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4 rice


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biology of economic agriculture

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4 rice

  1. 1. RICE Oryza sativa L.
  2. 2. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) ■the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population:  East Asia  South Asia  Southeast Asia  Middle East  Latin America, and  West Indies ■the grain with the second highest worldwide production, after maize.
  3. 3. Expansion of rice cultivation Asian Rice Oryza sativa Wild Rice
  4. 4. Rice-Producing Countries
  5. 5. Rice Production and Consumption
  6. 6. Rice-Producing Countries Together, China and India accounted for over half of the world’s rice supply in 2006. 1. China: 182 million tons (28.8%) 2. India: 136.5 million tons (21.6%) 3. Indonesia: 54.4 million tons (8.6%) 4. Bangladesh: 43.7 million tons (6.9%) 5. Vietnam: 35.8 million tons (5.7%) 6. Thailand: 29.3 million tons (4.6%) 7. Myanamar: 25.2 million tons (4%) 8. Philippines: 15.3 million tons (2.4%) 9. Brazil: 11.5 million tons (1.8%) 10. Japan: 10.7 million tons (1.7%).
  7. 7. Taxonomy Kingdom: Plantae (Plants) Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular plants) Superdivision: Spermatophyta (Seed plants) Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants) Class: Liliopsida (Monocotyledons) Subclass: Commelinidae Order: Cyperales Family: Poaceae (Grass family) Genus: Oryza L. (rice) Species: Oryza sativa L. (rice)
  8. 8. History ■Rice is the world's largest food crop, providing the caloric needs of millions of people daily ■There are two distinct types of domesticated rice  Oryza sativa, or Asian rice and  Oryza glaberrima, African rice.
  9. 9. History ■The genus Oryza contains 21 wild relatives ■The genus is divided into four species:  O. sativa,  O. officialis,  O. ridelyi  O. granulata species complexes ■All members of the Oryza genus have n = 12 chromosomes
  10. 10. History ■O. sativa complex contains 2 domesticated species:  O. sativa  O. glaberrima,, and 5 or 6 wild species:  O. rujipogon,  O. nivara (also considered to be an ecotype of O. rujipogon),  O. barthii,  O. longistaminata,  O. meridionalis and  O. glumaepatula, all of which are diploids.
  11. 11. History  Oryza sativa: Asia  O. glaberrima: West Africa.  Oryza rujipogon: Asia and Oceania.  O. barthii and O. longistaminata: African  O. barthii:endemic in West Africa  O. longistaminata: throughout Africa.  Oryza meridionalis: native to Australia  O. glumaepatula: endemic in Central and South America.
  12. 12. History ■Many phenotypic differences are obvious between O. sativa and its wild relatives ■Wild rices typically display long awns and severe shattering for seed dispersal, whereas the domesticated type have short awns if any and reduced shattering to maximize the number of seeds that can be harvested.
  13. 13. Botany
  14. 14. Germinating seed The coleorhiza protrudes first Radicle or primary root breaks through the covering Coleoptile emerging as a tapered cylinder
  15. 15. Seedling Mesocotyl pushing the coleoptile above the soil surface First and second seedling leaf
  16. 16. Tiller Types of roots Secondary adventitious roots
  17. 17. Culm Young and mature culm
  18. 18. Tillers
  19. 19. Leaf Leaves alternate on the culm in opposite directions
  20. 20. Leaf Sheath pulvinus Leaf collar Ligule and auricle Parallel veins on upper surface Leaf midrib Rice and grassy weed comparison Different varieties with varying blade characteristics
  21. 21. Panicle and Spikelet Rice panicle
  22. 22. Panicle and Spikelet
  23. 23. Floret
  24. 24. Flower
  25. 25. Rice grain Rice grains Rice hulls
  27. 27. Organic Rice ■Free from chemical ■fat free and high carbohydrate content ■red and brown rice have higher fiber value than white rice ■has low sugar content ■When you eat 45 grams of organic rice, you only consume 160 calories of carbohydrates.
  28. 28. Organic Rice production ■avoid the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and growth regulators ■Instead they rely on crop rotations ■biological pest control ■maintain soil health ■supply plant nutrients ■minimize insects, weeds, and other pests.
  29. 29. Weed Suppression ■Weed control and soil fertility are the principal challenges ■primary weed-control practices include  crop rotations  land leveling  seedbed preparation ■water management ■rotary hoeing.
  30. 30. Soil Fertility ■Maintaining soil fertility in organic cropping typically involves some combination of crop rotation with deep-rooted legume crops or green manure/cover crops ■applying  animal manures  composts  other approved organic amendments.
