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biology of economic agriculture

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  1. 1. FPT 2123 POSTHARVEST TECHNOLOGY Grading, Treatment, Packaging & Marketing of Grains & Cereals Group Members: (SBP4) Al-Nazirul Mubin B10A012 Goh Hui Kung B10A055 Juliah Surip B10A075 Mariah al-Qibtiyah Omar B10A113 Mohd Amirul bin Rosli B10A126 Nurul Hidayah B10A181 Pheen Chee Leong B10A211 Wong Wei Fong B10A278
  2. 2. Grains and Cereal
  3. 3. Introduction In botany, grains and cereals are synonymous with caryopses, the fruits of the grass family. All three native grains are broad-leaved plants rather than grasses such as corn, rice, and wheat. Cereal crops are all members of the grass family. Cereal grains contain much starch, a carbohydrate that provides dietary energy.
  4. 4. Grading of Cereal Prepared by: Mohd Amirul bin Rosli Presented by: Juliah Surip
  5. 5. Grain quality Grain quality is a term that refers to the quality of grain. However, what constitutes quality depends on the use of the grain. For instance in ethanol production, the chemical composition of grain such as starch contents is important, in food and feed manufacturing, properties such as protein, oil and sugar are significance, in milling industry soundness is the most important factor to consider and for seed producer, the high germination percentage (viability of seed) and seed dormancy is the important feature to consider, for consumers the properties like color and flavor will be important.
  6. 6. Properties of grain quality The properties of grain quality can be summarized into ten main factors Uniform moisture contents High test weight No foreign material Low percentage of discolored, broken and damaged kernels Low breakability High milling quality High protein and oil content High viability No afaltoxin (mycotoxin) No presence of insects and molds.
  7. 7. Rice
  8. 8. Rice Rice belongs to the genus Oryza of the sub-tribe Oryzinea in the family Gramineae. Three main categories of rice (U.S) are: 1. long-grain: relatively long and bold types, known as Carolina rice, 2. medium-grain: long, thin, cylindrical grain, known as Patna 3. short-grain: short, stout grain, known as Spanish-Japan.
  9. 9. Rice grain quality Four main categories 1. milling quality 2. cooking, eating and processing quality 3. nutritional quality 4. specific standards for cleanliness, soundness and purity. In the United States three more factors has been added 1. hull and pericarp 2. color grain size, shape, weight, uniformity and general appearance 3. kernel chalkiness, translucency and color
  10. 10. Grading of Rice
  11. 11. Categories Rough or Paddy Rice (before milling, hulls intact) Long 3.4 to 1 and more Medium 2.3 to 3.3 to 1 Short 2.2 to 1 and less Brown Rice (hulls have been removed but bran intact) Long 3.1 to 1 and more Medium 2.1 to 3.0 to 1 Short 2.0 to 1 and less Milled Rice (hulls and bran layers have been removed) Long 3.0 to 1 and more Medium 2.0 to 2.9 to 1 Short 1.9 to 1 and less
  12. 12. Rice Specification by U.S Rice Federation Long Grain: WHAT: When cooked, the grains are separate, light, and fluffy. Rice whose milled grains are at least three times as long as they are wide. FOR: This type of rice is ideal for recipes requiring a distinct shape and texture WHERE: Traditionally eaten in the Western Hemisphere, Eastern Europe, Middle East, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and most of Africa and the high-end tourist market worldwide. CROP SIZE: Large amounts are grown in the U.S. COST: The price tends to vary with demand on a yearly basis Eg: Basmati, Carolina, Jasmine or Texmati Grading Standards for U.S. Rice
  13. 13. Medium Grain: WHAT: When cooked the grains are moist and tender, and have a greater tendency to cling. Grains are less than three times as long as they are wide. FOR: This type of rice cooks to a somewhat creamy consistency. WHERE: Traditionally eaten in Central Asia, North Asia, Mediterranean and Aegean regions. CROP SIZE: Large amounts are grown in the U.S., but usually less then long grain COST: The price tends to vary with demand on a yearly basis Eg: Egyptian Rice, Bomba, Carnaroli, Arborio, vialone, Valencia or Thai sticky rice Grading Standards for U.S. Rice
  14. 14. Short Grain: WHAT: When cooked grains are soft and cling together. Grains that are less than twice as long as they are wide Eg: Japanese rice Short translucent grains. When cooked it has a somewhat sticky texture such that it can easily be picked up and eaten with chopsticks. Grading Standards for U.S. Rice
