Anatomy of stem,root and leaf of rice

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A comprehensive and detailed information package for anatomy of rice plant.
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  • UNIVERSITY COLLEGE of AGRICULTURE
  • Including
  • Greek anatomia, from anatome"dissection," from ana- "up" (see ana-) + temnein "to cut" (see tome)
  • The epidermis ispresent as a layer of sclerenchyma impartingstrength to the root system.Cortex is parenchymatous and in thecentral region, present between epidermisand the stele. The cortex is poorly developed.Numerous air spaces form aerenchymain the cortical region for gaseous exchange
  • formin the cortical region for gaseous exchange
  • VASCULAR…NOT GOOD BCZ RICE IS A HYDROPHYTIC..PLANT, AND HAS TO LIVE IN WATER,,SO no need of a good vascular system
  • Hypodermal = A layer of cells lying immediately below the epidermis.Cortex is highly reduced and represented by a narrow hypodermal region.In mature stems hypodermis is sclerenchymatic and gives mechanical strength.In young stems chlorenchymatic patches are present just below the stomata regions and perform photosynthesis. The cortex shows a lot of air chambers.Vascular bundles are present just below the epidermis.
  • bundle sheath =A layer or region of compactly arranged cells surrounding a vascular bundle in a plant. The bundle sheaths regulate the movement of substances between the vascular tissue and the parenchyma and, in leaves, protect the vascular tissue from exposure to air.Fibrovascular bundle
  • POINT NUMBER 2Variation in sclerenchymastructure arises from differences inthe thickening of the cell wall in the outercortical parenchyma and the number ofsclerenchyma cell layers,
  • leaf blade, leafsheath, and the joining region of these twoparts containing appendages such as liguleand auricle
  • epidermis, mesophyll andvascular bundles
  • Bulliform cells are large, bubble-shaped epidermal cells that occur in groups on the upper surface of the leaves of manygrasses. Loss of turgor pressure in these cells causes leaves to "roll up" during water stress. During drought, the loss of moisture through vacuoles induces bulliform cells to cause the leaves of many grass species to close as the two edges of the grass blade fold up toward each other. Once adequate water is available, these cells enlarge and the leaves open again. Folded leaves offer less exposure to sunlight, so they are heated less thus reducing evaporation and conserving the remaining water in the plant and occur on the leaves of many monocotyledons but are probably best known in grasses. They are thought to play a role in the unfolding of developing leaves and in the rolling and unrolling of mature leaves in response to alternating wet and dry periods.[1]adaxial = facing towards the axis, as the surface of a leaf that faces the stem
  • Chlorencyma = Plant tissue consisting of parenchyma cells that contain chloroplasts.
  • PAPILA = A minute projection on the surface of a stigma, petal, or leaf.TRICHOMES = any hairlike outgrowth from the surface of a plant
  • Leaf sheath elongationstarts only after leaf blade elongation iscompleted.
  • Wellmeanz , well developed
  • Photorespiration (also known as the oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle, or C2 photosynthesis) is a process in plant metabolism which attempts to ameliorate the consequences of a wasteful oxygenation reaction by the enzymeRuBisCO
  • Crop Plant AnatomyDrRatikantaMaiti (Vibha Seeds, India)Dr Pratik Satya (Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, India)DasariRajkumar (Vibha Seeds, India)And AllamRamaswamy (Vibha Seeds, India)
  • Anatomy of stem,root and leaf of rice

