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Two-Dimensional Fine Art Media


Drawing, Painting, Printmaking, and Camera Arts

Drawing, Painting, Printmaking, and Camera Arts

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  • Not used a lot anymore (not forgiving in mistakes)Process: thin wire of metal (usually silver) in a holding device scratches lines onto a drawing surface specially coated with paint.Much like scratchboard.Use thin, delicate lines with hatching and cross-hatching
  • Pencil - Most traditional mediaReplaced silverpointCapable of creating a wide range of effects. History: Came into use in the 1500sMass produced pencils invented in late eighteenth century. Uses a thin rod of graphite encased in wood or paper. The graphite is ground to dust, mixed with clay and baked. The more clay, the harder the pencil.Graphite is also available in bar, crayon, chunk, and powdered form. Use paper with a smooth or hot press surface that has very little tooth or texture. Can be erased; softer graphite smudges easily - can be controlled by spraying a synthetic fixative over the drawing. Begin lightly with the hardest pencil and gradually darken the drawing with softer graphite. Do not put harder graphite over softer. Use a light hand. Be careful not to score the paper surface with the harder pencils.
  • CharcoalMade from burnt wood. Great for value studies. Gives us a sense of three-dimensional space and a great range of lights and darks with minimal effort. Known for expressive, direct and immediate qualities. Can create bold, thick lines or be sharpened to a point for more detailed marks. Use paper with a medium to heavy tooth or texture. Can be erased; smudges easily - can be controlled by spraying a synthetic fixative over the drawing.Charcoal comes in three basic types: Willow charcoal is light-weight, hard and brittle. It is powdery and easily rubbed off.Vine charcoal is a fine quality natural charcoal made from hardwoods, which offers a full range of tone, yet is easily erased or blended with a paper stump.Compressed charcoal is made of powdered charcoal and is available in varying degrees of hardness. It has a good overall considency, but its dense tone can be difficult to erase and blend. It is available in squared bars, rounded crayons, pencils, chunks, and powdered. Begin lightly with the hardest charcoal and gradually darken the drawing with softer charcoal. Do not put harder charcoal over softer. Break into small pieces or sharpen for better control. Use a light hand. Build up your darker values slowly after fixing each layer to control smudging. Make sure to erase any smudges or finger prints before fixing.
  • Pigment mixed with wax and resinMust be heated to paint on easily.Paint hardens when cools.Used mainly by Greek and Roman artists.


  • 1. Two-DimensionalFine Art Media
    “Art” can refer to highly developed skill or the mastery of a medium.
  • 2. Fine Art Media > Two-Dimensional Art
    Medium or media (pl.) – the material and tools used by an artist to create art.
    Technique is the method and procedure used with an art medium.
    Craftsmanship is the skill with which the media and techniques are employed.
  • 3. Fine Art Media > Two-Dimensional Art
    Two-dimensional art is any art work that has length and width, but no actual depth.
    Classified as:
    • Drawing - Digital Drawing
    • 4. Painting- Printmaking
    - Mixed Media - Camera Arts
  • 5. Fine Art Media > Two-Dimensional Art > Drawing
    The art of running an implement that leaves a mark over a surface.
    Most basic art form.
    M.C. Escher, Drawing
  • 6. Fine Art Media > Two-Dimensional Art >DRAWING CATAGORIES
    • Sketches to record an idea or information; personal note-taking
    • 7. Plans or preparatory studies for future projects
    • 8. Fully developed finished works of art
  • Fine Art Media > Two-Dimensional Art > Drawing
    Leonardo da Vinci
    created hundreds
    of sketches for
    science, and more.
  • 9. 0
    “Drawing . . . is the necessary beginning of everything in art, and not having it, one has nothing.”–Giorgio Vasari
  • 10. 0
    Fine Art Media > Two-Dimensional Art > Drawing
    The most common support is monochromatic paper or parchment. But drawing can be found on a large variety of different surfaces.
    Support - the surface on which to draw
    Monochromatic - one color
    Linear - made of lines
  • 11. REMBRANDT VAN RIJN. Copy of Leonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper. Red chalk on paper. 14”x 18”
  • 12. Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Drawing >Drawing Materials
    Dry Media
    Pastels, chalk
    Oil pastels, crayons
    Colored pencils
  • Two-dimensional > Drawing > Dry MediaSilverpoint
    Uses a ground of bone or chalk mixed with gum.