  15. 15. GRADES: Two basic grades are generally used in food aid: #2/7 or better has 7% broken kernels, "may be slightly gray" in color and is well-milled. #5/20 or better has 20% broken kernels, "may be gray or slightly rosy" in color and reasonable well-milled. The nutritional content is virtually the same as #2. Cooking time is slightly shorter than # 2. Grading Standards for U.S. Rice
  16. 16. PARBOILED OR NOT PARBOILED for long and medium grain rice. Parboiled rice is rough rice (rice with the inedible outside hull intact) soaked in warm water under pressure, steamed and dried before milling. The procedure gelatinizes the starch in the grain and results in firmer more separate grains. Parboiled rice can be milled to produce a brown or white rice. Two cups of uncooked parboiled rice cooks in 20 to 25 minutes yielding 3 to 4 cups. Often used by food service industry because the kernels hold their shape for a long period of time. Grading Standards for U.S. Rice
  17. 17. MILLING: Rice can be milled in different manners. Brown rice or whole grain: is the least processed form of rice. It has the outer hull removed, but still retains the bran layers that give it the tan color and nut-like flavor. This type of rice has the highest nutritional value. Reasonably well-milled: most of the bran layer is removed which results in a slightly darker color then well-milled rice. Well-milled: all of the bran is removed . Grading Standards for U.S. Rice
  18. 18. Rice The calcium content is higher in parboiled rice, even without intentional enrichment, because calcium carbonate is typically used as a milling aid with parboiled rice. Bran removal is more difficult in parboiled rice. So, an abrasive material, like calcium carbonate (ground limestone), is added to the brown rice as it enters the milling process. Most of the calcium carbonate exits with the bran stream, but naturally, some stays on the surface of the milled rice. Grading Standards for U.S. Rice
  19. 19. Rice "OLD RICE" Starch changes do occur in rice during storage, but most of this occurs within the first 3 months, or so, after harvest. After that, changes are much, much slower. If the rice is milled before the rapid changes are complete, starch in the milled rice would probably continue to change. However, the impact of these changes on cooking quality do not seem to be as dramatic as when they occur in rought (paddy) rice. These starch changes that occur in paddy rice result in the rice having a firmer texture with less cohesiveness than is the case for freshly-harvested rice. Grading Standards for U.S. Rice
  20. 20. National Standards Used For Milled Rice In The Philippines. Grade Specifications GRADE Premium Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Head rice (min %) Brokens (max %) Brewers (max %) Defectives: • Damaged grains, max % 0 0.25 0.50 2.00 • Discolored grains, max % 0.50 2.00 4.00 8.00 • Chalky and immature grains, max % 2.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 • Red grains, max % 0 0.25 0.50 2.00 • Red streaked grains, max% 1.00 3.00 5.00 10.00 Foreign matter (max %) 0 0.10 0.20 0.50 Paddy (max no./kg) 1 8 10 15 Moisture content (max %) 14.00 14.00 14.00 14.00
  21. 21. List of rice varieties classified into four classes by the Grade Standards Committee and agreed to by the States (some of example)
  22. 22. TREATMENT OF POST-HARVEST RICE Prepared by : Mariah al-Qibtiyah Omar Presented by: Goh Hui Kung
  23. 23. Rice grain quality can be affected by variety environment and processing. Environmental and handling conditions during ripening, harvest, postharvest, and processing can enhance or impair grain quality. Processing also increases the price of rice. Yields of head rice vary depending on many factors such as variety, grain type, cultural practice, drying, storing parboiling and milling conditions.
  24. 24. To minimise post harvest losses, the following treatment measures should be followed..
  25. 25. 1)Use proper technique of processing i.e. cleaning, parboiling and milling. Parboiling is a processing procedure in which the paddy is soaked in warm or cold water followed by steaming and drying before milling. Parboiling has the following advantages:  To reduce breakage during milling  To improve the nutrient content of the milled rice  To change the cooking qualities (taste, appearance ,aroma texture etc) of the rice.
  26. 26. Parboiling Methods The parboiling process is shown in diagram below:
  27. 27. Milling is one of the crucial step in the postproduction operation of rice.  It has to be done with utmost care to prevent breakage of the kernel and ensure higher milled rice recovery of the paddy. The basic objective of a rice milling system is to remove the husk and the bran layers, and produce an edible white rice kernel that is free from impurities.
