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RICE BROWN PLANT HOPPER

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RICE BROWN PLANT HOPPER

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RICE BROWN PLANT HOPPER

  1. 1. DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY ALLAHABAD SCHOOL OF AGRICULTURE SAM HIGGINBOTTOM INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCES [Formerly-Allahabad Agricultural Institute] (Deemed-to-be-University) ALLAHABAD- 211007, U.P., INDIA SUBMMITED BY, RAKESH KR. MEENA SUBMITTED TO, DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION CLASSIFICATION HOST PLANT DISTRIBUTION MORPHOLOGY LIFE CYCLE EGG NYMPH ADULT NATURE OF DAMAGE REASONS FOR BROWN PLANT HOPPER OUTBREAK MANAGEMENT CONCLUSION REFERENCES Contents
  3. 3. Introduction Rice is the major staple crop for about half of the worlds population. India rank second in the production of rice after china. Upto 60% yield loss is common in susceptible rice cultivars attacks by Brown plant hopper (BPH). Brown plant hopper (Nilapervata lugens) are among the most important pest of rice (Oryza sative L). Both nymphs and adults of plant hopper also transmits viruses such as rice ragged stunt virus (RGSV).
  4. 4. Thus, increased level of plant hopper occasionally accompany substantial losses of rice crop through viruses diseases. Losses from the insect and the disease have occurred in India estimate at US $ 20 millions. The estimate losses due to the BPH and the grassy stunt diseases total more than US$ 300 millions.
  5. 5. Scientific classification Kingdom : Animalia Phylum : Arthropoda Class : Insecta Order : Hemiptera Family : Delphacidae Genus : Nilapervata Species : lugen
  6. 6. Host Plant BPH is monophagous, feeding only on rice (Oriza sativa L.). However, in no-choice conditions, BPH will feed on finger millet, sugarcane, maize, Echinochloa,Cyperus,sorghum, and wheat. Distribution  BPH is the most economically important plant hopper in Asia. It occurs throughout India, Sri-Lanka, Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, and Philippines.  In India it is mainly found in Uttar Pradesh,Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamilnadu etc.
  7. 7. Morphology Egg The eggs are crescent-shaped and on average 0.99 mm long Newly laid eggs are whitish and they turn darker when about to hatch.  The female can lay from 100 to 500 eggs depending on the stage of growth of the rice plant The eggs stage is about 7 to 11 Days.
  8. 8. Nymph There are 5 nymphal instars that all feed on the host plant’s phloem sap until the adult stage.  The nymphs have a triangular head with a narrow vertex.  The body is creamy white with a pale brown tinge.  Mature nymphs are about 2.99mm long.
  9. 9. Adult The adult female measures from 4.2 to 4.5 mm and the male 3.80 to 4.12 mm. The adults range in colour from brownish black to yellowish brown.  There is a distinct white band on the mesonotum with dark brown on the outer sides.  long-winged adults have normal front and hind wings, whereas shortwinged forms have stunted hind wings. The wings are also normally shorter in males than in females.
  10. 10. Life cycle In south India Maximum population between October and February, depending on the climate conditions, the incidence of brown plant hopper is sever on kharrif crop. Brachypters lay 300-350 eggs. Incubation period-4-8 days Nymphal period 2-3 week with 5 instar Adult longevity 10-20 days Period Duration June – october 18-24 days November – january 38-44 days February – April 18-35
  11. 11. Nature and Symptoms of Damage  Nymph and adult congregate at the base of plants, above water level, and suck plant sap.  In severe infestation the leaves first turn yellow, and later brown and finally the affected plants dry and die.  The first sign of damage is the sudden slumping of crop in patches in field.  The crop in these affected patches dries up giving a scorched appearance called “Hopper burn” Conidia of Alterneria brassicae
  12. 12. Crop loss is usually considerable and complete destruction of crop occurs in severe cases. Brown plant hopper also transmit viruses such as rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) and rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV)
  13. 13. Reason for Brown plant hopper Outbreak Continuous cultivation of susceptible varieties. Closer planting. Favorable microclimate Widespread migration of winged macropteras forms to endemic and new areas. Continue uses of same group of insecticides (nionicotinoid) to be avoided. Use of high doses of nitrogenous fertilizers.
  14. 14. Management ETL ETL for Brown plant hopper 5 to 10 insect/hill. Cultural control  Adopt planting with formation of alleys of 25 cm at intervals of 2mt to provide good aeration and sunlight.  Avoid dense planting  Excess application of N fertilizer may be avoided.  In vegetative phase of the crop growth periodical drying and wetting may be followed for short period to create disturbance in micro climatic climate conditions favorable to pest development.
  15. 15.  Grow resistance varieties like Chaitanya, Krishnaveni, Chandan, Triguna, Deepthi, Nandi, Vijeta, Pratitha, Vajram etc.  In developing resistant varieties bio type development has complicated the effectiveness source resistant in one region may be susceptible in an other region. The susceptibility of IR 26, the first brown plant hopper, resistance variety released by IRRI in India singnaled the evolution of bio types among hopper populations.
  16. 16. II. Predators 1. Green mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis(Hemiptera: Miridae) 2. Carabid beetle Ophionea nigrofasciata (Coleoptera: Carabidae)  Both the shiny black larvae and reddish-brown adults search the rice canopy for prey  Consumes 3-5 hoppers per day
  17. 17. Lady beetle Harmonia octamaculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) • Larvae are black with dark yellow spots and have body horns dorsally and laterally • Active during the day in the upper half of rice canopy • Larvae are more voracious than adults • Consume 5-10 prey a day
  18. 18. Chemical control Application of these chemical insecticides were effective against brown plant hopper in rice  Monocrotophos 36% SL 1.3ml/lit of water  Chlopyrifos 20 EC 2.5ml/lit of water  Carbaryl 50WP 2.0gm/lit of water  Phorate 10G@10kg/hac  Corbofuran 3G@25kg/hac
  19. 19. CONCLUSION The Brown plant hopper (Nilapervata lugens) is a monophagous species. Effective control is not possible without the knowledge of this pests biology and life cycle.  Integrated pest control measure including cultural practices (date of sowing, avoid high use of N fertilizer), use of resistance variety(Chaitanya, Krishnaveni, Chandan), Biological control (Predators )and valid use of chemical insecticides (Monocrotophos , Chlopyrifos ,Carbaryl ) are effective in increasing the production of rice and reducing the pest infestation.
  20. 20. References CABI. 2007. Crop Protection Compendium. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, International. http://www.cabicompendium.org/. HIRAO, J. 1976. Recent trend in the occurrence of the brown planthopper [in Japanese]. Kongetsu-No-Noyaku 20(5):40–43. Khus G.S., (1999).”green revolution preparin for the 21st century” Genome42(4): 646-55 Mathur Y.K. and Upadhyay K.D., (2012) Agricultural Entomology Rama publishing house, P144. Phatak M.D. khan Z.R. (1994), Insect Pest of Rice.Manila (Phillipines) IRRI, P89 http://ricehoppers.net/

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