Breeding Cross-pollinated Crops and Clonally Propagated Ones


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A comprehensive and detailed information package about breeding cross-pollinated crops and clones.
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  • Plants visually selected source population and the progenies of the selected plants are grown and intercrossed to obtain new gene combinations.
  • The crossed seed is used to grow a new source population, which starts the next selection cycle. Selection based on phenotype will be effective insofar as the phenotype accurately identifies the superior genotype for the character underconsideration
  • Phenotypic recurrent selection is most effective for characters with low genotype x environment interaction, such as height of ears (in corn), seed size, ordisease resistance. For quantitative characters that cannot be selected accurately from the phenotype, breeding procedures have been devised based on progeny ortestcross performance that utilize the recurrent selection principle.For quantitative characters that cannot be selected accurately from the phenotype, breeding procedures have been devised based on progeny ortestcross performance that utilize the recurrent selection principle
  • A halfsibselection procedure based on a differs from massselection because the
  • Source population
  • Crop Plant AnatomyDrRatikantaMaiti (Vibha Seeds, India)Dr Pratik Satya (Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, India)DasariRajkumar (Vibha Seeds, India)And AllamRamaswamy (Vibha Seeds, India)
  • Breeding Cross-pollinated Crops and Clonally Propagated Ones

    5. 5. Focus of Breeding C.P Crops • • • • Population Improvement Heterozygosity Quantitative Trait/Characters To pre-dominate a desirable genotype in population • Arising new genotypes (gene recombination) ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 5
    7. 7. To Improve Population • Breeder assembles germplasm. • Evaluates the selected selfed plant. • Selects the progeny of selected selfed plant in all combinations. • Bulks and develops inbred lines from population. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 7
    8. 8. Intra-population improvement • Selection is practiced within a specific population for its improvement for specific purposes. Intra-population improvement is suitable for: • Improving populations where the end product will be a population or synthetic cultivar. • Developing elite pure lines for hybrid production. • Developing mixed genotype cultivars (in self-fertilized species). Inter-population improvement • Methods of inter-population improvement entail selection on the basis of the performance of a cross between two populations. • This approach is suitable for use when the final product will be a hybrid cultivar. Inter-population heterosis is exploited. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 8
    10. 10. • In cross pollinated species – Cyclical selection approach called “RECURRENT SELECTION “ is used for intermating • To increase frequency of favorable gene for quantitative character/trait. • “Identification of genotype superior for the specific quantitative character being improved. • Subsequent intermating of superior genotypes to obtain new gene combination.” • Cycle may be repeated as long as superior genotypes possessing gene for character of interest are generated. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 10
    11. 11. Recurrent Selection Phenotypic Genotypic ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 11
    12. 12. Phenotypic Recurrent Selection To improve plant’s quantitative characters based on visual observation or physical measurement of character. E.g: Oil content in corn and fiber strength in cotton. Genotypic Recurrent Selection Its the selection to improve a plant quantitative character based on progeny performance as measured by test crosses, or by other means, and is utilized to improve complex characters such as combining ability in corn inbred lines. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 12
    13. 13. Original selection cycle 1st recurrent selection cycle 2nd recurrent selection cycle ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM Source population select plants superior for character under consideration Grow progeny of selected plants cross in all combination Composite of seed from crosses, select plants superior for character under consideration Grow progenies of selected plants, cross in all combinations Composite of seed from crosses, select plants superior for character under consideration Grow progenies of selected plants, cross in all combinations. 13
    14. 14. Crossed Seed Grow, New Source pop. Starting New Cycle • Selection based on phenotype will be effective insofar as the phenotype accurately identifies the superior genotype for the character under consideration ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 14
    15. 15. MOST EFFECTIVE Genotype Environment P.R.S • Such as height of ears (in corn), seed size, or disease resistance • For quantitative characters that cannot be selected accurately from the phenotype, breeding procedures have been devised based on progeny or testcross performance that utilize the recurrent selection principle. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 15
    17. 17. Selection procedure in which • Individual plants are chosen visually for their desirable traits. • The seeds harvested from the selected plants are bulked to grow the following generation without any form of progeny evaluation (Fig. 10.3). • Repeating mass selection utilizes the recurrent selection principle. An example of the procedure follows: • First season: Select 50 to 100 plants with desired features from the source population and harvest open pollinated seed from each. • Second season: Plant a mixture of the seed harvested in the previous year. From this population, again harvest open pollinated seed from 50 to 180 plants selected for desired features. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 17
    18. 18. Mass Selection Earliest Breeding Corn Sugar beet Cotton Cross polli. crops ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 18
