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  1. 1. Brrrrrrrrr….. <ul><li>Eastern Europe and Soviet Control </li></ul><ul><li>Containment, Truman Doctrine, and Marshall Plan </li></ul>
  2. 2. Countries of the world <ul><li>194 Countries in the World </li></ul><ul><li>191 Countries in the United Nations </li></ul>
  3. 3. Buffer Zone for the Soviets <ul><li>Throughout history Russia had been prone to invasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No natural border or barrier such as mountains or oceans made it easy for invasion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learned from these experiences </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Buffer Zone for the Soviets <ul><li>What countries had Hitler invaded in order to stage his invasion of the Soviets? </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviet Union takes control of those areas while pushing the Germans back into their country </li></ul><ul><li>These countries were the perfect buffer zone the Soviets were looking for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What was Stalin’s promise at Yalta? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Stalin’s Betrayal <ul><li>Communist governments placed in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, and Yugoslavia </li></ul><ul><li>Truman (now the President) sees this as a clear violation of these countries rights </li></ul>
  6. 6. Potsdam <ul><li>Officially transferred the power in Germany to the commanders from the four respective occupiers in their zones </li></ul><ul><li>Social reforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlaw national socialism (Nazism) which is still outlawed today </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic reforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monopolies broken apart and free enterprise restored </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issued a declaration to Japan demanding unconditional surrender or face total destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Consistently violated </li></ul>
  7. 7. Stalin’s Declaration <ul><li>1946 announces his belief that Communism and Capitalism could not coexist and that the United States and the Soviet Union were destined for war </li></ul><ul><li>Sharp divisions between east and west Europe </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Iron Curtain
  9. 9. The Iron Curtain <ul><li>Winston Churchill was the first to use this term in a 1946 speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Call for the United Nations to be armed with an international military force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worries about the installation of communism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plea to the people of Russia and the Soviet Union to remember their friendship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems throughout the world including Italy and Manchuria </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Containment <ul><li>Truman tires of the Soviet demands, expansions, and betrayals </li></ul><ul><li>Declares an official policy of containment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocking the spread of Soviet influence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires the US to help all weak countries in an attempt to inhibit the growth of communism and influence from Moscow </li></ul>
  11. 11. Truman Doctrine <ul><li>“ One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions… free elections… and freedom from political oppression. The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression… fixed elections, and suppression of personal freedoms. I believe it must be the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Truman Doctrine <ul><li>Seeking aid for Turkey and Greece in their time of need against Soviet expansion and influence </li></ul><ul><li>Controversial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did the US have the right to interfere? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about the countries that had dictators that were not communist that we were going to support? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wasn’t our interference the same as the Soviets? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Marshall Plan <ul><li>Needed to address the devastation caused by the war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starvation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic instability </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Marshall Plan <ul><li>Continued the essential idea of the Truman Doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>Provide aid to any country in Europe that needed it to boost their situation and potentially fend off any influence from Moscow </li></ul><ul><li>Congress immediately approves the $12.5 billion program after the Soviets seize Czechoslovakia </li></ul>
  15. 15. Activity <ul><li>In small groups, read George C. Marshall’s speech and answer the accompanying questions. You have 15 minutes to complete this task. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Questions <ul><li>Where and when was this speech given? </li></ul><ul><li>What are two problems people face when trying to understand and comprehend the situation according to the author? </li></ul><ul><li>List some of the current economic problems facing Europe and their causes. </li></ul><ul><li>What fundamental exchange system was breaking down in Europe? Why? How does this effect the two groups of people involved? </li></ul><ul><li>What does the author state the major targets of this program really are? </li></ul><ul><li>What should the US Government recognize before it embarks on this plan </li></ul>