  31. 31. Soil Fertility ■Nitrogen is usually provided through the growing of legume cover crops ■Bone meal is a good source of cheap phosphorus (content of around 12%) ■Rice straw and manure are good sources of potassium.
  32. 32. Organic manure ■Organic manures obtained either from cattle or plants ■Organic manure's – maintains better structure of soil ■Green leaf manure  mainly neem, Pongamia pinnata and Glyricidia ■Green manure  daincha, manila agathi, sunhemp.
  33. 33. Insects and diseases management ■Rice is grown in flooded fields, insect pests are usually a minor problem ■Fall armyworm and chinchbug are easily controlled by a flush of water ■Timely planting, variety selection, and cultural practices to suppress  weeds control  stinkbugs and  water weevils.
  34. 34. Biofertilizers for rice cultivation ■Bio-fertilizer are eco friendly and are environmentally safe ■The biofertilizers used for rice crop  Azospirillum  Phosphobacteria  Blue green algae Azolla  Mycorhiza.
  35. 35. Application of biofertilizers ■Azospirillum: is a symbiotic bacteria and it is an important biofertilizers used in rice ■Azospirillum treatment is recommended for seed, seedlings and in main field ■Seed treatment: 600 g/ha of Azospirillum culture are to be mixed with water where the seeds are soaked one night before sowing in the nursery bed.
  36. 36. Application of biofertilizers ■Main field: 2000 g/ha of Azospirillum with 25 kg farmyard mamure and 25 kg of soil are mixed uniformly and broadcasted in the main field before transplanting ■Seedling treatment: A slurry can be prepared by mixing Azospirillum at 1000 g/ha in 40 litres of water and root portion of transplanted rice seedlings are dipped in bacterial suspension for 15-30 minutes.
  37. 37. Uses ■Azospirillum bacteria thrives in root zones of rice and is capable of fixing more atmospheric nitrogen which is absorbed by the plants ■Azospirillum also solubilizes phosphorus and silicon to some extent required by rice ■It renders plant drought tolerant when irrigation or rainfall is delayed ■By adopting Azospirillum application 30 per cent of the inorganic nitrogen usage can be reduced.
  38. 38. Blue Green Algae (BGA)  Blue Green Algae (BGA) is another type of biofertilizer used as an alga form. Important species are Cyanobacteria, Anabaena, Nostoc and Tolypothrix  Blue green algal occurs naturally and comes up well under moist conditions. This can also be artificially cultured.
  39. 39. Uses ■The nitrogen fixed by BGA is about 15 kg/ha over a season ■It oxygenates the water impounded in the field ■It excretes organic acids that renders phosphorus solubilisation ■The algal mat in paddy fields also protects loss of moisture from the soil.
  40. 40. Azolla  Azolla is a water fern having an algal symbiont Anabaena azolla fixing atmospheric nitrogen  Azolla can be multiplied by constructing nurseries with 10 cm deep standing water and adding superhphosphate at 8 kg P2O5/ha in small plots  It can be applied as green manure prior to rice planting
  41. 41. Uses ■Azolla excretes organic nitrogen in water during its growth and also immediately upon trampling ■Fern fronds are soft and rapidly decomposed. ■It absorbs traces of potassium from irrigation water ■Azolla provides nitrogen, potassium organic carbon etc. ■It prevents weed growth in rice field water.
  42. 42. Phosphobacteria ■This type of biofertilizers solubilise phosphates in the soil and render them in available form for crop plants ■This is applied as the same dose in same manner as Azospirillum.
  43. 43. Uses ■25 to 50 of the recommended Phosphorus can be reduced depending upon the native phosphorus content of the soil.
  44. 44. Mycorrhiza ■It occurs naturally in low land and upland rice. It mobilizes the phosphorus required by rice ■Since, biofertilizers are ecofriendly inputs and are safer to the environment, farmers can adopt them and get benefited.
  46. 46. Hybrid Rice ■Hybrids are produced by crossing two inbred - genetically fixed - varieties of a particular crop ■Hybrids are special because they express what is called "heterosis" or hybrid vigour ■The idea is that if you cross two parents which are genetically distant from each other, the offspring will be "superior", particularly in terms of yield.
  47. 47. Heterosis (hybrid vigor) ■application to increase:  productivity (yield/unit/time, 15-20% of yield advantage), and  economic returns ■Heterosis  A universal phenomenon that F1 generation shows superiority to both parents in agronomic traits or yield  has been exploited commercially in many agricultural crops.