    19. 19. Merits • Continuous mass selection for a specific character with high heritability that can be evaluated visually, such as early flowering, will shift the gene frequency of the character in the direction of the selection. • Curly-top resistance in sugarbeets was increased by mass selection combined with recurrent selection • Mass selection is simple to conduct; with its one year cycle, new cultivars can be developed quickly and improvement is continuous. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 19
    21. 21. Demerits • A weakness of mass selection is the lack of control over the pollen source and the gene contribution to the progeny • through the pollen gametes. For this reason, heritability estimates are reduced by onehalf. • Selection for characters with low heritability is relatively ineffective, because • plants superior due to phenotype may not be distinguished from plants superior due to environmental influences. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 21
    22. 22. Solution • A procedure known as gridding may be used to reduce errors in selection caused by uneven environments. The land area on which the source population is grown is divided into small plots or grids. Plants are evaluated within each grid and only one superior plant from each grid is harvested. • This procedure gives equal representation in the mass selection from all areas of the field regardless of field gradients in soil fertility or moisture supply. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 22
    23. 23. Half-Sib Selection ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 23
    24. 24. Half-Sib Selection with Progeny Test • “Half-sib refers to a plant or family of plants with a common parent or pollen source.” Half Sib (based on progeny test ) Mass Selection New population is constituted by compositing half-sib lines selected from progeny performance Phenotypic appearance. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 24
    25. 25. • Progenies of 25 to 50 plants are grown in replicated plots, so that the variance and mean performance may be evaluated. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 25
    26. 26. • First season – Select 50 to 100 plants with desired features from an open pollinated source population, keeping the seed harvested from each plant separate. – The seed from each plant will constitute a different breeding line. • Second season – Using seeds harvested from open pollinated plants in the previous season, grow a progeny test of each line in an isolated area. – Retain the remnant seed. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 26
    27. 27. • Third season – The population is reconstituted by compositing equal quantities of either (a) Seed harvested from the 5 to 10 superior progenies, • Or (b) Remnant seed from the 5 to 10 lines with superior progeny performance. • Grow the composite in isolation with open pollination to obtain new gene combinations. • In (a), one half of the genes come from a random assortment of pollen from the lines in the progeny test. (b), one half of the genes come from a random assortment of pollen from the original source nursery. As an alternative to growing the composite in isolation, plants may be hand pollinated from a composite of pollen. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 27
    28. 28. Seed harvested in the third season may be • Increased as a new open pollinated cultivar • Planted as a source population to start a new selection cycle • Planted as a source population for isolation of new inbreds in a hybrid breeding program. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 28
    29. 29. Half-Sib Selection with Test Cross Half sib Half sib (based on (based on test progeny test ) cross) Selection on Progeny performance Selection on Testcross performance ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 29
    30. 30. • First season • Prior to flowering, select 50 to 100 plants with desired plant characters from a source population: (a) pollinate a tester parent plant with pollen from each of the selected plants and harvest crossed seed from the tester parent and open pollinated • seed from the selected plants, keeping identity of each seed lot; Or (b) with pollen from each selected plant, pollinate a tester plant and self-pollinate the selected plant. Harvest crossed seed from tester parent plants and selfed seed from selected plants, keeping identity of each seed lot. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 30
    31. 31. • Second season Grow testcross progenies. • Third season Reconstitute the population (a) By mixing equal quantities of openpollinated seed from 5 to 10 selected plants with superior testcross progeny performance; or (b) By mixing equal quantities of selfed seed from 5 to 10 selected plants with superior testcross progenies. Grow the seed composite in an isolated seed plot with open pollination to obtain new gene combinations. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 31
    32. 32. • The half-sib testcross procedure permits control over the testcross parents so that a more precise evaluation of the genotype of the selected plant is obtained than from growing a progeny obtained by open-pollination ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 32
    33. 33. Full-Sib Selection ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 33
    34. 34. Half sib (based Half sib (based on progeny test ) on test cross) Selection on progeny performance Selection on testcross performance ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM Full sib Based on Pair crosses 34
    35. 35. “With fullsib selection, crosses are made between selected pairs of plants in the source population, with the crossed seed used for rogeny tests and for reconstituting the new population.” • First season – Cross 150 to 200 pairs of plants selected from the source population. Reciprocal crosses may be made to provide a larger quantity of crossed seed. • Second season – Grow a replicated progeny test with seed from each pair of crosses keeping the remnant crossed seed. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 35
    37. 37. • Third season – Reconstitute the source population by mixing equal quantities of remnant crossed seed from 15 to 20 paired crosses with superior progeny performance, and grow in isolation with open pollination to obtain new gene combinations. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 37
