8. Empires And Imperialism


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8. Empires And Imperialism

  1. 1. Empires and Imperialism
  2. 2. The Ottoman Empire <ul><li>What do you remember about the Ottoman Empire? Who were the important people? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Selim III <ul><li>Selim III (r. 1789-1807) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent and forward thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks to European models to solve the problems of the Ottoman Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attempted Improvements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European style military units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of provincial governors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reform the tax system </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Selim III <ul><li>Why did Selim III’s attempts to reform the Ottoman empire fail? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Janissaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serbian uprising </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ulma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Executed before his cousin and supporters could retake control </li></ul><ul><li>No success for reforms because people benefited from old systems </li></ul>
  5. 5. Crimean War <ul><li>Greek Independence showcases Ottoman weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Peter the Great pushing to expand southward into Ottoman territory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desires access to the Mediterranean sea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Russians, in exchange for help during the Egyptian invasion of Syria, named the protector of all Orthodox subjects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sultan names French the protector of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Crimean War <ul><li>The Eastern Question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should the Ottoman Empire continue to exist? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If not, who should rule the territory? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Crimean War <ul><li>Fought between 1853 and 1856 </li></ul><ul><li>Britain, France, and Italian kingdoms side with Ottomans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why does this decision seem out of character? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What were the motives of these countries? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Crimean War <ul><li>Nothing goes right for the Russians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Navy trapped in Black Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corruption and lack of effective transportation leaves troops without supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forced to seek peace agreement when their main fort in Crimea falls </li></ul>
  9. 9. Outcomes of the Crimean War <ul><li>Peace treaty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocked Russians from expanding southward to the Mediterranean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stopped the French and British from taking Ottoman territory for their exclusive use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meant they could seize land as long as they shared with everyone else too </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Changes due to the Crimean War <ul><li>First time Newspaper propaganda campaigns were important in Britain and France </li></ul><ul><li>MARKED THE CHANGE FROM TRADITIONAL TO MODERN WARFARE </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ottoman Changes <ul><li>Extraterritoriality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowing the Europeans to live in their own little areas in Istanbul </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intense integration into European trading network </li></ul><ul><li>Population movement to the cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of exports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Movement for a secular government in 1860s and 1870’s </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ottoman Empire Decline <ul><li>What forces led to the decline of the Ottoman Empire? </li></ul><ul><li>Does this list seem familiar? </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Russian Empire <ul><li>Really big, lots of potential, but somewhat backwards compared to Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only about 6% of population lives in cities by mid 1800s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very agricultural society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of effective, reliable transportation system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industrialization and development relied heavily on the importation of knowledge and skill from Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uneducated, traditional, diverse society </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Liberal vs Conservative Leadership <ul><li>Alexander I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempted to force reforms on Russia including </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging more education including more Universities and studying abroad </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modernizing the army </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New Bureaucratic regime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Decembrist movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Death of Alexander brings chaos and confusion to empire in 1825 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Army Officers attempt a coup to take control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exposed to the Western European system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Want to see reform in government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement fails and Nicholas I learns to distrust the Liberal contingents within his own government </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Liberal vs Conservative Leadership <ul><li>Nicholas I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservative, reactionary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberal ideas discouraged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy begins to take effect and flourish despite efforts by ruling families to discourage </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Russian Empire <ul><li>Nicholas I feared potential political challenges if a middle class developed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kept literacy to a minimum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bought industrial goods and paid with exports of grain and timber </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slavophiles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposed to westernization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orthodox faith the bedrock of society </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Liberal Vs Conservative Leadership <ul><li>Alexander II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Returns to a more reform-minded approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavophile thinking begins to emerge as a prominent cultural current </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narodniki movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feodor Dostoyevsky writes in this time period </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Qing Empire <ul><li>What things aren’t going well for the Qing? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Qing Empire <ul><li>Population growth and pressures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroys environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landless, homeless vagabonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annoyance growing with subjugated minorities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distrust of government officials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing presence of European traders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability of the Qing officials to maintain control in parts of the empire </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. White Lotus Rebellion 1794-1804 <ul><li>Takes hold in parts of central China </li></ul><ul><li>Hatred for the Qing foreign rule grows </li></ul><ul><li>Predict the return of the Ming dynasty and the coming of the Buddha </li></ul><ul><li>Militias of some areas able to successfully defend themselves from the Qing forces and attach others </li></ul><ul><li>Chaos ensues </li></ul>
  21. 21. Opium War <ul><li>British response to growing trade deficit with China was to sell Opium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge problem for Chinese as large portions of the population become addicted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chinese Emperor seeks a meeting with the British to discuss stopping the importation of the drug </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English Refuse </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Opium War <ul><li>Chinese forces inadequate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bannerman outdated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most fight with swords, knives, and clubs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No navy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Old technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>British Marines move at will along the coast and up the Chinese Rivers </li></ul>
  23. 23. Treaty of Nanking <ul><li>Chinese forced to admit defeat </li></ul><ul><li>End of the Canton system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Five ports opened to European trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hong Kong becomes English colony </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most-favored-nation status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Granted to Britain in the following year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any privilege granted to another country is automatically granted to the British </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The Taiping Rebellion 1851-1864 <ul><li>What were some of the forces conspiring to start a civil war in China? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unhappiness with the Qing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to control territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign invasion into territory and trade </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. The Taiping Rebellion <ul><li>Hong Xiuquan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Member of the minority group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hakkas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Founder of the rebellion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempted to become a bureaucrat but failed the examinations repeatedly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Had a mental breakdown </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Met protestant missionaries in Canton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed himself the younger brother of Jesus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commissioned by God to drive the Manchus out of China </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace” </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Taiping Rebellion <ul><li>Spread throughout parts of the country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many feared the coming of the rebellion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not want to be forced into their army </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confucian bureaucrats feared the adoption of foreign gods and a change in the system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Settle the Kingdom of Heaven in Nanjing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City is seiged by the Qing but is well fortified and supplied </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eventual European involvement in conflict and second round of opium wars brings the Qing to the knees </li></ul>