Eastern Front and the Pacific


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Eastern Front and the Pacific

  1. 1. World War II <ul><li>Battle for Great Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Front </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific Theatre </li></ul>
  2. 2. Great Britain Refuses to Give Up <ul><li>Hitler now controls most of Europe and he is ready to attack Great Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Plans to take out the Royal Air Force and then launch a ground invasion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radar gives the Royal Air Force advanced warning of attacks which allows them to destroy many German Airplanes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler switches to night attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English wait out their evenings in subways and bomb shelters with no sign of conceding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hitler gives up his plans for invasion and ends the attack when it becomes obvious that the English will not be easily discouraged </li></ul>
  3. 3. North Africa Campaign <ul><li>Mussolini wants to secure the Suez Canal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moves armies from Libya into Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key to access to middle eastern oil </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Britain Pushes back in Africa <ul><li>Quickly moves 500 miles across N. Africa capturing 130,000 Italian troops </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler has to step in to save Mussolini </li></ul><ul><li>Erwin Rommel “Desert Fox” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commands new tank corp for the Axis powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually manages to take the city of Tobruk after several back and forth exchanges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbol of British resistance falls </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Hitler Plots against the USSR <ul><li>Needs the Balkan states to build bases to launch an invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria, Romania, and Hungary choose to cooperate and join the Axis powers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No hope to win a standoff with Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yugoslavia and Greece resist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-British Governments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yugoslavia surrenders in 11 days, Greece in 17 </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Operation Barbarossa <ul><li>Hitler invades Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 </li></ul><ul><li>USSR army has 5 million men but is still unprepared </li></ul><ul><li>What strategy had the Russians used against Napoleon? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scorched Earth Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use this once again against Hitler's advance </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Siege of Leningrad <ul><li>Germans surround and isolate the city </li></ul><ul><li>City refuses to surrendered even as the population is reduced to eating cattle feed and starvation </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler finally realizes the city will not surrendered and moves on Moscow instead </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler fails to prepare for the harsh Russian winter </li></ul>
  8. 9. Hitler and Winter <ul><li>German troops stuck in Russia in summer gear and with limited supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment not prepared for cold temperatures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil freezes and tanks and trucks become useless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German guns not designed to deal with the frost and cold also stick and jam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hitler REFUSES to retreat completely and orders his generals to dig in </li></ul>
  9. 10. Germans are Stranded! <ul><li>Freezing, Starving, and without any useful equipment the Germans are forced to hold the line </li></ul><ul><li>Manage to hold out until March of 1943 </li></ul><ul><li>Moscow is saved </li></ul><ul><li>Germans loose about 500,000 troops in the process </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler does not learn from Napoleons defeat over 130 years earlier. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Japanese Brutality <ul><li>War for the Philippines ends with a Japanese Victory </li></ul><ul><li>75,000 American and Filipino troops surrender to the Japanese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan now outnumbered by their prisoners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bataan Death march </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Force these captives to walk approximately 100 miles to a prisoner of war camp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Randomly beat POWs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tortured to death for falling behind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10,000 soldiers died on the March </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Japanese Tactics <ul><li>Heavily fortify the HUNDREDS of small islands all through the Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>Claim to come as liberators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Asia for the Asians” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treat the newly conquered populations with severe brutality </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Allies on the Offensive <ul><li>1942 send 16 B-52 bombers to bomb Tokyo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sending the message YOU ARE NOT INVINCIBLE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allied forces rally to the cause and new hope is in sight </li></ul>
  13. 14. Battle of Coral Sea <ul><li>NEW KIND OF SEA BATTLE </li></ul><ul><li>Fought entirely between the aircraft from the two fleets (Japanese and American/ Australian forces) </li></ul><ul><li>No definitive winner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese sink more ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allies stop the Japanese advancement for the first time </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. The Battle of Midway <ul><li>Largest fleet ever assembled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese have over 150 ships included the largest battleship ever built </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allies crack a Japanese code that gives advanced warning and begin to plan an ambush </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Out numbered by ships and airplanes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allow Japan to attack the island first and sent the Allied planes out to attack the unsuspecting ships </li></ul><ul><li>Allies destroy 352 planes and all 4 aircraft carriers </li></ul><ul><li>TURNING POINT OF THE PACIFIC THEATRE </li></ul>
  15. 16. Allied Strategy in the Pacific <ul><li>Too many islands to take back one by one </li></ul><ul><li>“Island Hopping” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategically take islands throughout the Pacific while ignoring others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take Islands not as well defended and closer to Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hopefully the strongholds would be cut off and eventually weaken </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Secret Weapons of WWII: Code Machines and Code Talkers <ul><li>England had a HUGE advantage during the war because they had a German code machine to decipher intercepted transmissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called the Enigma </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Secret Weapons of WWII: Code Machines and Code Talkers <ul><li>Navajo Code Talkers in the Pacific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese skilled code breakers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marines knew they needed some form of safe communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Navajo is not a written language, no alphabet, and only approximately 30 people outside of Navajo reservations could fluently speak the language at the outset of the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Created a dictionary of terms to use for transmissions, memorized the dictionary, and joined their units without any written copy </li></ul>