  48. 48. Normal Rice Spikelet (self pollinated crop) Sterile Rice Spikelet (Male Sterility) Hybrid Seed Production (Male Sterile x Normal Rice) How Hybrid Rice?
  49. 49. Male Sterility Systems in Rice ■Male sterility: a condition in which the pollen grain is unviable or cannot germinate and fertilize normally to set seeds ■Male Sterility Systems (genetic and non-genetic):  Cytoplasmic genetic male sterility (CMS)  Male sterility is controlled by the interaction of a genetic factor (S) present in the cytoplasm and nuclear gene (s).
  50. 50. Male Sterility Systems in Rice  Environment-sensitive genic male sterility (EGMS)  Male sterility system is controlled by nuclear gene expression, which is influenced by environmental factors such as  temperature (TGMS)  daylength (PGMS), or  both (TPGMS).  Chemically induced male sterility  Male sterility is induced by some chemicals (gametocides)
  51. 51. Release of IRRI Hybrids in Different Countries (1994-2005) IRRI Hybrid Released as Country Year released IR64610H MGR-1 India 1994 IR64611H KRH-1 India 1994 IR64616H Magat Philippines 1994 IR65489H DRRH-1 India 1996 IR68284H Mestizo 1 Philippines 1997 IR69690H Sahyadri India 1998 IR69690H HYT-57 Vietnam 1999 IR69690H BRRI Dhan Hybrid 1 Bangladesh 2001 IR69690H Rokan Indonesia 2002 IR75207H Mestizo 2 Philippines 2002 IR75217H Mestizo 3 Philippines 2002 IR78386H Mestizo 7 Philippines 2005
  52. 52. “Super high-yielding” hybrid rice breeding in China Progress of "Super High-Yielding" Hybrid Rice Program in China Goal (single-season) Progress (2006) Stage Yield (t/ha) Years Breeding Commercialization Start 8.25 1997 Phase I 10.5 1996 - 2000 Finished Large area extension Phase II 12.0 2000 - 2005 Finished Started Phase III 13.5 2005 - 2010 Started
  53. 53. Hybrid Rice
  54. 54. Hybrid Rice Seed Production In Asia In United Sates
  56. 56. Chronic Undernutrition among Children Percentage of stunted children
  57. 57. Estimated Annual Number of Child Deaths Precipitated by Vitamin A Deficiency (Asia) 600 8,000 30,500 14,000 2,000 300 13,000 6,900 56,000 4,500 1,400 2,000 28,000 330,000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Bhutan Cambodia Bangladesh China India Indonesia Myanmar Lao PDR Mongolia Philippines Nepal Pakistan Thailand Viet Nam Estimated Annual Number
  58. 58. VAD in China – current situation ■The deaths of over 20,000 children each year from increased susceptibility to infection.  Cause: vitamin A deficiency ■Approximately 12% of China's children growing up with lowered immunity, leading to frequent ill health and poor growth.  Cause: vitamin A deficiency (the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children under 6 is estimated at 12%). Vitamin & Mineral Deficiency: A damage assessment report for China. Micronutrient Initiative and UNICEF 2004
  59. 59. Trends in the Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency (by Age, and by Physiological State: 1993 & 1998) 35.3 Philippine Nutrition: Facts and Figures (National Nutrition Survey, 1998) 16.4 16.4 38.0 22.2 16.5 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 Children Pregnant Women Lactating Women Percent Prevalence 1993 1998
  60. 60. What Is Golden Rice? ■is created through recombinant technology, genetically engineering the rice to produce β-carotene ■by introducing 4 extra genes for the respective enzymes into the endosperm ■The enzymes are required to complete the biosynthetic pathway in order for the rice to synthesize and accumulate β-carotene or pro-vitamin A.
  61. 61. What Is Golden Rice? ■The genes are isolated from Narcissus pseudonarcissus (daffodil) ■Theses genes code for the enzymes:  phytoene synthase (psy)  phytoene desaturase and  lycopene β-cyclase. ■The bacterial enzyme carotene desaturase is utilized to simplify the transformation process.
  62. 62. Basic Carotenoid Biosynthetic Pathway IPP DMAPP GGPP (C20) Phytoene (C40) desaturation Lycopene (C40) cyclization Carotenes Phytoene synthase Plant source Phytoene desaturase Bacterial source a - carotene b - carotene b-cryptoxanthin zeaxanthin canthaxanthin astaxanthin Xanthophylls a-cryptoxanthin lutein (Lycopene cyclase) Bacterial source
  63. 63. ANY QUESTIONS?
  64. 64. THANK YOU