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102 Chapter 4 Pt 2

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102 Chapter 4 Pt 2

  1. 1. Chapter 5: SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN THE INFORMATION AGE Part 2
  2. 2. Moral Dimensions of IS: 1. Information Rights <ul><li>PRIVACY: The claim of individuals to be left alone, free from surveillance or interference from other individuals, organizations, or government. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Internet Challenges to Privacy <ul><li>Data Transmission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data passes through many servers – might be intercepted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cookies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A file on a user’s hard drive that identifies user’s browser and sites visited </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spamming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sending unsolicited e-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Popups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to spamming </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 1. Information Rights (continued) <ul><li>Fair information practices (FIP): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No secret personal records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals can access, amend information about them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No use of personal information for other uses without prior consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers accountable & liable for damage done by systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governments can intervene </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Moral Dimensions of IS: 2. Intellectual Property Rights <ul><li>INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: intangible property created by individuals or organizations, protected under trade secret, copyright and patent law </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>Movies </li></ul>
  6. 6. 2. Intellectual Property (IP) (continued) <ul><li>TRADE SECRET: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual work or product used for a business purpose, not based on information in public domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees asked to sign nondisclosure agreements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May include software with unique elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(continued . . .) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 2. Intellectual Property (IP) (continued) <ul><li>COPYRIGHT: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statutory grant that protects creators of intellectual property against copying by others for at least 50 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright Office registers and enforces law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects books, periodicals, lectures, dramas, musical compositions, maps, drawings, artwork, motion pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects software as a “literary work” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(continued . . .) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 2. Intellectual Property (IP) (continued) <ul><li>PATENTS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A legal document that grants the owner an exclusive monopoly on ideas behind an invention for 17-20 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure inventors of new machines, devices and methods receive financial and other rewards </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Challenges to IP Rights <ul><li>Easy to: </li></ul><ul><li>Replicate </li></ul><ul><li>Transmit </li></ul><ul><li>Alter </li></ul><ul><li>Steal </li></ul><ul><li>And difficult to: </li></ul><ul><li>Trace </li></ul><ul><li>Establish uniqueness </li></ul>DIGITAL MEDIA IS
  10. 10. Moral Dimensions of IS: 3. Accountability, Liability & Control <ul><li>ETHICAL ISSUES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is morally responsible for consequences of the use of Information Technologies? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What liability should be assumed by user? Provider? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL ISSUES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What should society expect and allow? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>POLITICAL ISSUES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To what extent should government intervene, protect? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Moral Dimensions of IS: 4. System Quality <ul><li>ETHICAL ISSUES: When is software or service ready for release? </li></ul><ul><li>SOCIAL ISSUES: Can people trust quality of software, services, data? </li></ul><ul><li>POLITICAL ISSUES: Should industry associations develop standards for software, hardware, data quality? </li></ul>What is an acceptable, technologically feasible level of system quality?
  12. 12. Moral Dimensions of IS: 5. Quality of Life <ul><li>Balancing Power Centre vs. Periphery </li></ul><ul><li>Rapidity of Change </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining Boundaries :Family, work, and leisure </li></ul><ul><li>Dependence and vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Computer crime & abuse </li></ul>Social Consequences of Information Systems
  13. 13. Computer Crime & Abuse <ul><li>Computer Crime & Abuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime : Illegal acts through use of computer system or against a computer system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abuse: Acts involving a computer that may not be illegal, but are unethical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hackers/crackers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jamming, sniffing, spoofing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malicious software </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Challenges to Quality of Life <ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trickle-down technology & re-engineering job loss </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equity and Access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing racial and social class cleavages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health Risks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RSI, CVS, and Technostress </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Management Action: A Corporate Code of Ethics <ul><li>An IS-specific set of ethical standards for each of the five moral dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information rights (e.g. workplace monitoring, email privacy, customer info policy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property Rights (e.g. software licenses) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability & Control (e.g. specify individual who is responsible for aspects of i.s.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems quality (e.g. levels of data and system quality allowed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of life (e.g. specify that systems should improve quality of life of stakeholders) </li></ul></ul>

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