    38. 38. Features • Fullsib selection measures the:a) Combining ability from mating specific pairs of plants. b) Only those pairs with superior progeny performance enter into the composite. • The procedure is applicable to many a) Cross pollinated species b) Including self-incompatible species. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 38
    39. 39. Selection from S1 Progeny Test ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 39
    40. 40. • S1 progeny tests may be utilized to evaluate selected plants from an open pollinated source nursery. • S1 refers to the progeny following self pollination of plants in an open pollinated population, or in the F2 following a cross. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 40
    42. 42. • First season – Select 50 to 100 plants from a source nursery prior to flowering. Self pollinate and harvest selfed seed from selected So plants. • Second season • Grow replicated S1 progeny trial, keeping remnant seed (So) seed. • Third season – Composite equal quantities of remnant seed from the So plants with superior progenies, and grow the seed composite in isolation to obtain new gene combinations. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 42
    43. 43. Features • Selection is based on a) Performance of S1 plant progenies. b) Each S1 progeny evaluated receives only the genes present in the parent c) So no genes are introduced into the line from open-pollination or tester parents. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 43
    44. 44. • The procedure is applicable to:a) Corn b) Cross-pollinated species in which a quantity of seed sufficient for a replicated progeny trial and remnant seed for making the composite can be obtained by self-pollination. • It would not be applicable to a) Self-incompatible species. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 44
    45. 45. Synthetic Cultivar ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 45
    46. 46. • A synthetic cultivar is an advanced generation of a seed mixture of strains, clones, in-breds, or hybrids among them, propagated for a limited number of generations by open pollination. – The word "synthetic" implies a population of plants artificially produced by the breeder. The component strains, clones, or in-breds are maintained, and the synthetic is reconstituted at regular intervals. It is incorrect to apply the term synthetic to populations originating from seed mixtures advanced by open-pollination without periodic reconstitution. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 46
    47. 47. Procedure for development of a synthetic cultivar of a forage crop, based on polycross progeny performance. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 47
    48. 48. The synthetic procedure is widely used in breeding forage crops. In forage species, the halfsib, fullsib, or S1 selection procedures are rarely applicable because: • The quantity of seed produced from a single plant is usually inadequate to grow a progeny test, • Self-incompatibility inhibits production of selfed seed in many forage species, and • Controlled cross pollinations are difficult to make in most forage species ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 48
    49. 49. Synthetic cultivars may be developed in corn, sugar-beets, sunflower, and other crosspollinated species The design of the synthetic cultivar Utilize, heterosis ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM During seed increasing genera. 49
    50. 50. The procedure for developing a synthetic cultivar has these essential characteristics • The synthetic cultivar is constituted from reproducible units of a crosspollinated crop (clones in forage species, inbreds in corn or sugarbeets). • The plant materials entering into the synthetic cultivar are selected from performance in combining ability or progeny tests. • The synthetic cultivar is constituted by random interpollination of the component units. • The component units are maintained so that the synthetic may be reconstituted at regular intervals. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 50
    51. 51. Source Population • Plant selections assembled from many sources to ensure genetic variability. • The original plant selections: – Old pastures – Improved cultivars – Introductions – Recurrent selection – Other sources. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 51
    52. 52. Clonal line nursery • From the source nursery several hundred superior plants, are chosen and multiplied as clones for establishing a clonal line nursery. • Each clonal line in the nursery comprising of 20 to 25 plants propagated vegetatively from the original plant. • The clonal lines evaluated for – Vigor – Persistence – Superior characteristics, depending upon objectives of the breeding program. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 52
    53. 53. Exposure of the clones to adversities, – Severe clipping, – Disease epidemics – Cold – Drought Will aid in identifying clones with superior qualities. • Finally, 25 to 50 of the superior clones will be selected for progeny testing in a polycross nursery. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 53
    54. 54. Making the poly-cross • Seed for growing a progeny performance test is obtained by making a polycross. • The polycross is an isolated group of clonal lines replicated in such a manner that each clone will be pollinated by a random sample of pollen from all of the other clones. • The seed from each clone is harvested separately with the identity of the clone maintained. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 54
    55. 55. Polycross progeny test • The open-pollinated seeds harvested from the clone in the poly-cross are planted in a progeny test for evaluation of yield and other characters. • From the poly-cross progeny test performance, 5 to 10 of the clones are chosen as components for the synthetic. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 55
