Legal, Ethical, and Social Issues in Educational Computing


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Legal, Ethical, and Social Issues in Educational Computing

  1. 1. Technology in Education: The Legal, Social and Ethical Issues
  2. 2. Ethical Issues For Safety and Security • Social networking • Acceptable Use Policies • Netiquette • Cyber Bullying • Student Data • Internet Privacy
  3. 3. Social Networking • “Social Networking” = MySpace, Facebook, etc. • Concerns for parents and educators: narcissism, gossip, wasted time, “friending”, hurt feelings, ruined reputations, and even dangerous activities 3
  4. 4. What Can Teachers Do? • Allowing students to utilize academic social networking websites teaches digital citizenship to students • Teachers can develop social networking contracts for students, if the school or school district does not have one. 4
  5. 5. Acceptable Use Policies • What constitutes acceptable use? Includes not giving out personal information, not participating in off-line meetings or activities, and privacy expectations • What should Acceptable Use Policies Include? Risks associated with computer communication; rules for efficient, ethical and legal computer/ network usage; safe/appropriate computer social behavior; use of available and unavailable services 5
  6. 6. What Can Teachers Do? • If your school or school district does not have an Acceptable Use Policy, then write your own • Teachers need to enforce Acceptable Use Policies 6
  7. 7. Netiquette • Netiquette is defined as “courtesy in information processing” or “etiquette on the Internet” • Responding promptly to email messages • Not using school systems for personal use • Not sending flame mail 7
  8. 8. What Can Teachers Do? • Teachers should model ethical online behavior for students • Conduct training sessions for students and hold classroom discussions • Participate in role playing, games and simulations with students 8
  9. 9. Cyber Bullying • Cyber Bullying is “the act of sending or posting harmful or cruel text or images using the Internet or other communication devices” • Children who are victims portray low self- esteem, depression, anxiety and anger • Some students do not perceive cyber bullying as a form of bullying behavior 9
  10. 10. What Can Teachers Do? • Promote cyber-ethics in the classroom as students do online research • Assign news articles related to cyber bullying incidents for student reading and class discussion • Have students write in response journals as part of a classroom discussion 10
  11. 11. Student Data • The Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) “mandates the development of an Internet safety plan that addresses the unauthorized disclosure, use and dissemination of personal identification information regarding minors” • Parents are uncomfortable with the amount of personal info that is collected about their children. 11
  12. 12. What Can Teachers Do? • Be knowledgeable of the laws and policies associated with student data confidentiality on the federal, state, and district level • Teachers should exercise caution when student information is transmitted via email, which forms a permanent record • Educate their students regarding respecting the privacy of other students 12
  13. 13. Internet Privacy • Privacy is defined as “the right to be left alone”. However, the technology and the infrastructure of the Internet do not give users that choice. • Criminal predators use very creative techniques, including online observation, to find out about children. 13
  14. 14. What Can Teachers Do? • Educate students about Internet privacy, especially the use and abuse of personal information • Teach students how to recognize, avoid and handle situations where their privacy will be compromised and their lives put in danger • Create safe, monitored learning environments 14
  15. 15. Digital Divide • Gender • Socio-economic • Race • Resource Equity • Teacher bias 15
  16. 16. Gender • Females and minorities that are not encouraged to use technology are more likely than others to perform poorly • Information technology is often perceived as a male subject 16
  17. 17. What Can Teachers Do? • Ensure that technology is taught in a manner that encourages and engages all students • Be a proponent for equal opportunity and treatment, providing instruction and guidance that crosses gender barriers • Be supportive, especially for female students, in their pursuits into the information technology field 17
