Two-DimensionalFine Art Media “Art” can refer to highly developed skill or the mastery of a medium.
Fine Art Media > Two-Dimensional Art Medium or media (pl.) – the material and tools used by an artist to create art. Technique is the method and procedure used with an art medium. Craftsmanship is the skill with which the media and techniques are employed.
Fine Art Media > Two-Dimensional Art Two-dimensional art is any art work that has length and width, but no actual depth. Classified as:
Fine Art Media > Two-Dimensional Art > Drawing Leonardo da Vinci created hundreds of sketches for paintings, sculptures, inventions, mathematics, science, and more.
0 “Drawing . . . is the necessary beginning of everything in art, and not having it, one has nothing.”–Giorgio Vasari
0 Fine Art Media > Two-Dimensional Art > Drawing The most common support is monochromatic paper or parchment. But drawing can be found on a large variety of different surfaces. Support - the surface on which to draw Monochromatic - one color Linear - made of lines
REMBRANDT VAN RIJN. Copy of Leonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper. Red chalk on paper. 14”x 18”
Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Drawing >Drawing Materials Dry Media Silverpoint Graphite Charcoal Pastels, chalk Oil pastels, crayons Colored pencils
Two-dimensional > Drawing > Dry MediaSilverpoint Uses a ground of bone or chalk mixed with gum. Drag a silver tipped instrument over the surface and the partials stick to the ground. To make a area darker you have to use cross hatching. Very delicate in appearance. Leonardo. Horse Studies (c. 1500) silverpoint
Two-dimensional > Drawing > Dry MediaMetalpoint Not used a lot anymore (not forgiving in mistakes) Process: thin wire of metal (usually silver) in a holding device leaving marks on a drawing surface specially coated with paint. Much like scratchboard. Use thin, delicate lines with hatching and cross-hatching
Silverpoint ALPHONSE LEGROS. Head of a Man (19th century). Silverpoint on white ground.
Two-dimensional > Drawing > Dry Media Graphite Pencils Cheap, readily available, easily erased. Most art begins with an idea and a pencil sketch. Made of powdered graphite (not lead) fired with clay, ranging in hardness from 6H to 8B, the softest, and encased in wood. A good assortment for freehand drawing includes: 8B, 6B, 4B, 2B, HB, H
Giorgio de Chirico. Solitude (1917) pencil on paper, 8” x 12.5” MOMA
PABLO PICASSO. Study for Guernica(1932). pencil on paper
Two-dimensional > Drawing > Dry MediaCharcoal Made from burnt wood. Great for value studies. Kathe Kollowitz Self- Portrait
Two-dimensional > Drawing > Dry MediaChalk and Pastels Pigment and non-greasy binders Smudges easily; requires a fixative. Blends better and can be overlaid to produce shaded effects Michelangelo. Studies for The Libyan Sybil
Chalk and Pastels Chalk and pastel are very similar to charcoal. The compositions of the media differ. Made of ground chalk mixed with powered pigments and a gum binder. Introduced to France in the 1400s. Comes in many natural and synthetic colors Ocher - dark yellow that comes from iron oxide in some clays. Umber - yellowish or reddish brown color that comes from earth containing oxides or manganese and iron. Sanguine - a “earthy” red color
Modeling with chalk on a mid-tone paper to obtain the illusion of volume through the use of shading and heightening Related terms: light, value, contrast, key, highlight, shading, shadow, modeling, mid-tone, heightening, chiaroscuro Cartoon – drawing done to scale for a painting Leonardo. Virgin and Child with St. Anne, cartoon, sanguine and heightened with white chalk
JEAN-BAPTISTE CARPEAUX. Portrait of a Woman (1874). Black chalk heightened with white, on buff paper. 77⁄8” x 57⁄8”.
EDGAR DEGAS. Woman at Her Toilette (1903). Pastel on paper. 30” x 301⁄2”.
