One - Social & Ethical Issues
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  • 1. Social and Ethical Issues in Computing: Doing the Right Thing CIS 105 Revised March 2006
  • 2. Objectives
    • Identify the social issues and ethics in computing
    • Understand the digital divide social issue and its effect in society
    • List and describe the workplace issues
    • Describe the international and national legal issues
    • List different methods that are already available for protecting children on the Internet
    • Explain the significance of the ethics in computing
    • Explain the significance of intellectual property rights
  • 3. The Digital Divide
    • Separates the computing haves from the have-nots
      • Those with access to computers and the Internet take advantage of personal and economic opportunities
      • Those without access fall farther behind
      • Major divisions
        • among nations and within countries
          • between urban areas and rural ones
          • between rich and poor
    • Several initiatives exist to narrow the divide
      • Within the U.S.
        • Universal Service Fund helps service providers to provide telecommunications services to rural areas
        • E-Rate program provides rate subsidies for Internet access for schools and libraries
      • Worldwide
        • Africa ONE is creating a fiber optic network to connect the nations of Africa
    • What are some other options?
  • 4. Workplace Issues
    • Healthy computing
      • Ergonomics : human factors related to the use of computers
    • Employee monitoring
      • Tools
      • Policies
    • Environmental concerns
      • Power consumption
      • Computer supplies
      • PC disposal
  • 5. Ergonomic Equipment
    • Chair should be pneumatically adjustable
    • Keyboard platform should be set to proper height
    • Monitor must be adjustable
    • Lighting should be adjusted to minimize glare on the screen
  • 6. Ergonomic Behavior
    • Ergonomic equipment must be used properly
      • Turn the screen away from the window to reduce glare
      • Cover your screen with a glare protector
      • Place keyboard to avoid arm and wrist fatigue
      • Use a raised rest for your wrist
      • Position your seat back so back is supported
      • Sit with your feet firmly on the floor
      • Enlarge fonts so they are easier to see
      • Take frequent breaks
  • 7. Employee Monitoring
    • Various tools allow an employer to monitor an employee’s performance
      • Keystroke monitors measure keystrokes per second
      • Other software tools monitor how long an employee is away from the computer
      • Monitor the files stored on the hard drive
      • Monitor the sites visited on the Internet
    • Many companies have policies that notify employees about monitoring practices
  • 8. Information Privacy
    • Unauthorized collection & use of information
    • Employee Monitoring
    Helpful Links Federal Trade Commission How Identify Theft Works Annual Credit Report
  • 9. Jurisdictional Issues
    • International issues
      • Applying national laws to a world-wide medium is a difficult process. Why?
      • Issues exist over which country’s court has jurisdiction
    • National issues
      • Issues exist over which locality’s court has jurisdiction
      • Imposition of sales taxes on Internet transactions
  • 10. Protecting Children on the Internet
    • The Internet offers many opportunities for children, as well as dangers
    • Ways to protect children
      • Blocking software
      • Child monitoring
        • Place the child’s computer in a public area instead of his or her bedroom
        • Restrict usage when parents are not present
      • Laws to protect children
  • 11. Blocking Software
    • Used to prevent children from accessing sites on its updatable list of objectionable sites
      • Blocks pornographic sites and sites with foul language
      • Blocks sites requesting names, phone numbers, and credit card numbers
    • Sometimes criticized for being overzealous
  • 12. Laws to Protect Children
    • Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act
      • Requires Web sites that target children under 13 to post a privacy policy and obtain parental consent before collecting data
    • Children’s Internet Protection Act
      • Requires libraries receiving federal funding to implement blocking technology
    • Neighborhood Children’s Internet Protection Act
      • Requires libraries receiving the E-Rate discount to establish an Internet safety policy
  • 13. Ethics in Computing
    • Ethics – standards of moral conduct
      • Used to help determine the proper course of action in difficult situations
    • Computing Issues
      • Computer ethics (9-270)
      • Professional ethics
      • Programmer responsibility
      • Ethical use of computers
  • 14. Professional Ethics
    • Relates to ethics of those whose work focuses on computer systems (9-271)
    • Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct developed by the Association for Computing Machinery
    • Divided into sections
      • General principles
      • Professional responsibilities
      • Guidelines for organizational systems
  • 15. Programmer Responsibility
    • Bug-free software does not exist
      • Testing can only show the presence of bugs, not their absence
    • Issues related to software quality
      • How much testing is enough?
      • How many minor bugs are acceptable in software about to be released?
  • 16. Ethical Use of Computers
    • Data quality
      • Users are responsible for the quality of data entered into the system
      • Procedures must be in place to detect and correct inaccurate information
    • Protecting customers’ personal data
      • Doing business over the Internet
      • Develop privacy policies stating how data will be used (opt-in vs opt-out)
    • Digitally altering data
  • 17. Altering Reality
    • Computers can alter photographs
      • How much alteration is ethical?
    • E-mail messages can be destroyed
      • In a legal action, is this altering evidence?
  • 18. Intellectual Property Rights
    • Refers to results of intellectual activity in the industrial, scientific, literary, or artistic fields
    • U.S. Copyright Act provides protection in three areas
      • Copyrights
      • Patents
      • Trademarks
  • 19. Copyrights
    • Provides the creator of a literary or artistic work with control over its use and distribution
      • Widespread distribution of music and video over the Internet has created quite a controversy
    • Defining fair use has been difficult
      • Under fair use, you may use copyrighted works for limited purposes
      • Digital issues
    • More Info? Go to: http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/dept/d07/cis105/copyrightposter.htm
    ©
  • 20. Digital Fair Use Issues
    • Copy-protection schemes make it impossible to copy CDs and DVDs
      • Users claim that violates their fair use rights
    • Software
      • Users may not modify copyrighted software
    • Digital images
      • Images on the Web may be downloaded and used as screen savers, but they may not be distributed or altered
    • Plagiarism
      • Work taken from the Internet must be cited if it is used in a paper or other presentation
  • 21. Patents
    • Designed to protect inventions and encourage inventors
      • Grant patent holder exclusive rights to the invention
    • Patent Office will grant patent protection to software algorithms and techniques
      • Will also grant patents for business methods implemented in software
  • 22. Trademarks
    • A word, name, symbol, or device used to distinguish one company and its products from another
    • Two issues in the digital arena
      • Unauthorized use of one company’s trademarks on another’s Web site
      • Cybersquatting – obtaining a domain name that includes another company’s trademark, then selling that domain name at a profit
  • 23. If asked, can you….
    • Identify the social issues and ethics in computing
    • Understand the digital divide social issue and its effect in society
    • List and describe the workplace issues
    • Describe the international and national legal issues
    • List different methods that are already available for protecting children on the Internet
    • Explain the significance of the ethics in computing
    • Explain the significance of intellectual property rights
  • 24. Sources
    • Capron; Computers: Tools for An Information Age, 8 th Ed. 2003
    • Pfaffenberger; Computers in Your Future 2003
    • Microsoft Clipart
    • How Stuff Works: Identify Theft
    • FTC