  18. 18. Socio-Economic • Minority groups face multiple barriers to information technology use, including lack of role models, unconscious stereotyping, false perceptions of interest, and limited access to computers • 2001 Census Bureau Report revealed that computer usage among students, ages 6-17, is nearly equal across differences in income, race and ethnic groups 18
  19. 19. What Can Teachers Do? • Challenge students with higher-level technology activities • Offer additional assistance to those students that are not as familiar with technology and the use of the Internet • Incorporate technology into their lesson plans 19
  20. 20. Race • Computer and Internet usage is higher among Whites than Blacks and Hispanics, and higher among Asians and American Indians than among Hispanics • The digital divide among racial lines may be closing, according to the National Center for Education Statistics 20
  21. 21. What Can Teachers Do? • Provide equitable access to computers and the Internet to all students • Advocate for computers in their classrooms and the school, looking for grant opportunities, donations, etc. • Allow additional time for students to utilize computers at school and incorporate technology into assignments. 21
  22. 22. Resource Equity • 2001 Census Bureau Report Findings • Many students only access the Internet at school 22 White Households African American Households 57.7% Own a Computer 39.5% Have Internet Access 37% Own a Computer 20.5% Have Internet Access
  23. 23. What Can Teachers Do? • Play a key role in providing equitable access to all student groups in learning computer skills • Make computers and the Internet accessible outside of normal school hours • Model technology use in the classroom 23
  24. 24. Teacher Bias • Many teachers assume that girls are not interested in information technology 24
  25. 25. What Can Teachers Do? • Teachers can be influential in shaping female students interest in technology • Be fair and equitable to all students when considering technology, regardless of gender, race or socio-economic status • Be supportive of all students with regard to technology 25
  26. 26. Legal Use of Digital Media • Copyright • Fair Use • Creative Commons 26
  27. 27. Copyright • Copyright is “the legal right of authors to prohibit others from copying their work” 27
  28. 28. What Can Teachers Do? • Set an example for their students and be a role model by following the laws themselves • Educate students on giving proper credit to the author/owner when using information prepared by them and also how to paraphrase • Educate students on how to correctly cite an author’s work 28
  29. 29. Fair Use • A “doctrine in copyright law that allows limited use of copyrighted material without requiring permission from the rights-holder. It provides for the legal incorporation of copyrighted material into another work under limited conditions” • Incorporates four factors: the purpose of use, the nature of the work, the portion used, and the effect on the market 29
  30. 30. What Can Teachers Do? • Create a Fair Use handout for students, including instructions on portion limitations • Educate students on the importance of giving credit for the materials used and how to correctly cite the source • Educate students on following Fair Use guidelines when using quotations in their writings 30
  31. 31. Creative Commons • Is “a set of licensing tools that stands between the All Rights Reserved of traditional copyright and No Rights Reserved that is the public domain” • Applies to text, blogs, music, audio, recordings, podcasts, photographs, videos, songs, websites, and films found on the Internet 31
  32. 32. What Can Teachers Do? • Refer students to the Flickr Creative Commons search page ( • Use the search portal on Creative Commons ( for lesson plans freely shared by other educators 32
  33. 33. Resources • Bartrom, L.. (2009). Fair Use Guidelines. TechTrends, 53(5), 14-15. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: 1893204371). • Basken, P. (2010, February). Obama Tries New Tack in Collecting Student Data :Legal and privacy hurdles are higher than expected. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: 1970573281). • Beers, K.. (2004). Equality and the Digital Divide. Voices From the Middle, 11(3), 4- 5. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: 585283161). • Callison, D. (2004, February). Digital Divide. School Library Media Activities Monthly, 20(6), 37-40,51. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: 548115761). • Computer Graphic Image. Retrieved from: • 33
