Social and Ethical Issues in Computing: Doing the Right Thing CIS 105 Revised March 2006
Objectives <ul><li>Identify the social issues and ethics in computing </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the digital divide soci...
The Digital Divide <ul><li>Separates the computing haves from the have-nots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those with access to com...
Workplace Issues <ul><li>Healthy computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ergonomics : human factors related to the use of computer...
Ergonomic Equipment <ul><li>Chair should be pneumatically adjustable </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboard platform should be set to ...
Ergonomic Behavior <ul><li>Ergonomic equipment must be used properly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn the screen away from the w...
Employee Monitoring <ul><li>Various tools allow an employer to monitor an employee’s performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key...
Information Privacy <ul><li>Unauthorized collection & use of information </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Monitoring </li></ul>H...
Jurisdictional Issues <ul><li>International issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying national laws to a world-wide medium is ...
Protecting Children on the Internet <ul><li>The Internet offers many opportunities for children, as well as dangers </li><...
Blocking Software <ul><li>Used to prevent children from accessing sites on its updatable list of objectionable sites </li>...
Laws to Protect Children <ul><li>Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires Web sites that ta...
Ethics in Computing <ul><li>Ethics – standards of moral conduct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to help determine the proper co...
Professional Ethics <ul><li>Relates to ethics of those whose work focuses on computer systems  (9-271) </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Programmer Responsibility <ul><li>Bug-free software does not exist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing can only show the presenc...
Ethical Use of Computers <ul><li>Data quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users are responsible for the quality of data entered ...
Altering Reality <ul><li>Computers can alter photographs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How much alteration is ethical? </li></ul><...
Intellectual Property Rights <ul><li>Refers to results of intellectual activity in the industrial, scientific, literary, o...
Copyrights <ul><li>Provides the creator of a literary or artistic work with control over its use and distribution </li></u...
Digital Fair Use Issues <ul><li>Copy-protection schemes make it impossible to copy CDs and DVDs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User...
Patents <ul><li>Designed to protect inventions and encourage inventors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant patent holder exclusive...
Trademarks <ul><li>A word, name, symbol, or device used to distinguish one company and its products from another </li></ul...
If asked, can you…. <ul><li>Identify the social issues and ethics in computing </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the digital di...
Sources <ul><li>Capron; Computers: Tools for An Information Age, 8 th  Ed. 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Pfaffenberger; Computers...
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One - Social & Ethical Issues

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One - Social & Ethical Issues

  1. 1. Social and Ethical Issues in Computing: Doing the Right Thing CIS 105 Revised March 2006
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Identify the social issues and ethics in computing </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the digital divide social issue and its effect in society </li></ul><ul><li>List and describe the workplace issues </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the international and national legal issues </li></ul><ul><li>List different methods that are already available for protecting children on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the significance of the ethics in computing </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the significance of intellectual property rights </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Digital Divide <ul><li>Separates the computing haves from the have-nots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those with access to computers and the Internet take advantage of personal and economic opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those without access fall farther behind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major divisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>among nations and within countries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>between urban areas and rural ones </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>between rich and poor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Several initiatives exist to narrow the divide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Service Fund helps service providers to provide telecommunications services to rural areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E-Rate program provides rate subsidies for Internet access for schools and libraries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Africa ONE is creating a fiber optic network to connect the nations of Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What are some other options? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Workplace Issues <ul><li>Healthy computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ergonomics : human factors related to the use of computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employee monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PC disposal </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Ergonomic Equipment <ul><li>Chair should be pneumatically adjustable </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboard platform should be set to proper height </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor must be adjustable </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting should be adjusted to minimize glare on the screen </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ergonomic Behavior <ul><li>Ergonomic equipment must be used properly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn the screen away from the window to reduce glare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover your screen with a glare protector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place keyboard to avoid arm and wrist fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a raised rest for your wrist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position your seat back so back is supported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sit with your feet firmly on the floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlarge fonts so they are easier to see </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take frequent breaks </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Employee Monitoring <ul><li>Various tools allow an employer to monitor an employee’s performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keystroke monitors measure keystrokes per second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other software tools monitor how long an employee is away from the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor the files stored on the hard drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor the sites visited on the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many companies have policies that notify employees about monitoring practices </li></ul>
  8. 8. Information Privacy <ul><li>Unauthorized collection & use of information </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Monitoring </li></ul>Helpful Links Federal Trade Commission How Identify Theft Works Annual Credit Report