    Drag a silver tipped instrument over the surface and the partials stick to the ground.
    To make a area darker you have to use cross hatching.
    Very delicate in appearance.
    Leonardo. Horse Studies (c. 1500) silverpoint
  • 16. Two-dimensional > Drawing > Dry MediaMetalpoint
    Not used a lot anymore (not forgiving in mistakes)
    Process: thin wire of metal (usually silver) in a holding device leaving marks on a drawing surface specially coated with paint.
    Much like scratchboard.
    Use thin, delicate lines with hatching and cross-hatching
  • 17. Silverpoint
    ALPHONSE LEGROS. Head of a Man (19th century). Silverpoint on white ground.
  • 18. Two-dimensional > Drawing > Dry Media
    Graphite Pencils
    Cheap, readily available,
    easily erased.
    Most art begins with an idea
    and a pencil sketch.
    Made of powdered graphite
    (not lead) fired with clay,
    ranging in hardness from
    6H to 8B, the softest, and
    encased in wood.
    A good assortment
    for freehand drawing includes: 8B, 6B, 4B, 2B, HB, H
  • 19. Giorgio de Chirico. Solitude (1917) pencil on paper, 8” x 12.5” MOMA
  • 20. PABLO PICASSO. Study for Guernica(1932). pencil on paper
  • 21. Two-dimensional > Drawing > Dry MediaCharcoal
    Made from burnt wood.
    Great for value studies.
    Kathe Kollowitz
    Self- Portrait
  • 22. Two-dimensional > Drawing > Dry MediaChalk and Pastels
    Pigment and non-greasy binders
    Smudges easily; requires a fixative.
    Blends better and can be overlaid to produce shaded effects
    Michelangelo. Studies for The Libyan Sybil
  • 23. Chalk and Pastels
    Chalk and pastel are very similar to charcoal.
    The compositions of the media differ.
    Made of ground chalk mixed with powered pigments and a gum binder.
    Introduced to France in the 1400s.
    Comes in many natural and synthetic colors
    Ocher - dark yellow that comes from iron oxide in some clays.
    Umber - yellowish or reddish brown color that comes from earth containing oxides or manganese and iron.
    Sanguine - a “earthy” red color
  • 24. Modeling with chalk on a mid-tone paper to obtain the illusion of volume through the use of shading and heightening
    Related terms: light, value, contrast, key, highlight, shading, shadow, modeling, mid-tone, heightening, chiaroscuro
    Cartoon – drawing done to scale for a painting
    Leonardo. Virgin and Child with St. Anne, cartoon, sanguine and heightened with white chalk
  • 25. JEAN-BAPTISTE CARPEAUX. Portrait of a Woman (1874). Black chalk heightened with white, on buff paper. 77⁄8” x 57⁄8”.
  • 26. EDGAR DEGAS. Woman at Her Toilette (1903). Pastel on paper. 30” x 301⁄2”.
  • 27. Two-dimensional > Drawing > Dry MediaCrayons
    Strictly defined, the term crayon includes any drawing material in stick form (This can include charcoal, chalk, and pastel, plus wax implements.)
    Conté Crayons is one of the most popular commercially manufactured crayons (a little greasier than chalk - coming in red, black, and brown colors).
  • 28. Two-dimensional > Drawing > Dry Media Crayons
    Oil pastels combine ground pigment and oil binder - adhere better to the drawing paper; wide variety of colors; more difficult to blend
    Wax crayons combine ground pigment with a wax binder – less apt to smudge; non-toxic for kids use.
  • 29. Two-dimensional > Drawing > Liquid MediaPen and Ink
    Can have variety of line width depending on tip of pen and the pressure on the tip.
    Crow quill with ink well or fountain pen.
    Also, used for writing
    Asian calligraphy artists
    Favored by and readily available to Rembrandt
    Made thousands of pen and ink sketches
  • 30. Rembrandt van Rijn. Jonah (c. 1660) pen and ink and wash on paper
  • 31.
  • 32. Two-dimensional > Drawing > Liquid Media Brush and Ink
    Broader, more intense lines than pen and ink
    Historically used in Asia for calligraphy
  • 33. Brush and Ink
    KATSUSHIKA HOKUSAI (1760–1849). Boy Playing Flute.Ink and brush on paper. 41⁄2” x 61⁄4”
  • 34. Two-dimensional > Drawing > Liquid Media Brush & Ink Wash
    Watered down ink
    Broad, quick areas of value
    Used for spontaneity and immediacy.
