Power generationRules and Tools for windenergy accounting13th March 2013Chaired by:Samuel Chapman, Heriot-WattUniversity
Can we move forward in agreeing on relevant,consistent and accurate studies?Can we suggest case studies to stakeholders?Can we agree on methods for systematic carbonaccounting and specific technical carbon accountingwithin our sector?
AgendaPresentation of Process-based Life CycleCarbon (and Energy) Study Presentation of Cost-based Carbon Study Presentation of a hybrid approach to lifecycle carbon assessment of offshore wind Feedback Case Studies Other sectors
Conducted through material inventory data andbottom-up detail only
Conducted through aggregated cost data only. Basedon UK offshore wind cost data and harmonisationresults.
Conducted via a mixture of the two. A hybridapproach
Feedback from 2011 Conference1.Good case studies available, but need more tocover specific issues2.Cross-sectoral communication needs toimprove3.Training and education critical4.More links with resource efficiency and otherbenefits required
The NREL Harmonisation Project – A basisfor more timely carbon accounting.Aligning carbon assessments for ICARBdatabases / reference toolsSamuel ChapmanPhD Student. Institute for Infrastructure and EnvironmentHeriot-Watt University
The Issue1.Understand the hugerange of published resultsof LCAs of electricitygeneration technologies2.Reduce the variability inpublished results3.Clarify the centraltendency of publishedestimates.0102030405060708090PublishedLife Cycle GHG Estimates (gCO2e/kWh)Global Estimates for OnshoreWindRange ofestimates fornuclear
The Method1.Review of Historic life cycle studies / estimates2.META-Analysis of chosen estimates3.Learn from reducing the variation and reviewingstudies
gCO2eCapacity factor x 8760 hours/year xlifetime x Nameplate capacityLifeCycleGHGEmissions=
Raw Material ExtractionMaterials ManufactureComponent ManufactureProductionProcessesCivil WorksEnvironmental DisturbanceConstructionProcessesPowerGenerationMaintenanceOperationalProcessesDecommissioningDisposalDisposalProcessesRecyclingVehicle useincluded withinstageTransportationProcess FlowKeyWindTurbine/Farm Life CycleProcessFlowDiagramgCO2e
These variations in approach, while usuallylegitimate, hamper comparison across studiesand pooling of published resultsreduce the uncertaintyincrease the value of theassessments to thepolicymaking and researchcommunities
As Published (All Values)As Published (All Values)051015202530350510152025parison of central tendency and spread of published GHG emission estimLife Cycle GHG Estimates (gCO2e/kWh) Life Cycle GHG Estimates (gCO2e/kWh)
Credit: Sathaye, J., O. Lucon, A. Rahman, J. Christensen, F. Denton, J. Fujino, G. Heath, S. Kadner, M. Mirza, H. Rudnick, A.Schlaepfer, A. Shmakin, 2011: Renewable Energy in the Context of Sustainable Energy. In IPCC Special Report onRenewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation [O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, K. Seyboth, P.Matschoss, S. Kadner, T. Zwickel, P. Eickemeier, G. Hansen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow (eds)], Cambridge University
Grid and Wind Interaction – Marginal carbonoffsets of wind. Lessons from historical dataAre we getting any closer to understanding how tobalance and optimise the contributions of differenttechnologies on the grid?Camilla ThomsonPhD Student, Institute for Energy SystemsUniversity of Edinburgh
ICARB Energy WorkshopDeveloping a Standard Framework andProviding Accreditation
ICARB: The Initiative for CarbonAccounting“A group of academics, politicians andconsultants working to create a set oftransparent, consistent and accurate rulesfor Carbon Accounting.”Supported by
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