  9. 9. Jurisdictional Issues <ul><li>International issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying national laws to a world-wide medium is a difficult process. Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues exist over which country’s court has jurisdiction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues exist over which locality’s court has jurisdiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imposition of sales taxes on Internet transactions </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Protecting Children on the Internet <ul><li>The Internet offers many opportunities for children, as well as dangers </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to protect children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocking software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Place the child’s computer in a public area instead of his or her bedroom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restrict usage when parents are not present </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws to protect children </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Blocking Software <ul><li>Used to prevent children from accessing sites on its updatable list of objectionable sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocks pornographic sites and sites with foul language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocks sites requesting names, phone numbers, and credit card numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sometimes criticized for being overzealous </li></ul>
  12. 12. Laws to Protect Children <ul><li>Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires Web sites that target children under 13 to post a privacy policy and obtain parental consent before collecting data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Children’s Internet Protection Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires libraries receiving federal funding to implement blocking technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood Children’s Internet Protection Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires libraries receiving the E-Rate discount to establish an Internet safety policy </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Ethics in Computing <ul><li>Ethics – standards of moral conduct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to help determine the proper course of action in difficult situations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computing Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer ethics (9-270) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional ethics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmer responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical use of computers </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Professional Ethics <ul><li>Relates to ethics of those whose work focuses on computer systems (9-271) </li></ul><ul><li>Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct developed by the Association for Computing Machinery </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into sections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidelines for organizational systems </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Programmer Responsibility <ul><li>Bug-free software does not exist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing can only show the presence of bugs, not their absence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues related to software quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How much testing is enough? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many minor bugs are acceptable in software about to be released? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Ethical Use of Computers <ul><li>Data quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users are responsible for the quality of data entered into the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures must be in place to detect and correct inaccurate information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protecting customers’ personal data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing business over the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop privacy policies stating how data will be used (opt-in vs opt-out) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digitally altering data </li></ul>
  17. 17. Altering Reality <ul><li>Computers can alter photographs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How much alteration is ethical? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E-mail messages can be destroyed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a legal action, is this altering evidence? </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Intellectual Property Rights <ul><li>Refers to results of intellectual activity in the industrial, scientific, literary, or artistic fields </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Copyright Act provides protection in three areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyrights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trademarks </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Copyrights <ul><li>Provides the creator of a literary or artistic work with control over its use and distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Widespread distribution of music and video over the Internet has created quite a controversy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defining fair use has been difficult </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under fair use, you may use copyrighted works for limited purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More Info? Go to: http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/dept/d07/cis105/copyrightposter.htm </li></ul>©
  20. 20. Digital Fair Use Issues <ul><li>Copy-protection schemes make it impossible to copy CDs and DVDs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users claim that violates their fair use rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users may not modify copyrighted software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Images on the Web may be downloaded and used as screen savers, but they may not be distributed or altered </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plagiarism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work taken from the Internet must be cited if it is used in a paper or other presentation </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Patents <ul><li>Designed to protect inventions and encourage inventors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant patent holder exclusive rights to the invention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patent Office will grant patent protection to software algorithms and techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will also grant patents for business methods implemented in software </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Trademarks <ul><li>A word, name, symbol, or device used to distinguish one company and its products from another </li></ul><ul><li>Two issues in the digital arena </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unauthorized use of one company’s trademarks on another’s Web site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cybersquatting – obtaining a domain name that includes another company’s trademark, then selling that domain name at a profit </li></ul></ul>™
  23. 23. If asked, can you…. <ul><li>Identify the social issues and ethics in computing </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the digital divide social issue and its effect in society </li></ul><ul><li>List and describe the workplace issues </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the international and national legal issues </li></ul><ul><li>List different methods that are already available for protecting children on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the significance of the ethics in computing </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the significance of intellectual property rights </li></ul>
  24. 24. Sources <ul><li>Capron; Computers: Tools for An Information Age, 8 th Ed. 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Pfaffenberger; Computers in Your Future 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Clipart </li></ul><ul><li>How Stuff Works: Identify Theft </li></ul><ul><li>FTC </li></ul>
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