    The brush can define volume and shadowing, from thin line to a broad sweep.  
  • 35. CLAUDE LORRAIN. Tiber above Rome (c. 1640). Brush and wash.
  • 36. Brush and Wash
    LEONARDO DA VINCI. Study of Drapery (c. 1473). Brush, gray wash, heightened with white, on linen. 7” x 9”
  • 37. Rembrandt van Rijn. Landscape (c. 1660) pen and ink and wash on paper
    HONORE DAUMIER. Counsel for the Defense (the Advocate) (1862-1865).
    Mixed Media (Pen and ink, charcoal, crayon, gouache,and watercolor) 20⅜" × 23¾".
  • 39. Mixed Media
  • 40. Two-dimensional > Drawing > Digital Drawing
    Computer-based drawing
    Can be erased and reworked easier
    More colors, brush and pen sizes, and drawing “canvas” available.
    Paint programs; i.e., Adobe Illustrator
    Prints to many different supports
  • 41. Two-dimensional > Drawing > Digital DrawingArchitectural & Engineering
    Uses programs to create building and structure plans
    Several different programs available:
    AutoCad (85% engineering firms use), Cad Pipe (draws ductwork in 3-D), Pro-E (3-D drawing for assembly of industrial and manufacturing—easy to modify), MicroStation (often used by government—works with AutoCad program well)
  • 42. Architectural Drawings
  • 43. Architectural Drawings
  • 44. Two-dimensional > Wet MediaPainting
    Uses full spectrum of colors
    Framed to protect and give them an impression of being “precious”
    Classified as:
    • Fresco - Encaustic
    • 45. Tempera - Oil
    - Acrylic - Watercolor
  • 46. Two-dimensional > Wet MediaPainting
    Paint is a fluid substance made of pigment suspended in a liquid binder that is used to cover or decorate a surface.
    Painting is the process of applying paint to a surface using tools such as brushes, a roller, a painting knife, or a paint sprayer.
  • 47. Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Painting >Painting Materials
    • Pigment - color material
    • 48. Binder - a liquid that holds the particles of pigment together without dissolving them.
    • 49. Vehicle/solvent works as a paint thinner.
    • 50. Support – the canvas, paper, wood panel, wall, or other surface that is painted on.
    • 51. Gesso – a base paint primer that helps paint attach to the support
  • Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Painting >Fresco
    • Pigments mixed with water and applied to a plaster support (usually wet also)
    • 52. Wall-painting technique often used for large scale murals
    • 53. Works are guided by a full-sized drawing called a cartoon.
    • 54. When ready to paint, the artist simply connects the dots.
  • Fresco
    Fresco - the art of painting on plaster.
    Was popular in the Renaissance
    And was revived in Mexico after WWI.
    Buon fresco or true fresco - done on damp, lime plaster.
    Fresco secco - painting on dry plaster.
    Problems with fresco:
    Have to work fast, you can only paint what can be completed in one day. This can create visible seams.
    Some color don’t work well with lime. (like blue)
  • 55. GIOTTO. Lamentation (c. 1305). Fresco. 7’7” x 7’9”.
  • 56.
  • 57.
  • 58. Encaustic
    Encaustic - One of the earliest methods of applying color to a surface. Uses a pigment in a wax vehicle that has been heated to a liquid state.
    Extremely durable
    Colors remain vibrant
    Surface will retain a hard luster
    Very old technique
    Used by the Egyptians and the Romans
  • 59. Mummy Portrait of a Man (Egypto-Roman, Faiyum, c. 160–179 CE). Encaustic on wood.14” x 8”.
  • 60. Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Painting > Encaustic
    Pigment mixed with wax and resin
    Must be heated to paint on easily.
    Paint hardens when cools.
  • 61. KAY WALKINGSTICK. Solstice (1982). Acrylic and wax on canvas. 48” x 48” x 31⁄2”.
  • 62. Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Painting >Tempera
    • Made with water and pigment
    • 63. Bright colors that last longer than oil paint
    • 64. Can be mixed with egg yolk to make it thicker, harder, and more permanent.
    • 65. Tempera is often used to paint on wood panels with a base of gesso.