  34. 34. Resources Cyberbullying image. Retrieved from: bullying%20clip%20art.jpg Davidson, H. (1999, September). The educators' lean and mean no fat guide to fair use. Technology & Learning, 20(2), 58-64. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: 45091593). Dawley, L. (2007). Learning to Use Multiple Tools. (2007). In L. Dawley The Tools for Successful Online Teaching, (pp. 227-239) Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing Retrieved May 18, 2010, from Gale Virtual Reference Library via Gale: Draa, V., & Sydney, T.. (2009). Cyberbullying: Challenges and Actions. Journal of Family and ConsumerSciences, 101(4), 40-46. Retrieved May 13, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: 1969954971) Fryer, Wesley. (n. d.). TOOLS FOR THE TEKS: Integrating Technology In The Classroom. Creative Commons in K-12 Education. Retrieved from: ). 34
  35. 35. Resources Judge’s gavel graphic image. Retrieved from: Gordon-Murnane, L.. (2010, January). CREATIVE COMMONS: Copyright Tools for the 21st Century. Online, 34(1), 18-21. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: 1957509621 Hargadon, S.. (2010, March). Educational Networking. MultiMedia & Internet@Schools, 17(2), 10- 12, 14-16. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: 1981674861). Hayes, S.. (2008). Acceptable Use 2.0. Voices From the Middle, 15(3), 44-46. Retrieved May 18, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: 1456956201). Internet privacy? (2001). School Libraries in Canada: A Teachers' Guide, 20(4), 20- 22. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: 73275036). INTERNET SAFETY: Acceptable Use Policies. (2008, January). Principal Leadership, 8(5), 10. Retrieved May 18, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: 1413954331). 35
  36. 36. Resources Internet: Internet Filters in Schools and Libraries. (2003). In S. Phelps (Ed.) Gale Encyclopedia of Everyday Law, (Vol. 2). (pp. 819-824) Detroit: Gale Retrieved May 13, 2010, from Gale Virtual Reference Library via Gale: Lock and Key Image. Retrieved from: Multi-Cultural student image. Retrieved from: rt.gif Netiquette graphic image. Retrieved from: Nicholson, K., Hancock, D., & Dahlberg, T. (2007). Preparing Teachers and Counselors to Help Under-Represented Populations Embrace the Information Technology Field. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 15(1), 123-143. Retrieved May 13, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: 1184989881). 36
  37. 37. Resources Schoolhouse graphic image. Retrieved from: art1.340225101_std.jpeg Schoolhouse/schoolbus graphic image. Retrieved from: Sharkey, Paulette Bochnig. (1992). What to Tell Your Students About Copyright. The Clearing House, 65(4), 213. Retrieved May 18, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: 1862474). Shastry, Nan. (2010). [School House Power Point Template]. Retrieved from: Smith, S. (2005). THE DIGITAL DIVIDE: GENDER AND RACIAL DIFFERENCES IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION. Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 23(1), 13-23. Retrieved May 13, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: 1058985141). 37
  38. 38. Resources Social Networking Image. Retrieved from: Stahl, B. (1998, November). Quick! May I go to the Internet?. Book Report, p. 20. Retrieved from Academic SearchPremierdatabase. ab03- 9c044f9f09e9%40sessionmgr112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db= aph&AN=1246064 Talking the talk. (1996). Techniques: Making Education & Career Connections, 71(8), 16. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. ab039c044f9f09e9%40sessionmgr112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d #db=aph&AN=9611201805 Taranto, G., & Abbondanza, M.. (2009, December). Powering Students Up. Principal Leadership, 10(4), 38-42. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: 1935531521). 38
  39. 39. ResourcesTeacher graphic image. Retrieved from: 08/images/teacher_clipart.gif Valadez, J., & Duran, R. (2007). Redefining the Digital Divide: Beyond Access to Computers and the Internet. High School Journal, 90(3), 31-44. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. Vincent, A. & Meche, M. (2001). Ethics in Information Processing. In B. S. Kaliski (Ed.)Encyclopedia of Business and Finance, (Vol. 1). (pp. 325-328) New York: Macmillan Reference USA Retrieved May 13, 2010, from Gale Virtual Reference Library via Gale: What is Cyberbullying. (n. d.). Retrieved from: Willards, N. (2002). Ensuring Student Privacy on the Internet. Retrieved from the Education World website: 39