struck in Kirkuk, Iraq, and the Iraq Petroleum Co. [IPC] was created. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Oil and Middle East <ul><li>American oil companies [Texaco & Chevron], gain oil concessions in Bahrain in 1929. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1933, American oil companies win an oil concession in Saudi Arabia. </li></ul><ul><li>ARAMCO [Arab-American Oil Co,] is created in 1939. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Rezah Khan, 1877-1944 <ul><li>an Iranian officer, seized control of the govt. in 1921. </li></ul><ul><li>declared himself SHAH in1925,created the Pahlavi Dynasty . </li></ul><ul><li>ruled from 1925-1941. </li></ul><ul><li>initiated some modern reforms. </li></ul><ul><li>forced to abdicate by Allied armies in 1941. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Reforms in Iran <ul><li>Secularization : seizure of religious lands. </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of the French civil code. </li></ul><ul><li>Built the Trans-Iranian Railroad. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved education. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Middle East Between World Wars
  28. 28. So, what kinds of changes are occurring in Middle Eastern Countries? How do these experiences relate to some problems we see in the Middle East Today?
  29. 29. Middle East and WWII <ul><li>Location/Resources: Oil! </li></ul><ul><li>ME countries felt burned by French and British </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans offered full independence if they supported Axis cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some political and religious leaders supported Germans in order to attain independence from British, French </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Post-War Middle East <ul><li>Israel/Palestine: </li></ul><ul><li>Country of Israel declared by United Nations, 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>Question on Palestinian rights, boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And, access to things like water and farmland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1920: 20 Arab Palestinian to 1 Jew </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1947: 2 to 1 </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Jewish Settlements: The Kibbutz System <ul><li>First one founded in 1908. </li></ul><ul><li>Communal living. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Make the Desert Bloom!” </li></ul>
  32. 32. Peel Partition Plan, 1937
  33. 33. UN Partition Plan, 1947
  34. 34. Israel Today
  35. 35. Elsewhere… <ul><li>Iran: </li></ul><ul><li>1950s saw US-backed installation of a Shah </li></ul><ul><li>1970s: Shah forced from throne again by Fundamentalist Clerics, led by Ayatollah Khomeini </li></ul>
  36. 36. Elsewhere: <ul><li>Iraq: </li></ul><ul><li>1960s Baath party takes control of Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Secular Government </li></ul><ul><li>Late 1970s: Saddam Hussein takes control </li></ul>
  37. 37. Elsewhere: <ul><li>Afghanistan: </li></ul><ul><li>1970s- invaded by Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>US-backed muhajideen against Soviets </li></ul><ul><li>After Soviet Collapse, establishment of Taliban Government </li></ul>
  38. 38. Elsewhere: <ul><li>Turkey: </li></ul><ul><li>Still a secular country </li></ul><ul><li>Experiencing tensions between religious groups (Kurds, Christians, Muslims) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Elsewhere: <ul><li>Saudi Arabia: </li></ul><ul><li>people enjoy decent standards of living financial benefits from government </li></ul><ul><li>Little- to no social reforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women can’t drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited ability to criticize govt </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. sources <ul><li>Dmcdowell, “The Modern Middle East, World War I to Present.” el cajon, ca, United States [slideshare powerpoint] http://www.slideshare.net/dmcdowell </li></ul>