  • Tempera
    Egg Tempera - uses ground pigments mixed with vehicle of egg yolk thinned with water
    Popular for centuries the tradition composition is rarely used today
    Used by the Greeks and Romans
    Use the exclusive painting medium of artists in the Middle Ages.
    Fell out of favor in the 1300’s with the introduction of oil painting.
  • 66. Advantages of Tempera
    Extremely durable
    Pure and brilliant colors
    Color did not become compromised by oxidation
    Consistency and fluidity allowed for precision
    Dries quickly
    Hard to rework
    Can not provide subtle gradation of tone.
  • 67. Tempera Terminology
    Gesso - A combination of powdered chalk and plaster and animal glue used as a ground in tempera.
    Gilding - the application of thinly hammered sheets of gold to a panel surface. (Commonly used in conjunction with tempera.)
    Egg Tempera - the egg mixture traditionally used as a binder in tempera.
  • 68. GENTILE DA FABRIANO. Adoration of the Magi (1423). Tempera on wood panel9’101⁄8” x 9’3”.
  • 69. FRANZ GERTSCH. Silvia (1998). Tempera on unprimed canvas. 9’61⁄4” x 9’ 21⁄4”.
  • 70. Oil Paint
  • 71. Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Painting >Oil Paint
    • Pigment mixed with linseed oil.
    • 72. First used on wooden panels and then graduated to flexible stretched canvas.
    • 73. Used on large, bold projects
    • 74. Dries VERY slowly
    • 75. Colors can be blended subtly and areas can be reworked easily
    • 76. Sometimes takes weeks or months to dry
    • 77. Paint can become “muddy” from mixing colors and paint too much
  • Oil
    Oil painting - consists of ground pigments combined with a linseed oil and a turpentine thinner.
    The transition from tempera to oil was gradual.
    Naturally slow drying – can be speeded up with agents
    The first oils were on wood panels.
    Glazing - the application of multiple layers of transparent films of paint to a surface.
  • 78. FOLLOWER OF REMBRANDT VAN RIJN. Head of St. Matthew (c. 1661). Oil on wood.97⁄8” x 73⁄4”.
  • 79. Oil’s Advantages
    Slow drying lets you rework problem areas. Colors can be blended easily.
    Can creates nice delicate colors.
    The eventual use of canvas as a ground allowed paintings to get much bigger.
    Slow drying - Toxic solvents
    Cracking, yellowing, darkening with age
  • 80. Oil Paint
    Alla Prima – Spontaneous painting approach (Italian for “all on the go”)
  • 81. Oil Paint
    Impasto is the actual, thick, layered texture of the paint as applied by an artist.
    Vincent Van Gogh. The Woods
  • 82. PABLO PICASSO. Family of Saltimbanques (1905). Oil on Canvas. 83” x 90”
  • 83. Compare and Contrast
    The George Washingtons
    Stuart and Lichtenstein
  • 84. GILBERT STUART. George Washington (1796) (detail). Oil on canvas. 395⁄8” x 341⁄2”
    ROY LICHTENSTEIN. George Washington (1962). Oil on canvas. 51” x 38”.
  • 85. ED PASCHKE. Anesthesio (1987). Oil on linen. 68” x 80”.
  • 86. Acrylic
    Synthetic artist color, also called polymer
    Made of acrylic resin, polymerized through emulsions in water
    Can mimic the effects of oil, watercolor, tempera, and gouache paints.
    Dries quickly and permanently
    Keep brush in water while painting, so they do not dry out.
  • 87. Acrylic
    Acrylic - is a mixture of pigment and a plastic vehicle that can be thinned with water.
    Advantages of acrylic paint over oil paint:
    No messy solvents – water cleanup.
    Can be used on a variety of surfaces.
    Surfaces don’t need special preparation.
    Stays flexible - no cracking
    No yellowing or darkening with age
  • 88. HELEN OJI. Mount St. Helen’s (1980). Acrylic, Rhoplex, glitter on paper. 60” x 72”.
  • 89. ROGER SHIMOMURA. Untitled (1984). Acrylic on canvas. 60” x 72”.
  • 90. Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Painting >Watercolor
    • Pigment with water and gum arabic
    • 91. Mostly used on paper
    • 92. Mainly used for small, intimate works
    • 93. Transparency is the desired characteristic
    • 94. White of the paper serves as the white – white paint not really needed.
    • 95. Wash – transparent/translucent, watered down paint spread across the support.