Two-dimensional > Drawing > Dry MediaCrayons Strictly defined, the term crayon includes any drawing material in stick form (This can include charcoal, chalk, and pastel, plus wax implements.) Conté Crayons is one of the most popular commercially manufactured crayons (a little greasier than chalk - coming in red, black, and brown colors).
Two-dimensional > Drawing > Dry Media Crayons Oil pastels combine ground pigment and oil binder - adhere better to the drawing paper; wide variety of colors; more difficult to blend Wax crayons combine ground pigment with a wax binder – less apt to smudge; non-toxic for kids use.
Two-dimensional > Drawing > Liquid MediaPen and Ink Can have variety of line width depending on tip of pen and the pressure on the tip. Crow quill with ink well or fountain pen. Also, used for writing Asian calligraphy artists Favored by and readily available to Rembrandt Made thousands of pen and ink sketches
Rembrandt van Rijn. Jonah (c. 1660) pen and ink and wash on paper
Two-dimensional > Drawing > Liquid Media Brush and Ink Broader, more intense lines than pen and ink Historically used in Asia for calligraphy
Brush and Ink KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI (1760–1849). Boy Playing Flute.Ink and brush on paper. 41⁄2” x 61⁄4”
Two-dimensional > Drawing > Liquid Media Brush & Ink Wash Watered down ink Broad, quick areas of value Used for spontaneity and immediacy. The brush can define volume and shadowing, from thin line to a broad sweep.
CLAUDE LORRAIN. Tiber above Rome (c. 1640). Brush and wash.
Brush and Wash LEONARDO DA VINCI. Study of Drapery (c. 1473). Brush, gray wash, heightened with white, on linen. 7” x 9”
Rembrandt van Rijn. Landscape (c. 1660) pen and ink and wash on paper
MIXED MEDIA HONORE DAUMIER. Counsel for the Defense (the Advocate) (1862-1865). Mixed Media (Pen and ink, charcoal, crayon, gouache,and watercolor) 20⅜" × 23¾".
Two-dimensional > Drawing > Digital Drawing Computer-based drawing Can be erased and reworked easier More colors, brush and pen sizes, and drawing “canvas” available. Paint programs; i.e., Adobe Illustrator Prints to many different supports
Two-dimensional > Drawing > Digital DrawingArchitectural & Engineering Uses programs to create building and structure plans Several different programs available: AutoCad (85% engineering firms use), Cad Pipe (draws ductwork in 3-D), Pro-E (3-D drawing for assembly of industrial and manufacturing—easy to modify), MicroStation (often used by government—works with AutoCad program well)
Two-dimensional > Wet MediaPainting Paint is a fluid substance made of pigment suspended in a liquid binder that is used to cover or decorate a surface. Painting is the process of applying paint to a surface using tools such as brushes, a roller, a painting knife, or a paint sprayer.
Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Painting >Painting Materials
Pigment - color material
Binder - a liquid that holds the particles of pigment together without dissolving them.
Support – the canvas, paper, wood panel, wall, or other surface that is painted on.
Gesso – a base paint primer that helps paint attach to the support
Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Painting >Fresco
Pigments mixed with water and applied to a plaster support (usually wet also)
Wall-painting technique often used for large scale murals
Works are guided by a full-sized drawing called a cartoon.
When ready to paint, the artist simply connects the dots.
Fresco Fresco - the art of painting on plaster. Was popular in the Renaissance And was revived in Mexico after WWI. Buon fresco or true fresco - done on damp, lime plaster. Fresco secco - painting on dry plaster. Problems with fresco: Have to work fast, you can only paint what can be completed in one day. This can create visible seams. Some color don’t work well with lime. (like blue)
GIOTTO. Lamentation (c. 1305). Fresco. 7’7” x 7’9”.