  28. 28. 2)Use of proper method of harvesting As far as possible the harvested paddy should not be put on bare floor to avoid contamination with stones and mud and mould growth. Harvested paddy should be spread on : Plastic sheets Tarpaulins Traditional mats etc. Tarpaulin
  29. 29. 3)Provide aeration to stored grain and stir grain bulk occasionally Bulking is an operation that facilitates the process of threshing and secures their produce from rodent and other predatory attacks. Correct bulking results in: reduction of the moisture content of the harvested rice protection from sudden rewetting from rain other environmental factors - affect milled rice quality adversely.
  30. 30. Example of good bulk
  31. 31. 4) Avoid the losses in threshing and winnowing by better mechanical methods. Threshing is the post harvest operation of separating the paddy grains from the rice straw. If not handled properly results in broken /damaged grains and mixing with other foreign matter including sand, stones and other rice. Threshing is usually done either manually or mechanically.
  32. 32. Example of improved mechanical thresher Manual thresher Machine thresher
  33. 33. Problems of threshing
  34. 34. Good winnowing practice involves: use of plastic sheets /traditional mats e.g tarpaulin a clean environment the operator should not re–contaminate the winnowed grains with dust, sand etc.
  35. 35. Example of motorized winnower
  36. 36. Manual Threshing and Winnowing Indian Threshing and Winnowing Asian Threshing and Winnowing
  37. 37. 5) Immediate drying the wet grain after harvest, preferably within 24 hours to avoid heat accumulation. Drying is a process of removing the excess moisture of the grains. Delayed drying can cause grain deterioration which results to big amount of losses. This is done to reduce the paddy moisture content to between 12 and about 14% depending on the time of storage.
  38. 38. 6) Use pest control measures (fumigation) before storage. Fumigation is a process of introducing a volatile pesticide that exerts its toxic action in the gaseous or vapor phase. Fumigants can diffuse and penetrate into places where other forms of control are inadequate e.g phosphine The residual deposits on the treated surfaces will kill crawling insects and pests.
  39. 39. e.g Bag Stack Spraying The layer by layer spray technique is the effective control measure for storing paddy and milled rice. After spraying, the whole stack is fumigated. The stack would last for one year for paddy and 6 months for milled rice without insect infestation.
  40. 40. 7) Prevention and Control of fungi  Generally, milled rice contains low levels of Aflatoxins, but parboiled rice and paddy harvested in rainy season contains high Aflatoxin levels.  Storage insects like rice weevil, beetle, etc. also encourage Aflatoxins in paddy/rice. Prevention and Control of Aflatoxins :  the paddy/rice should the stored at safe moisture level  prevent the growth of fungi by drying of grains  Use proper and scientific storage method  prevent insect infestation by adopting chemical treatment to avoid fungus contamination  separate the infected grains
  41. 41. Rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (Linn.) Adult Larvae Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium Red rust/Confused flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) Tribolium confusum (J.du V.) Red rust flour Confuse flour
  42. 42. Packaging For Post Harvest Rice Prepared by: Al-Nazirul Mubin Presented by: Pheen Chee Leong
  43. 43. Good packaging provides not only convenient handling in transportation and storage but also attracts consumers to pay more attention. Packaging is essential to avoid spoilage and to prolong the quality of rice. Packaging of paddy/rice is also important for long-term storage to fulfill the demand of old rice in the market.
  44. 44. In present scenario, branding and labeling of rice has significant impact on consumer preference. More care is required in packaging of rice meant for export. Packaging of the rice can also include elements such as transparent, colourful and attractive packaging to attract consumers.
  45. 45. Specification of Packaging for postharvest rice It must fully protect the rice and long lasting. It must be clean and hygienic. It must be convenient to handle and can be carry out from the store easily. It must attract the consumer. It must be easily identifiable. It must resist spoilage. It must tell information about rice i.e. name and address of packer, pack-size (quantity), quality (grade), variety and date of packing.
  46. 46. Qualities of good packaging material : It should be convenient in operations. The packaging material must preserve the quality of produce. It should be convenient to stack. It should be able to prevent spoilage during transit and storage. It should be cost-effective. It should be clean and attractive. It should be biodegradable. It should help in checking adulteration and be free from adverse chemicals. It should be helpful in marketing.
  47. 47. Packaging material used in packaging of paddy/rice. Jute bags HDPE / PP bags Polythene impregnated jute bags Poly pouches Cloth bags
  48. 48. Packaging requirements Rice may be packaged in sizes of between 1kg and 50kg. The actual size will usually depend on the market for which it is being prepared. Plastic and jute are usually used for package for packing postharvest rice. Whatever the material used, the following measures are recommended :
  49. 49. The density of packaging material and the appearance should be appropriate. In case of propylene material the size of the tape should be maximum 2 to 2.5 mm in width with density of 40 tapes per 10 cm. This will ensure solidity and protection against contamination. Size should be 55 x 95 cm to package 50 kg of rice or 45 x 75 cm for 25 kg of rice. For packaging of one to five kg, either polyethylene or jute could be used. The packaging material should be well designed to facilitate the handling and transportation by consumers.
