Working practices ca


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Working practices ca

  1. 1. Working practices By the end of the presentation you should be able to answer the following questions: <ul><li>Describe how jobs have changed from traditional office-based employment </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how ICT applications are used in particular jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the different methods of communication used by businesses </li></ul>
  2. 2. TASK: Teleworking <ul><li>Review IGCSE knowledge: </li></ul><ul><li>in pairs, mindmap: definition, advantages and disadvantages of Teleworking </li></ul>
  3. 3. Teleworking: Review <ul><li>Definition: Teleworking is another name for Working from Home </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages to the employer </li></ul><ul><li>Office running costs and overheads (rates, electricity, heating etc.) can be reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Less office space needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Travel-related problems may be reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>It may tempt better staff to come and work for the company. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages for the employee </li></ul><ul><li>You can work from the comfort of your own home. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no time wasted traveling and no travel costs. </li></ul><ul><li>You can live in an affordable far from work. </li></ul><ul><li>It enables you to work around the needs of your family and/or children. </li></ul><ul><li>It is more convenient - you can plan the working day to suit you, which could help reduce stress levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>There is less opportunity to meet people and share ideas - teamwork is more difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>There may be more temptation to spend time on non-work-related activities. </li></ul><ul><li>People often work longer hours than they should and find it hard to switch off. </li></ul>
  4. 4. TASK: Teleworking <ul><li>In pairs, answer this question: </li></ul><ul><li>What areas of ICT have developed in order to make teleworking possible? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Teleworking <ul><li>The ability to communicate at distance has </li></ul><ul><li>increased due to New technology e.g: </li></ul><ul><li>Portable communication devices </li></ul><ul><li>Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Broadband connection </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual private Network (VPN) </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile phone /PDA with wireless features </li></ul><ul><li>Laptop </li></ul>
  6. 6. Virtual Private Network
  7. 7. VPN <ul><li>A process whereby software is used to create what appears as a private network running over a public network i.e the internet </li></ul><ul><li>The network typically uses encryption to keep information secure </li></ul>
  8. 8. What does a teleworker need? <ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>PC with internet access </li></ul><ul><li>Access to email </li></ul><ul><li>A fax machine </li></ul><ul><li>A landline phone </li></ul><ul><li>A mobile phone </li></ul><ul><li>A printer/photocopier/scanner (laser/inkjet) </li></ul><ul><li>Video conferencing equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><li>Word processing/web browsing software </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet/database software </li></ul>
  9. 9. Examples of teleworking jobs: <ul><li>Professional services e.g. tax advice, legal advice, financial advice </li></ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Book editing </li></ul><ul><li>Proof reading </li></ul><ul><li>Translation </li></ul><ul><li>Technical/customer support </li></ul><ul><li>Tele sales/marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Teleworking – suits professions that are done on an individual basis </li></ul>
  10. 10. How a manager decides which employee will telework: <ul><li>Type of work </li></ul><ul><li>What type of person/employee are they? </li></ul><ul><li>Can they work well on their own? </li></ul><ul><li>How frequently they need contact with their employee? (once a week?/daily progress?) </li></ul>
  11. 11. A teleworker must: <ul><li>Have good time management skills </li></ul><ul><li>Be motivated </li></ul><ul><li>Have good communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Have good self-discipline </li></ul>
  12. 12. How a manager builds relationships with teleworkers: <ul><li>Personal contact- visit office once a week or receive daily update emails </li></ul><ul><li>Involves teleworkers with other office staff for; training, staff meetings and company outings </li></ul>
  13. 13. Remote working <ul><li>This includes teleworking/homeworking but also, when people literally work at a distance from the office. E.g. a travelling salesperson, doctors on call and engineers working on site </li></ul>
  14. 14. Remote working technology <ul><li>PDA’s/Smart phones </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile phones with wireless capability </li></ul><ul><li>Laptops with wireless capability </li></ul>
  15. 15. Examples: <ul><li>Engineers: use a pda to email reports, view technical manuals and use word processing or other software </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors: use laptops to connect to a VPN to access patient records, x-rays </li></ul><ul><li>Travelling salesman: use PDA/mobile phone to talk to other salesman, connect to their office to access customer files, sales figures, email orders etc. Mostly use Hotspots around town </li></ul>
  16. 16. Remote access services (RAS) <ul><li>These are services used by remote workers to access their own PC </li></ul>
  17. 17. Office based working <ul><li>Even though there is increasingly more teleworking; offices still exist in large numbers </li></ul>
  18. 18. Company reasons for not allowing teleworking <ul><li>Fear: employees do not trust employees to work at home; believing they will watch TV and be unproductive. </li></ul><ul><li>Security concerns: data is not safe/confidential when sent out of the office </li></ul>
  19. 19. Employees reasons for not wanting to telework <ul><li>Social aspect </li></ul><ul><li>Team work </li></ul><ul><li>Fear: that they could lose their jobs easier if the employer doesn’t see them </li></ul>
  20. 20. Office-based technology <ul><li>Desktop computers connected to a LAN/WAN </li></ul><ul><li>Internet access </li></ul><ul><li>Email access </li></ul><ul><li>Networked printers </li></ul><ul><li>Photocopiers </li></ul>