    56. 56. Syn 0 generation • The 5 to 10 clones chosen to be utilized in the synthetic are vegetatively propagated and randomly transplanted into an isolated seed field. • In the case of a legume, the clones may be transplanted into an insect proof cage and pollinated with bees to obtain seed. This constitutes the Syn 0 generation. • Random crosspollination among the Syn 0 clones fosters gene recombination. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 56
    57. 57. Syn 1 generation • Openpollinated seed harvested from the Syn 0 generation is planted in isolation for seed increase. This constitutes the Syn 1 generation • And may be distributed as a synthetic cultivar if seed can be produced in sufficient quantity. • Superior plant selections from the Syn 1 generation may be vegetatively propagated to start a new source nursery ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 57
    58. 58. Syn 2 generation • Open-pollinated seed harvested from the Syn 1 generation is increased in isolation. This constitutes the Syn 2 generation. • To increase the quantity of seed that will be available to the farmer. • In most instances it is necesary to go to the Syn 3 or later generations to have adequate seed for sale to farmers. • The Syn 1 and Syn 2 generations are comparable to the F1 and F2 generations, respectively, in conventional hybridization ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 58
    59. 59. Breeding Clonally Propagated Crops ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 59
    60. 60. Clone A clone is a vegetatively propagated population of genetically identical plants. In asexually propagated species, the separate genotypes are propagated as clones ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 60
    61. 61. • Clonal propagation may be practiced with species – That produce seeds poorly • Or – That produce seeds only under special conditions. – Some crops normally propagated as clones are – Sugarcane – Potato – Sweet potato – Some species of perennial grasses, such as bermudagrass. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 61
    62. 62. • Breeding procedures for clonally propagated species may be grouped into: – Germplasm assembly and maintenance – Clonal selection of natural or induced variants – Hybridization followed by selection and propagation of superior clones in the segregating population. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 62
    63. 63. Germplasm Assembly and Maintenance • The initial step in breeding asexually propagated species is to assemble a germplasm collection that is maintained as clones. – May include clones selected from local populations if the species is native to the locality, introduced clones from gene banks or other breeders, commercially grown cultivars, or wild relatives introduced from their native habitat. • The germplasm collection of clones constitutes the breeder's source nursery ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 63
    64. 64. Clonal Selection • In a genetically mixed population of an asexually propagated species such as exists in nature, a superior clone may be isolated and propagated as a cultivar. • In a mixed population, progress through clonal selection is limited to the isolation of the best genotype present. • In species of ornamental plants, variants originating from natural or induced mutations are often utilized as the source of new clones. • A high mutation rate has been observed in genotypes of sugarcane maintained through tissue culture techniques, with the mutant plants then propagated as clones. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 64
    65. 65. Hybridization • Gene recombination occurs with sexual reproduction. • In a crop species that is normally propagated asexually, sexual reproduction is necessary to create genetic variability through gene recombination. • By crossing clones with superior characters, source populations will be created that may be utilized for the selection of new clones as in self-pollinated crops. • A typical procedure for developing a cultivar from an asexually propagated species, such as sugarcane ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 65
    66. 66. Hybridization procedure for a clonally propagated species. The seedlings grown in the first season are comparable to an F2 generation in a conventional hybridization procedure. The genotype of each seedling plant is maintained by vegetative propagation in the first and succeeding seasons. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 66
    67. 67. Crossing generation • Cross Clone A × Clone B. 1st season • Grow 10,000 F1 seedling plants. Select 1000 vigorous plants and propagate vegetatively. 2nd and 3rd seasons • Grow 1000 clonal rows in 2nd season; select 100 superior clones. Grow 100 clones in 3rd season, preferably at two locations; select 10 superior clones. 4th to 7th seasons • Grow selected clones in replicated field trials at several locations in comparison with standard cultivars or advanced breeding lines. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 67
    68. 68. 8th to 10th seasons • Increase propagules of superior new clone and release as a new cultivar. • Number of seedling plants and clones to grow are suggestive only and will vary with the species and resources of the breeding project. • Due to the open-pollination, the parent clones will be heterozygous, segregation occurs in the F1 generation; each F1 plant is thus a potential source for a new clone and a new cultivar. • Clones propagated from F1 plants are heterozygous and the heterozygosity of the clone is maintained through asexual propagation. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 68
    69. 69. • If the breeder does not find a superior genotype in the F1 generation, the crosses are remade, or different crosses may be made. • Selfpollination to produce an F2 is seldom practiced because selfpollination leads to a reduction in vigor and fertility. • If a superior F1 plant is identified in the hybrid progeny, it is propagated vegetatively to establish a new clone which is evaluated in observation and replicated plot tests. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 69
    71. 71. Chapter # 10 Section # 6 Breeding Cross-Pollinated Classic methods of plant breeding, and Clonally Propagated Crops Breeding cross-pollinated species ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM 71