    1. 1. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    2. 2. UNIVERSITY COLLEGE of AGRICULTURE ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    3. 3. Adeel Anjum Ishtiaq Shariq Asad Ullah Khan M.Faizan Ahmad Roll # 1 Roll # 2 Roll # 3 Roll # 4 GROUP # 1 Including ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    4. 4. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    5. 5. FEW THING ABOUT RICE ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    6. 6. • Rice is an herb having a plant height of 2–4m. The plant generally takes 3–6 months to complete its life cycle. • Second most important crop after wheat. • Consumed by more than 75% of world population. • Annual grass. • Genus Oryza ,more than 20 wild species and two cultivated diploid species (2n = 2x = 24) • Cultivated since 2000 B.C. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    7. 7. Anatomy Greek word “anatomia” To dissect and See “Anatomy is a branch of biological science concerned with the study of the internal structure of body parts of an organism.” ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    8. 8. ROOT ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    9. 9. • In vascular plants, the root is the organ of plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    10. 10. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    11. 11. Root Absorption Anchoring Storing Food And Nutrients Vegetative Repro. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    12. 12. Transverse section of root (100×) illustrating epidermis (EP), sclerenchymatic hypodermis (HYP), cortex (COR), aerenchyma (ARC), endodermis (END), pericycle (PC), xylem (X), phloem (PHL) and medulla (MED). ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    13. 13. Root TS Epidermis Cortex Stele ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    14. 14. Absence Cuticle Stomata ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    15. 15. Epidemal cell Unicell. Root Hairs AbsorptionWater/min. Soil ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    16. 16. Epidermis SCLERENCHYMA Strengthens Root ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    17. 17. CortexEpidermis Stele PARANCHYMATOUS ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    18. 18. 1. The cortex is poorly developed. 2. Numerous air spaces 3. Aerenchyma in the cortical region 4. Gaseous exchange ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    19. 19. • The centre region is occupied by vascular tissue forming stele. • The vascular system is poorly developed • Root system poorly developed. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    20. 20. Absence Sclerenchyma almost cambium pith ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    21. 21. Absence Root Cap Root Hair ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    22. 22. • A lot of air chambers present in root cells facilitate gaseous exchange when plant is submerged in anaerobic condition. • Sclerenchyma below epidermis provide strength to root system ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    23. 23. STEM ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    24. 24. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    25. 25. • A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root. The stem is normally divided into nodes and internodes. • A stem develops buds and shoots and usually grows above the ground. Inside the stem, materials move up and down the tissues of the transport system. The term "shoots" is often confused with "stems"; "shoots" generally refers to new fresh plant growth including both stems and other structures like leaves or flowers. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    26. 26. Transverse section of culm (stem 100×) showing epidermis (EP), vascular bundles (VB), ground tissue (GT) and central aerenchyma (ARC). ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    27. 27. Stem TS Epidermis Cortex Vascular tissue ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    28. 28. Epidermis Outermost Protection On outer cuticle Stomata Present Gas. exchange ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    29. 29. Cortex Reduced Narrow hypodermal region Mature stems Hypodermis is sclerenchymatic Strength Young stems Chlorenchymatic patches Below Stomata Photosynthesis ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    30. 30. Stele is the central part of the stem Ground tissue Shows air chambers. Vascular bundles Cortex ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    31. 31. Vascular bundles • Vascular bundles numerous and scattered irregularly in the ground tissue. • Peripheral bundles are small, closely arranged. • Central bundles are large, widely arranged. • Each vascular bundle is oval in shape. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    32. 32. • Surrounded by fibrous bundle sheath. • It is many celled thick towards outer and inner regions • Few celled thick at lateral regions • Hence the vascular bundles are described as fibrovascular bundles. • Vascular bundles are conjoint, collateral (with xylem and phloem present on the same radius) and closed (i.e. without cambium). • The xylem is present towards the centre of the axis and consists of few vessels which are arranged in the form of letter ‘Y’. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    33. 33. Phloem Outside Between metaxylem vessel Consist of Sieve tubes Companion cells Parenchymatous cells at the sides ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    34. 34. • The stele consists of numerous vascular bundles scattered irregularly in the ground tissue, and is called an atactostele. • It is the most advanced type of stele. Stele ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    35. 35. Significance of variations • Rice stem is less defined in structure than in sorghum or wheat stem. • Adapted well to anaerobic conditions. • Biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. • Since japonica rice has higher thickening of sclerenchyma than indica rice, it is more tolerant to stem borers and desiccation ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    36. 36. LEAF ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    37. 37. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    38. 38. “A flattened structure of a higher plant, typically green and bladelike, that is attached to a stem directly or via a stalk. Designed by ALLAH for plant food manufacturing ” ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    39. 39. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    40. 40. • TS of leaf (100×) showing upper epidermis (UPEP), lower epidermis (LOEP), • sclerenchyma patches (SCL), vascular bundles (VB), • aerenchyma (ARC), parenchyma (PAR), mesophyll • (MES) and brachisclereid (BRC). ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    41. 41. Leaf TS Epidermis Mesophyll V.B ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    42. 42. Epidermis Bullifrom Cells Low water Level Rolling Leaf Uniseriate More or less Oval Rough cz of silica crystals Outer Wall Cuticle Graminaceous type of stomata Less on Lower Epi. 2 Dumbell Shaped ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    43. 43. Mesophyll Spongy and Palisade Not Differntiated Rolling Leaf Composition Lobed chlorenchyma Length Breadth 2:1 Aerenchyma Cz Hydrophyte ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    44. 44. • Papilla and trichomes cover the entire leaf surface except on the adaxial surface of the leaf sheath. V.B Phloem Abaxial of bundle Xylem Adexial Poorly developed Hydrophyte Most, small size Large occur Regular interval ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    45. 45. Leaf Anatomical Differences • The 1st leaf lacks blade and is small in size compared to other leaves. • The 5th and later leaves have a strong midrib, which providing mechanical strength. • Leaves also differ in the capability of photosynthetic activities; early leaves are photosynthetically less efficient than later leaves. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    46. 46. (a) Transverse section of leaf (400×) showing the aerenchyma and vascular bundle; (b) vascular bundle (400×) showing proto- and metaxylem regions. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    47. 47. Leaf Rapid cell division Shoot apical meristem Sheath Elongation Starts After Leaf bald’s ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    48. 48. • Development of leaf blade and leaf sheath in rice is well coordinated. • Air spaces known as lacuna are formed in the leaf sheath and midrib of the leaf blade. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    49. 49. ANATOMICAL SIGNIFICANCE ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    50. 50. Leaf Strength Large Midrib Phloem Well Than Xylem Sclerenchyma Strands Often Sclereids ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    51. 51. High Photo. Capacity Selection and Breeding High mesophyll cell num. Re-capture CO2 of Photorespiration Spatial arrangement Chloroplast in Meso. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    52. 52. REFRENCES ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    53. 53. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
    54. 54. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM

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