Fall Of Rome Pwpt

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Fall Of Rome Pwpt

  1. 1. The Fall of Rome <ul><li>For centuries after the rule of its first emperor, begun in 27 B.C.E., the Roman Empire was the most powerful state in the ancient world. Rome continued to expand to include 3 continents: Asia, Europe, and Africa. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Roman Empire Expansion What is needed to control such a vast empire?
  3. 3. The Fall of Rome
  4. 4. Political Causes <ul><li>Oppressive government, loss of popular support </li></ul><ul><li>Increased government corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Division of empire – Too large to control </li></ul><ul><li>Internal power struggles – Lack of organized system of succession </li></ul>
  5. 5. Diocletian ( 284—305) and the Division of the Roman Empire These included splitting the Empire into two in order to be more manageable, creating a new system of Imperial succession to answer the question of who would be Emperor of the newly divided East and West, called the system of &quot; Tetrarchy &quot;, or &quot;rule of four&quot;, whereby a senior emperor would rule in the East and West, and each would have a junior emperor. Diocletian believed that going forward under the current system of Roman Imperial government was unsustainable. He initiated a number of reforms to prevent a return to the anarchy of previous generations and maintain the viability of the Empire.
  6. 6. Constantine ( 306-337) Constantine is famed for his rebuilding of Byzantium as Constantinople (Constantine's City). Constantine is best remembered in modern times for the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Council of Nicaea in 325, which fully legalized and legitimized Christianity in the Empire for the first time. These actions are considered major factors in the spread of Christianity and helped to give him the title of the &quot;first Christian Emperor.&quot;
  7. 7. Economic Causes <ul><li>Increase in taxes to support army and bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on slave labor </li></ul><ul><li>Indenture of farmers to wealthy landowners </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare system </li></ul>
  8. 8. Social Causes <ul><li>Population decline caused by war and disease </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in patriotism, discipline, and devotion to duty </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Devotion of upper classes to luxury and self-interest </li></ul><ul><li>Bread and Circus </li></ul>
  9. 9. Military Causes <ul><li>Poorly trained armies </li></ul><ul><li>Army deteriorates </li></ul><ul><li>Little loyalty among hired soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Threat of the Huns </li></ul><ul><li>Series of Germanic invasions beginning in 3 rd century </li></ul>
  10. 10. External Forces <ul><li>The warmer climate, rich farmlands, and wealth of the Roman lands attracted the Germanic tribes. By the 5th century, the Roman Empire was overrun by barbarians. </li></ul>Germanic tribes from northern Europe crossed the Roman frontier and invaded Greece, Italy, Spain, and coastal areas of Asia Minor.
  11. 11. Attila the Hun Attila the Hun was King of the Huns (circa 433-53). He was one of the most feared and notorious barbarians of all time. Sweeping west across the Rhine River into Gaul, Attila's forces fought the Romans at the Battle of Châlons in 451 CE. Against all odds, the Huns were defeated. Attila later died mysteriously, some say of a massive nose bleed. Attila’s retreat across the Rhine was the last victory achieved in the name of the Western Roman Empire.
  12. 12. Odoacer Odoacer (435 – 493), was the half Hunnish, half Scirian chieftain of the Germanic Heruli. He is best known to history as the man who deposed the last Western Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustus, in 476. As the first “barbarian king” of Italy, 476 is traditionally considered the end of the Western Roman Empire.
  13. 13. The Fall of Rome <ul><li>Once the Roman army could no longer defend its borders, Germanic tribes began pouring into Europe. One Roman province fell after another. In 476 A.D., the Western Roman emperor was overthrown. Odoacer was then proclaimed king of Italy. The ancient world was drawing to a close. </li></ul>
  14. 14. I. Conrad Demarest Model of Empire Kept most of Qin centralized government Established Roman Republic. Wheat, grapes, cattle Wheat, millet, pigs Alps, Mediterranean Sea, forests, Tiber and other rivers, hills Tianshan mountains, Yellow and Yangtze river, loess soil, Pacific Ocean Rome and other city-states on Italian peninsula; surrounding states in Mediterranean Qin empire broken into smaller states rivalry between pastoralists in hills and agriculturalists in plains Warring States period before Qin unification Surplus of men and resources. Expanded and created professional army. soldiers recruited from peasant class within the entire empire.  <ul><li>Adequate military resources </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual antagonisms among those states </li></ul><ul><li>Several small states with no clearly dominant state (power vacuum) </li></ul><ul><li>An environmental mosaic </li></ul><ul><li>High agricultural potential in the area </li></ul><ul><li>State-level government </li></ul>Han Rome I.  Necessary preconditions for the rise of empires:
  15. 15. II. Conrad Demarest Model of Empire “ Republic&quot; based on citizenship of free men; citizenship ensured loyalty to state and brought taxes into the state treasury; emperor-dictators had to support the idea of the republic and pretend to follow what the Senate decreed.  Development of bureaucracy helped run empire. Militaristic Legalism developed by Qin continued, then softened by Confucian system of government based on ethics, meritocracy, and concept of Mandate of Heaven.  Development of bureaucracy helped run empire.  Tribute system for foreign relations. <ul><li>An ideology supporting personal identification with the state, empire, conquest, and militarism. </li></ul>Han Rome II. The primary reason a state succeeded in empire building
  16. 16. III. Conrad Demarest Model of Empire population increased as new lands with more people were conquered population increased as new land was colonized by Chinese farmers. <ul><li>Population increase, often supported by the government and its ideology </li></ul>land for supporters, expansion of established cities, creation of new capital, storehouses of food when supplies fell. Golden age of art, architecture, technology, etc. citizenship led to recognition of place in society, possible government and military positions of leadership, opportunities for merchants, Roman-style urbanism for new towns and cities. New trade and products. <ul><li>Economic rewards, reaped especially in the early years and redistributed to the elite and often to all levels of the citizenry </li></ul>Han Rome III.  The major rewards of empire:
  17. 17. IV. Conrad Demarest Model of Empire military service became less desirable as soldiers lost land; recruits of &quot;foreigners&quot; to keep numbers of soldiers up led to dissatisfaction;  tax revenues fell, so government failed to pay soldiers fully; safety within empire and on borders declined. &quot;barbarians&quot; continued to demand more concessions in the tribute system; recruits of &quot;foreigners&quot; to keep numbers of soldiers up led to dissatisfaction;  tax revenues and soldiers pay fell; safety within empire and on borders declined. Germanic tribes sacked cities near borders and finally Rome. Yellow Turbans peasant rebellion and threats from Nomads in the north. <ul><li>Revolutions toppled the empire </li></ul>tenant farmers looked to landowners for security; bandits and rebels attacked government officials and facilities. tenant farmers looked to landowners of latifundias for security; soldiers' loyalty shifted to generals rather than the state. <ul><li>Failure to continue conquest indefinitely and to continue to bring home its economic fruits eroded faith in the ideology. </li></ul><ul><li>The ideology of expansion and conquest fueled attempts at conquest beyond practical limits </li></ul>Han Rome IV.  Empires fall because:
  18. 18. Decline Of Rome Economic Causes Military Causes Political Causes Social Causes Name:______________________ Date:_______
  19. 19. <ul><li>Increase in taxes to support army and bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly trained armies </li></ul><ul><li>Division of empire </li></ul><ul><li>Population decline caused by war and disease </li></ul><ul><li>Little loyalty among hired soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in patriotism, discipline, and devotion to duty </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on slave labor </li></ul><ul><li>Oppressive government, loss of popular support </li></ul><ul><li>Internal power struggles </li></ul><ul><li>Series of Germanic invasions </li></ul><ul><li>Indenture of farmers to wealthy landowners </li></ul><ul><li>Devotion of upper classes to luxury and self-interest </li></ul><ul><li>Increased government corruption </li></ul>Causes of the Decline of Rome
  20. 20. Decline Of Rome Economic Causes Military Causes Political Causes Social Causes Name:______________________ Date:_______ <ul><li>Oppressive government, loss of popular support </li></ul><ul><li>Increased government corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Division of empire </li></ul><ul><li>Internal power struggles </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly trained armies </li></ul><ul><li>Little loyalty among hired soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Series of Germanic invasions </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in taxes to support army and bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on slave labor </li></ul><ul><li>Indenture of farmers to wealthy landowners </li></ul><ul><li>Population decline caused by war and disease </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in patriotism, discipline, and devotion to duty </li></ul><ul><li>Devotion of upper classes to luxury and self-interest </li></ul>

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