  21. 21. Video conferencing <ul><li>Review IGCSE: </li></ul><ul><li>In pairs, mindmap what you know about </li></ul><ul><li>video conferencing </li></ul>
  22. 22. Task <ul><li>Fill in the table about Office communication called Communication methods found here: </li></ul><ul><li>Y:ICTA Level Applied ICT- Unit 2 - Organisations use of ICT2b. ICT in the Workplace </li></ul>
  23. 23. Video conferencing equipment <ul><li>Hardware: </li></ul><ul><li>PC, mouse and keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Network connection: Modem </li></ul><ul><li>High broadband speed </li></ul><ul><li>Webcam </li></ul><ul><li>Microphone </li></ul><ul><li>Videoconferening software </li></ul>
  24. 24. How does it work? <ul><li>2 types of conferences: </li></ul><ul><li>A person has individual access to the conference </li></ul><ul><li>A group has access to the conference </li></ul><ul><li>Steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Members log in to the system </li></ul><ul><li>Then all delegates can see/hear each other </li></ul><ul><li>Documents: delegates view using software </li></ul>
  25. 25. Where is it used? <ul><li>Schools: used to communicate with other schools around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors: used to speak to other doctors/experts </li></ul><ul><li>Business: used by teleworkers, or in the office to communicate to customers or other offices based elsewhere </li></ul>
  26. 26. Task: Video conferencing <ul><li>REVIEW IGCSE, In pairs, mindmap advantages & disadvantage of video conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of video conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Meetings can take place without leaving the office. </li></ul><ul><li>Travel costs and the time taken to travel can be reduced significantly. </li></ul><ul><li>Meetings can be called instantly worldwide with little notice. </li></ul><ul><li>Delegates can still attend meetings even if they are physically unable to. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages to video conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>May not be as productive as a discussion around a table. </li></ul><ul><li>Confidential documents may need to be viewed and signed in person. </li></ul><ul><li>There will always be times when you need to be able to meet face to face. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Phone conferencing <ul><li>This is the linking together of people on a phone line so they can have a collective conversation </li></ul><ul><li>This can be achieved via, mobile phones, landlines and VoIP </li></ul><ul><li>All you need is a touchtone phone </li></ul>
  28. 28. How it works: <ul><li>Delegates: agree a time/data for the call </li></ul><ul><li>Delegates are sent the phone number and individual PIN’s </li></ul><ul><li>The organiser dials the conference number (using a special PIN) first to set up the conference call </li></ul><ul><li>Then delegate dials the conference phone number and enters their PIN </li></ul>
  29. 29. Email <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Quick communication around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Free once an internet connection has been paid. </li></ul><ul><li>Send a message to many people at once. </li></ul><ul><li>Send documents in digital form to be printed for signing. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to instant messaging allowing for real time discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Email is prone to viruses and hacking; software protection can be expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Not instant. Written responses take time to write. </li></ul><ul><li>Documents that require signature will still need to be sent by facsimile (facs) </li></ul><ul><li>Messages can be misunderstood causing time delays. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Instant messaging <ul><li>This is the exchange of text messages between two or more people logged into an IM service </li></ul><ul><li>It is an interactive service allowing people to reply immediately to others logged in </li></ul><ul><li>It is instant, so better then email. However it does not store the messages and does not offer format features. </li></ul>
  31. 31. How it works: <ul><li>Username + password is required to login </li></ul><ul><li>First time, you make a contact list </li></ul><ul><li>These people are sent invitation and have to agree to join </li></ul><ul><li>Then, you select who you want to chat to, however they must be online </li></ul>
  32. 32. Faxing <ul><li>Short for Facsimile </li></ul><ul><li>(this is how it will appear in the exam) </li></ul><ul><li>Needs: </li></ul><ul><li>A phone line (usually has its own) </li></ul><ul><li>Works by: </li></ul><ul><li>A document is scanned and then transmitted over the phone lines to another fax machine which then prints it out </li></ul>
  33. 33. Faxing <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Uses a modem so the speed of transmission tends to be slow </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Quality is not reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Good, when exact copies of the original are required </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of fax use: </li></ul><ul><li>In the USA, publishers send a newspaper fax to the newspaper plant for printing </li></ul><ul><li>Signed copies of a fax are legally accepted in the UK </li></ul>
  34. 34. Electronic faxing <ul><li>This uses the internet to fax </li></ul><ul><li>The user receives the fax on their fax machine or via fax software </li></ul><ul><li>Then the user prints it out </li></ul>
  35. 35. Electronic faxing advantages over faxing <ul><li>Saves time going to and retrieving faxes </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment costs are lower (no fax machine needed) </li></ul><ul><li>Running costs are lower (another fax phone line is not needed) </li></ul><ul><li>Confidential faxes are secure </li></ul><ul><li>Can receive a fax anywhere – don’t have to be in the office </li></ul>
  36. 36. Task list <ul><li>Communication worksheet </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary – update your dictionary for </li></ul><ul><li>Control systems </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet </li></ul><ul><li>Enter definitions – english and vietnamese </li></ul><ul><li>Enter examples of function syntax and/or screenshots </li></ul>
  37. 37. ICT Development <ul><li>Higher speed broadband </li></ul><ul><li>Lower cost of internet connections </li></ul><ul><li>Higher quality and lower cost of hardware </li></ul>