  18. 19. Battle of Guadalcanal <ul><li>Huge Japanese airbase being built </li></ul><ul><li>Want to destroy the base before it is a stronghold </li></ul><ul><li>Attack with 19,000 marines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese overwhelmed but pledge to fight till the death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After 6 months of fighting the Allies finally force the Japanese off the island </li></ul><ul><ul><li>23,000 allied casualties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>36,000 Japanese Casualties </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Japanese Propaganda <ul><li>As the Allies island hopped something was amiss… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why were the civilian populations killing themselves before the allies were in control? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japanese had spread rumors about US marines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kept caged gorillas they would watch tear apart prisoners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bayonet babies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Beginning of the End in the Pacific <ul><li>Firebombing of Tokyo and other major cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of the B-29 had a 1500 mile range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bombed major cities with firebombs nightly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flew at higher altitudes to avoid anti-aircraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less precision, bombed wherever the munitions fell </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. End of the European Theater <ul><li>America agrees to focus on a Hitler first strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion of Normandy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>June 6, 1944 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>150,000 allied troops storm the beach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eisenhower the leader of the allied forces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heavy fighting ensues but the Allies hold the beach and begin to push the Germans back </li></ul>
  22. 23. End of the European Theatre <ul><li>Battle of the Bulge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler’s last chance to salvage his campaign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allies win the battle and successfully push the Germans back into Germany and continue to pursue the remains of the German military </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soviet Union pushes the Germans out of Russia and enter German territory </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler is forced into his bunker for the remaining days of his reign </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets are allowed to enter Berlin first </li></ul>
  23. 24. Manhattan Project <ul><li>Albert Einstein escapes from Germany before the rise of Hitler </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions of the uses of Atomic energy begin but many feel an A-bomb is an impossibility </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned scientists realized that the Nazi would definitely find a way to develop one if this was a possibility (which Fermi and Oppenhiemer believed it was) </li></ul>
  24. 25. Manhattan Project <ul><li>Einstein’s Letter to FDR (1939) </li></ul><ul><li>1942 the project gets is official start </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities at Los Alamos, New Mexico and Oak Ridge, Tennessee </li></ul><ul><li>Complete Secrecy </li></ul><ul><li>Manage to develop 3 bombs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat Man </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little Boy </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Meanwhile, back in the Pacific <ul><li>Japan had tried to destroy the entire American Fleet in the battle of Leyte Gulf </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroy the fleet and cut off the troops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backfired and lost their entire fleet instead </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US forces land on the Philippines and General Macarthur declares his return </li></ul><ul><li>Marines begin the difficult battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa </li></ul>
  26. 27. Iwo Jima <ul><li>Small volcanic Island with airfield and several well defended tunnel systems by the Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>American Forces storm the island and through intense battle manage to take the island after decimating the Japanese forces (only 1500 of the original 22,000 survived) and sustaining heavy casualties of over 6,000 </li></ul>
  27. 28. Iwo Jima <ul><li>Us Marines raising a flag on top of the Volcanic cone on the island </li></ul><ul><li>“ Captured the soul of a nation” </li></ul>
  28. 29. Okinawa <ul><li>350 miles from the coast of Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Bloodiest land battle of the war </li></ul><ul><li>Japan lost 110,000 troops </li></ul><ul><li>Americans lost 12,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Bitter battle that ends with an American victory </li></ul>
  29. 30. Difficult Decision <ul><li>Truman must now decide whether to risk a costly invasion of Japan or use the most deadly weapon ever created by man </li></ul><ul><li>Risk loosing 500,000 American soldiers or indiscriminately kill whole Japanese cities </li></ul>
  30. 31. The Scenario <ul><li>Japan, sensing defeat sends an envoy to the Soviet Union in the hopes of negotiating peace… there is no progress </li></ul><ul><li>US sends a warning to the Japanese threatening to rain terror from the sky if they do not unconditionally surrender… Japanese send no reply </li></ul>
  31. 32. The Scenario <ul><li>Truman decides to drop the bombs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Targets are selected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little Boy is dropped on Hiroshima </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. Hiroshima Casualties 256,300 30% 27% Total 80,300 25% 2% 2.5-5.0 144,800 37% 27% 1.0-2.5 31,200 10% 86% 0-1.0 Population Injured Killed Ground Distance (km)
  33. 35. The Warning <ul><li>Truman warns Japan that we will destroy a city every three days if they do not surrender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partly a bluff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We only had one more bomb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Japan does not surrender after Hiroshima </li></ul>
  34. 36. Nagasaki <ul><li>Fat man is dropped on Nagasaki </li></ul><ul><li>Another city is decimated </li></ul><ul><li>Population of the city 164,000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>39,000 killed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25,000 injured </li></ul></ul><ul><li>60% of all deaths from burns </li></ul>
  35. 37. Atomic Bomb Conditions <ul><li>Ground Temperature of 7,000 Degrees F </li></ul><ul><li>Winds of 980 mph </li></ul><ul><li>Energy released equal to 20,000 tons of TNT </li></ul><ul><li>210,000 total deaths related to the Atomic Bomb </li></ul>
  36. 38. Discussion <ul><li>Did Truman make the right decision? Why or why not? Take 3 minutes and collect your thoughts. Write 2-3 sentences explaining your stance. </li></ul>