  50. 50. Method of packing : The graded rice should be packed in new, clean, sound and dry jute bags, cloth bags, polywoven bags, polyethylene, polypropylene, high molecular high density polyethylene paper packages or in other food grade plastic/packaging materials. The packages shall be free from insect infestation, fungus contamination, deleterious substances and undesirable or obnoxious smell. Each package shall be securely closed and suitably sealed. Each package shall contain rice of one grade only.
  51. 51. Video Rice Packaging
  52. 52. Marketing of Rice Prepared by: Wong Wei Fong Presented by: Nur Hidayah
  53. 53. Marketing channels 1) Producer - Miller - Wholesaler - Retailer -Consumer 2) Producer - Commission Agent - Miller - Wholesaler - Retailer - Consumer 4) Producer - Wholesaler (Paddy) - Miller - Wholesaler(Rice) - Retailer Á Consumer 5) Producer - Miller - Retailer - Consumer 6) Producer - Miller - Consumer.
  54. 54. Criteria for selection of channels - Ensures reasonable return to producer, is considered to be good or efficient. - Transportation cost in that channel. - Commission charges and market margins received by the intermediaries, such as trader, commission agent, wholesaler and retailer. - Financial resources. - The shorter channel with minimum market cost should be selected.
  55. 55. Assembling The various agencies engaged in the assembling of paddy/rice may belong to one of the following categories: Farmer Import Miller’s agent Independent buyer Farmer organization
  56. 56. Distribution Assembling and distribution system of marketing are closely related. The producer makes the movement of paddy from the farm to the assembling centers, while a number of market functionaries can be involved in the distribution dealing with consumer. Both local and imported rice procured by BERNAS are distributed to licensed wholesalers. Rice also distributed to consumer and other end user thro’ BERNAS subsidiary companies.
  57. 57. Distribution The total marketable rice is distributed through different ways: Wholesale distribution Retail distribution Direct marketing to miller Contract farming
  58. 58. Export India now exports rice to a large number of countries in the world. Major exporter are Thailand, Vietnam, US, Burma and Australia. Pakistan and India are major exporter of Basmati rice (expensive rice). Basmati rice is exported to more than 80 countries mainly Gulf and European Countries.
  59. 59. Quality of rice for export The elements of choosing in Basmati and non-Basmati varieties are depends on: - Taste - Average pre-cook length - Colour - Number of broken rice - Freedom from pest and diseases
  60. 60. Agricultural Export Zones for Basmati rice Agricultural Export Zones for Basmati rice have been set up in several state India. The benefit of setting up of such zones are as follows: - Value addition to basic agricultural produce. - Better price for agricultural produce. - Improvement in product quality and packaging. - Promotion of trade related research and development.
  61. 61. Import Malaysia is one of the importer rice. Major suppliers are Thailand and Vietnam. Pakistan and India supply specialty rice (Basmati and fragrant rice) BERNAS imports about 30%-40% of domestic rice demand annually to fully meet the rice requirement of the country.
  62. 62. Rice Price Local rice price is normally higher than international rice price. Therefore, most of the local rice are imported. BERNAS is responsible for distributing paddy price subsidies to the farmers on behalf of the Government. It is to ensure the farmers enjoys a good price for their produce while at the same time shielding the consumer price rise.
  63. 63. Marketing Constraints 1. Unstable price: the price of the paddy/rice goes down in the post harvest period (3-4 months immediately after harvest) due to heavy arrival in the market. 2. Lack of marketing info: most of the producers market the rice in the village itself deprive them of getting remuneration returns 3. Inadequate storage facilities in rural area: cause substantial quality lost 4. Training of producer: improve farmers skill for better produce marketing 5. Financial problem: dragged the process of marketing chain 6. Infra-structure facilities: affect the marketing efficiency
  64. 64. References 1. Post harvest Profile of Paddy/Rice [] 2. Larry, C.Y. Wong, Suraya A. E., Bashirah M.B. & John Y.S.T. malaysia padi & Rice Industry: Application of Supply Chain Management Approach. 3. Othman, O. Rice Production and Potential for Hybrid Rice In Malaysia. Rice and Industrial Crop Research Centre MARDI Seberang Perai.
  65. 65. Thank You Q&A Session 