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Korean and Vietnam War


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Korean and Vietnam War

  1. 1. Korean and Vietnam War
  2. 2. Korean War <ul><li>Korea divided at the end of WWII </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North surrendered to Soviets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Surrendered to the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most occupying troops are removed from the peninsula by 1949 </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea receiving military aid from the Soviets </li></ul>
  3. 3. Korean War <ul><li>June 25, 1950 North Korea invades South Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Truman’s policy of containment tested </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convinced this was very similar to what had happened with Hitler and the other axis powers during WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pledges the US to help South Korea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initially just air and naval cover and then ground troops after MacArthur assesses the situation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. United Nations Intervention <ul><li>South Korea asks the United Nations for help </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taken to the Security Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why would you expect any action against North Korea to be voted down in the Security Council? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviets were absent from the meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boycotting because of the Nationalists China being given the Chinese seat in the United Nations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. United Nations Intervention <ul><li>15 nations pledge to send troops to help the South Koreans under the leadership of Douglas Macarthur </li></ul><ul><li>Forces enter the conflict amidst continued North Korean success </li></ul>
  6. 6. The War <ul><li>Pusan the only South Korean area left </li></ul><ul><li>MacArthur plans a surprise attack to try and defeat the North Koreans at Inchon </li></ul>
  7. 7. Inchon Landing <ul><li>Landing the forces at Inchon allowed MacArthur to pinch the North Koreans between the his two forces </li></ul><ul><li>Forces about half of the North Korean Army to surrender and the rest to retreat </li></ul><ul><li>With North Korean forces on retreat MacArthur gives chase preparing to deliver the final blow </li></ul>
  8. 8. Refusal of Surrender <ul><li>North Koreans refuse to surrender even after being pushed back past the 38 th parallel </li></ul><ul><li>Truman did not want this conflict to escalate into a larger war </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese troops were building along the Manchurian border and there were threats of a Chinese invasion if MacArthur on the UN continued to push too far </li></ul>
  9. 9. Invasion of North Korea <ul><li>South Korean troops begin to push into North Korea </li></ul><ul><li>MacArthur reorganizes the UN troops and prepares to completely destroy the N. Korean Army </li></ul><ul><li>Plans begin to be drawn up in the UN for a N. Korean occupation and eventual unification plan under a democratic government </li></ul>
  10. 10. China Gets Involved <ul><li>October 1950 China enters the war on behalf of the N. Koreans </li></ul><ul><li>Now a war between the US and China </li></ul><ul><li>MacArthur’s forces are outnumbered and are pushed back into S. Korea and lose the capital of Seoul </li></ul><ul><li>MacArthur begins to call for nuclear strikes against Chinese targets </li></ul>
  11. 11. MacArthur Dismissed <ul><li>Truman completely against escalation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Want to stay out of world wars, not start them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MacArthur takes his case to Congress and the press trying to force Truman’s hand </li></ul><ul><li>Truman relieves MacArthur of command </li></ul>
  12. 12. Peace Agreement <ul><li>Ceasefire signed after 2 more years of fighting </li></ul><ul><li>UN troops are able to beat the N. Koreans back to near the 38 th parallel </li></ul><ul><li>Almost no change in the border but 5 million lives were lost during the war </li></ul>
  13. 13. Aftermath of the War <ul><li>NORTH KOREA </li></ul><ul><li>Poor </li></ul><ul><li>Shortages of food and energy </li></ul><ul><li>Communist Dictators </li></ul><ul><li>Kim Jung Il current dictator </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily militarized </li></ul><ul><li>South Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Robust economic growth thanks to US stimulus aid </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic constitution with free elections now in place </li></ul><ul><li>One of the fastest growing economies in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on industry and exports </li></ul>
  14. 14. Vietnam <ul><li>France colonized most of Southeast Asia to control the resources </li></ul><ul><li>Ho Chi Minh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Young Rebel in Vietnam looks for help from the Communists to help against the French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms the Indochinese Communist Party </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Conflict in Vietnam <ul><li>French jail the protesters Ho incites </li></ul><ul><li>Sentences Ho and other party leaders to death but Ho escapes </li></ul><ul><li>Returns in 1941 after the Japanese invasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form the Vietminh League to fight against the Japanese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Intelligent Agency (OSS) aligns with Ho to harass the Japanese </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1945 Japan admits defeat </li></ul><ul><li>France seeks to regain the colony </li></ul>
  16. 16. Vietnam War Begins <ul><li>France faces resistance as it tries to regain the colony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communists and Nationalists join together to fight against the French for independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hit and Run tactics (guerilla warfare) make France wonder if the colony is worth the price in lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US supports the French as an extension of their containment policy </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Dien Bien Phu <ul><li>Viet Minh surround Dien Bien Phu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French stronghold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viet Minh have 50,000 troops surrounding the city </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constant artillery fire shuts down the only runway causing French to rely on parachuting in supplies </li></ul><ul><li>France calls on the USA for help as the Viet Minh dig tunnels closer and closer to their positions </li></ul>
  18. 18. USA Enters the War <ul><li>Domino Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If one country fell to communism those around it would also fall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communism would spread </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Options for US involvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Send combat troops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional airstrike with B-29 Bombers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactical Nuclear Weapon </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. French Surrender <ul><li>The French admit defeat before the US commits </li></ul><ul><li>Geneva Peace Conference determines the country will be split at the 17 th parallel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communist Ho Chi Minh to the North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US and France support Ngo Dinh Diem in the South in an anti-communist government </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Vietnam Divided <ul><li>Diem leads as dictator in the South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unpopular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US supports Diem cancellation of the elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear an election would lead to a communist victory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ho Chi Minh is a popular leader in the North with land redistribution programs </li></ul>
  21. 21. Vietcong Resistance <ul><li>Outrage at the corrupt leadership of Diem grows </li></ul><ul><li>Vietcong guerillas begin to fight and eventually take over large areas in the South </li></ul><ul><li>1963 US attempts to back a coup to replace Diem with a more popular leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assassinate Diem and take control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No more popular </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Americans Get Directly Involved <ul><li>US military had served as advisors to South Vietnamese </li></ul><ul><li>US decides to send in troops to prevent the rise of Ho in the South </li></ul>
  23. 23. Americans In Vietnam <ul><li>185,000 plus troops deployed to Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>Best trained and equipped force in the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guerilla warfare in unfamiliar terrain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems Faced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South Vietnamese Government becoming more unpopular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US support for the war is failing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrain unfamiliar </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. American Withdraw <ul><li>Becomes clear that there is no decisive victory in sight for the war </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Nixon begins the withdraw </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan of Vietnamization where the South Vietnamese slowly took over for the American soldiers who were leaving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hoped the South Vietnamese government would hold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorized bombings of Laos and Cambodia to try and destroy Vietcong supply routes and hideouts </li></ul></ul>