Encaustic Encaustic - One of the earliest methods of applying color to a surface. Uses a pigment in a wax vehicle that has been heated to a liquid state. Extremely durable Colors remain vibrant Surface will retain a hard luster Very old technique Used by the Egyptians and the Romans
Mummy Portrait of a Man (Egypto-Roman, Faiyum, c. 160–179 CE). Encaustic on wood.14” x 8”.
Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Painting > Encaustic Pigment mixed with wax and resin Must be heated to paint on easily. Paint hardens when cools.
KAY WALKINGSTICK. Solstice (1982). Acrylic and wax on canvas. 48” x 48” x 31⁄2”.
Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Painting >Tempera
Can be mixed with egg yolk to make it thicker, harder, and more permanent.
Tempera is often used to paint on wood panels with a base of gesso.
Tempera Egg Tempera - uses ground pigments mixed with vehicle of egg yolk thinned with water Popular for centuries the tradition composition is rarely used today Used by the Greeks and Romans Use the exclusive painting medium of artists in the Middle Ages. Fell out of favor in the 1300’s with the introduction of oil painting.
Advantages of Tempera Extremely durable Pure and brilliant colors Color did not become compromised by oxidation Consistency and fluidity allowed for precision Disadvantages: Dries quickly Hard to rework Can not provide subtle gradation of tone.
Tempera Terminology Gesso - A combination of powdered chalk and plaster and animal glue used as a ground in tempera. Gilding - the application of thinly hammered sheets of gold to a panel surface. (Commonly used in conjunction with tempera.) Egg Tempera - the egg mixture traditionally used as a binder in tempera.
GENTILE DA FABRIANO. Adoration of the Magi (1423). Tempera on wood panel9’101⁄8” x 9’3”.
FRANZ GERTSCH. Silvia (1998). Tempera on unprimed canvas. 9’61⁄4” x 9’ 21⁄4”.
Paint can become “muddy” from mixing colors and paint too much
Oil Oil painting - consists of ground pigments combined with a linseed oil and a turpentine thinner. The transition from tempera to oil was gradual. Naturally slow drying – can be speeded up with agents The first oils were on wood panels. Glazing - the application of multiple layers of transparent films of paint to a surface.
FOLLOWER OF REMBRANDT VAN RIJN. Head of St. Matthew (c. 1661). Oil on wood.97⁄8” x 73⁄4”.
Oil’s Advantages Slow drying lets you rework problem areas. Colors can be blended easily. Can creates nice delicate colors. The eventual use of canvas as a ground allowed paintings to get much bigger. Disadvantages Slow drying - Toxic solvents Cracking, yellowing, darkening with age
Oil Paint Alla Prima – Spontaneous painting approach (Italian for “all on the go”)
Oil Paint Impasto is the actual, thick, layered texture of the paint as applied by an artist. Vincent Van Gogh. The Woods
PABLO PICASSO. Family of Saltimbanques (1905). Oil on Canvas. 83” x 90”
Compare and Contrast The George Washingtons of Stuart and Lichtenstein
GILBERT STUART. George Washington (1796) (detail). Oil on canvas. 395⁄8” x 341⁄2” ROY LICHTENSTEIN. George Washington (1962). Oil on canvas. 51” x 38”.
ED PASCHKE. Anesthesio (1987). Oil on linen. 68” x 80”.
Acrylic Synthetic artist color, also called polymer Made of acrylic resin, polymerized through emulsions in water Can mimic the effects of oil, watercolor, tempera, and gouache paints. Dries quickly and permanently Keep brush in water while painting, so they do not dry out.
Acrylic Acrylic - is a mixture of pigment and a plastic vehicle that can be thinned with water. Advantages of acrylic paint over oil paint: No messy solvents – water cleanup. Can be used on a variety of surfaces. Surfaces don’t need special preparation. Stays flexible - no cracking No yellowing or darkening with age
HELEN OJI. Mount St. Helen’s (1980). Acrylic, Rhoplex, glitter on paper. 60” x 72”.
ROGER SHIMOMURA. Untitled (1984). Acrylic on canvas. 60” x 72”.
Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Painting >Watercolor
White of the paper serves as the white – white paint not really needed.
Wash – transparent/translucent, watered down paint spread across the support.
EMIL NOLDE. Still Life, Tulips (c. 1930). Watercolor on paper. 181⁄2” x 131⁄2”.
Disadvantages and Advantages of Traditional Watercolor White is created by leaving the white of the paper. The artist must plan ahead. Corrections are not possible. Remains water-soluble. Portable Great for sketches and impressions. Or, can be a used as finished art work.
RALPH GOINGS. Rock Ola (1992). Watercolor on paper. 14” x 203⁄4”.
Watercolor Watercolor - defined now as any painting medium that employs water as a solvent. Aquarelle - Transparent washes of color are applied to a white absorbent surface. Egyptian artists used a form of watercolor painting. Also, used in the Middle Ages to color transcripts Gouache - watercolor mixed with a high concentration of vehicle and opaque ingredients such as chalk primarily used during the Byzantine and Romanesque eras of Christian art.
Gouache Watercolor with white inert pigment added Inert pigment – pigment that becomes colorless in paint. Allows colors to be completely opaque and will hide anything they are painted over. Similar to poster paint Dries very quickly and uniformly
DAVID HOCKNEY. Punchinello with Block, for Ravel’s L’Enfant et les Sortilèges (1980). Gouache on paper. 14” x 17”.
Drybrush Watercolor "I use a smaller brush, dip into the color, splay out the bristles, squeeze out a good deal of the moisture and color with my fingers so that only a very small amount of paint is left. Drybrush is layer upon layer — a definite weaving process." - Andrew Wyeth,Thomas Hoving
Spray Paint Is spray painting like prehistoric cave painting? It raises similar questions: Why do they do it? Is it art? Is it urban ritual? Will is speak in history to the trails of inner-city living?
CRASH (JOHN MATOS). Arcadia Revisited (1988). Spray paint on canvas. 961⁄4” x 68”.
Mixed Media Collage or papierscolles - Picasso and Braque were the first to incorporate pieces of newsprint, wallpaper, labels from wine bottles, and oilcloth into their paintings. Miriam Schapiro create what she calls “femmage” with is a version of collage using feminie imagery and materials
HOWARDENA PINDELL. Autobiography: Water / Ancestors, Middle Passage / Family Ghosts (1988). Acrylic, tempera, cattle markers, oil stick, paper, polymer photo-transfer, and vinyl tape on sewn canvas. 118” x 71”.
Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Mixed Media >Collage
French word that means “pasting” or “gluing”
Attaching actual materials to the surface of a support
Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Mixed Media >Collage Pablo Picasso – The first artist to attach paper and other materials to his art work. Guitar, Sheet Music, and Glass paper, gouache, charcoal
MIRIAM SCHAPIRO. Maid of Honour (1984). Acrylic and fabric on canvas. 60” x 50”.
Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Mixed Media >Collage Henri Matisse- famous painter who was diagnosed with cancer at age 78 - couldn’t paint anymore, so he made cut paper collages.
Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Mixed Media >Collage Matisse, cut paper
JUDY PFAFF. Voodoo (1981). Contact paper collage on Mylar. 98” x 60” (framed).
Printmaking Printmaking is an indirect means of creating art by transferring an image or design by contact with a matrix such as a block, plate, stone, or screen.
Printmaking There are four basic manual processes used in traditional printmaking. Reliefwood-cut, wood engraving, linoleum-cut Intagliodry point, engraving, etching, aquatint, mezzotint Planography lithography Stencil screenprint (silk-screen, serigraphy)
Printmaking Original Print vs. Reproduction? An original print is a work of art created through contact with a matrix such as a stone, block, plate, or screen that was created by the artist; it must have been printed manually by the artist or under the artist's direct supervision and was approved by the artist for quality and excellence. Printed reproductions of drawings or paintings, no matter how aesthetically pleasing, are not to be considered original prints.