  • EMIL NOLDE. Still Life, Tulips (c. 1930). Watercolor on paper. 181⁄2” x 131⁄2”.
  • 96. Disadvantages and Advantages of Traditional Watercolor
    White is created by leaving the white of the paper.
    The artist must plan ahead.
    Corrections are not possible.
    Remains water-soluble.
    Great for sketches and impressions.
    Or, can be a used as finished art work.
  • 97. RALPH GOINGS. Rock Ola (1992). Watercolor on paper. 14” x 203⁄4”.
  • 98. Watercolor
    Watercolor - defined now as any painting medium that employs water as a solvent.
    Aquarelle - Transparent washes of color are applied to a white absorbent surface.
    Egyptian artists used a form of watercolor painting.
    Also, used in the Middle Ages to color transcripts
    Gouache - watercolor mixed with a high concentration of vehicle and opaque ingredients such as chalk primarily used during the Byzantine and Romanesque eras of Christian art.
  • 99. Gouache
    Watercolor with white inert pigment added
    Inert pigment – pigment that becomes colorless in paint.
    Allows colors to be completely opaque and will hide anything they are painted over.
    Similar to poster paint
    Dries very quickly and uniformly
  • 100. DAVID HOCKNEY. Punchinello with Block, for Ravel’s L’Enfant et les Sortilèges (1980). Gouache on paper. 14” x 17”.
  • 101. Drybrush Watercolor
    "I use a smaller brush, dip into the color, splay out the bristles, squeeze out a good deal of the moisture and color with my fingers so that only a very small amount of paint is left. Drybrush is layer upon layer — a definite weaving process."
    - Andrew Wyeth,Thomas Hoving
  • 102. Spray Paint
    Is spray painting like prehistoric cave painting? It raises similar questions:
    Why do they do it?
    Is it art?
    Is it urban ritual?
    Will is speak in history to the trails of inner-city living?
  • 103. CRASH (JOHN MATOS). Arcadia Revisited (1988). Spray paint on canvas. 961⁄4” x 68”.
  • 104. Mixed Media
    Collage or papierscolles - Picasso and Braque were the first to incorporate pieces of newsprint, wallpaper, labels from wine bottles, and oilcloth into their paintings.
    Miriam Schapiro create what she calls “femmage” with is a version of collage using feminie imagery and materials
  • 105. HOWARDENA PINDELL. Autobiography: Water / Ancestors, Middle Passage / Family Ghosts (1988). Acrylic, tempera, cattle markers, oil stick, paper, polymer photo-transfer, and vinyl tape on sewn canvas. 118” x 71”.
  • 106. Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Mixed Media >Collage
    • French word that means “pasting” or “gluing”
    • 107. Attaching actual materials to the surface of a support
    • 108. Objects can be paper, cloth, or anything
    • 109. Drawing or painting can also be incorporated
  • Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Mixed Media >Collage
    Pablo Picasso –
    The first artist to attach paper and other materials to his art work.
    Guitar, Sheet Music, and Glass paper, gouache, charcoal
  • 110. MIRIAM SCHAPIRO. Maid of Honour (1984). Acrylic and fabric on canvas. 60” x 50”.
  • 111. Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Mixed Media >Collage
    Henri Matisse- famous painter who was diagnosed with cancer at age 78
    - couldn’t paint anymore, so he made cut paper collages.
  • 112. Fine Art Media > Two-dimensional Art > Mixed Media >Collage
    Matisse, cut paper
  • 113. JUDY PFAFF. Voodoo (1981). Contact paper collage on Mylar. 98” x 60” (framed).
  • 114. Printmaking
    Printmaking is an indirect means of creating art by transferring an image or design by contact with a matrix such as a block, plate, stone, or screen.
  • 115. Printmaking
    There are four basic manual processes used in traditional printmaking. Reliefwood-cut, wood engraving, linoleum-cut Intagliodry point, engraving, etching, aquatint, mezzotint Planography
    lithography Stencil
    screenprint (silk-screen, serigraphy)
  • 116. Printmaking
    Original Print vs. Reproduction?
    An original print is a work of art created through contact with a matrix such as a stone, block, plate, or screen that was created by the artist; it must have been printed manually by the artist or under the artist's direct supervision and was approved by the artist for quality and excellence.
    Printed reproductions of drawings or paintings, no matter how aesthetically pleasing, are not to be considered original prints.