Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Why Energy Storage? | Grant Wilson

0 views

Published on

Why Energy Storage? | Grant Wilson

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Why Energy Storage? | Grant Wilson

  1. 1. Why Energy Storage ? Dr Grant Wilson The University of Sheffield EPSRC’s Energy Storage for Low Carbon Grids consortium grant.wilson@sheffield.ac.uk #driagwilson
  2. 2. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield 2 • The talks this morning have provided details on several different uses and technologies of energy storage • They all have a common goal to provide a buffer, a balance between the supply of energy and the demand of that energy – the differences are in the scale, type of energy transformation or final energy use, and the timeframes that the energy is expected to be stored for
  3. 3. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield 3 • This has always been the case - energy networks have always depended on energy storage to help match supply with demand over different timescales • It is a question of where the boundary is drawn for analysis – this presentation considers grid level energy flows • So rather than imagine that a large amount of energy storage is something novel – let us rather imagine that the tasks we wish energy storage to fulfill are changing
  4. 4. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield 4 • The ‘Why Energy Storage ?’ question may be easy to answer - we have always had it – and will always need it – but it depends • Energy systems are changing, and that change is providing some challenges that different types of energy storage may help to mitigate
  5. 5. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield 5 • Main driver for change: to decarbonise the electrical network – the UK seems likely to have a combination of Nuclear, Onshore and Offshore Wind, Coal & Gas with Carbon Capture • Nuclear, Coal & Gas are dispatchable to a degree, but dependent on the technology and the carbon capture process too • On electrical demand – lets have a look at recent history for some indication of the challenges for balancing within a day Electrical network
  6. 6. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield GB electrical load curve
  7. 7. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield GB electrical load curve
  8. 8. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield GB Daily energy graph Each box on the grid is ~ 6,000 GWh = 600 Dinorwigs 8
  9. 9. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 2014 200 GWh/day 400 GWh/day 600 GWh/day 800 GWh/day 1000 GWh/day 30GWh/day site. leum products for inland consu mption from DECC website 2000 GWh 3000 GWh GB Daily energy graph Each box on the grid is ~ 6,000 GWh 9
  10. 10. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield 10 • Energy storage has vastly different types of scale. At the 1000s of GWh size – (fossil) fuels are the usual choice for stored energy • Immensely useful – risks are well known • However, they cause greenhouse gas emissions when combusted and are finite • Can be thought of as pre-conversion storage (electricity or indeed heat) A matter of scale
  11. 11. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield 11 Total existing (30GWh) and potential (60GWh) would be less than 100 GWh of electrical energy storage Currently Scotland has nearly 60% of GB’s energy capacity of PS, and if schemes are built – it would have over 85%
  12. 12. © The University of Sheffield 12 One Q-Max class LNG tanker has an energy capacity of > 1,600 GWh (£16million for each 1p/kWh) @ 50% conversion efficiency CCGT equates to 800 GWh ~ 29 times all GB pumped storage (80 Dinorwigs) Pictures sourced from www.gcaptain.com A matter of scale
  13. 13. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield 13 A matter of scale Mild winter caused less draw down on coal stocks ?
  14. 14. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield 14 • GB’s electrical demand follows a daily cycle • Within day storage/balancing is a focus for much research and pilot stage activity • Any mention of seasonal storage is well into the TWh region – which suggests fuels or thermal storage rather than electrochemical storage • 1 GWh of storage at £300 per kWh is £300million • 1 TWh of storage at $100 per kWh is $100billion A matter of timescale
  15. 15. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield Nov Dec Jan Feb Ma r Apr Ma y Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Ma r Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 2014 200 GWh/day 400 GWh/day 600 GWh/day 800 GWh/day 1000 GWh/day 30GWh/day m products for inland cons umption from DECC website A matter of timescale 15 Each box on the grid is ~ 6,000 GWh
  16. 16. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield Nov Dec Jan Feb Ma r Apr Ma y Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Ma r Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 2014 200 GWh/day 400 GWh/day 600 GWh/day 800 GWh/day 1000 GWh/day 30GWh/day m products for inland cons umption from DECC website A matter of timescale 16 Each box on the grid is ~ 6,000 GWh
  17. 17. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield Nov Dec Jan Feb Ma r Apr Ma y Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Ma r Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 2014 200 GWh/day 400 GWh/day 600 GWh/day 800 GWh/day 1000 GWh/day 30GWh/day m products for inland cons umption from DECC website A matter of timescale Purple line is gas to gas storage 17 Each box on the grid is ~ 6,000 GWh
  18. 18. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield EV sales in UK Plug-In Car Grant: Since the launch of the Plug-In Car Grant in January 2011 there have been 14,274 eligible cars registered There are approximately 29 million cars registered in the UK What about electric vehicles ? 18
  19. 19. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield 19 • Lets take 1/10th of a round figure of 30 million vehicles = 3 million vehicles • Lets take an average battery pack of 33 kWh • This gives a value of 99 GWh – in daily terms a sizeable manageable demand but in weekly or seasonal terms – not very much at GB level • Also – this presumes that each battery would require charging every day (unlikely) e.g. if 20% of the charge was used each day on average – the figure would be even lower at 20 GWh What about electric vehicles ?
  20. 20. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield Nov Dec Jan Feb Ma r Apr Ma y Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Ma r Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 2014 200 GWh/day 400 GWh/day 600 GWh/day 800 GWh/day 1000 GWh/day 30GWh/day m products for inland cons umption from DECC website A matter of timescale 99 GWh per day is half of the difference between a week day and a weekend or roughly half the UK’s nuclear output (before the drop off this August) 20 Each box on the grid is ~ 6,000 GWh
  21. 21. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield 21 • Cheapest post conversion storage is pumped hydro • Coire Glas suggested price of £800 million equates to <£30 per kWh installed • Order of magnitude less than battery based systems A matter of cost
  22. 22. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield 22 • If storage is providing a service of matching demand and supply – what else can help ? • And what are the comparative advantages and disadvantages ? • Does it compete or complement • Interconnection to enlarge the network (same energy carrier) • Demand side management • Interconnection (change of energy carrier) A matter of what else is available
  23. 23. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield Scotland gas transit Each rectangle on the grid is ~ 6,000 GWh
  24. 24. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield 24 • Up to 800 GWh per day transmitted to England, equating to equivalent power of 33 GW • Electrical connection between Scotland and England is thought to be 3.3 GW – but increasing to 6.5 GW by end of 2015 A matter of what else is available
  25. 25. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield GB electrical load curve
  26. 26. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield GB electrical load curve Each rectangle on the grid is ~ 100 MWh
  27. 27. 09/01/2015 © The University of Sheffield 27 • We have not mentioned frequency control or distributed energy storage – which are both likely to be major areas of growth • Also – if an energy system is to be decarbonised, it needs low-carbon energy sources and low carbon balancing • Finally, there is the question of access to any large storage scheme – maybe lessons to be learnt from interconnectors ?

×