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  • Volume refers to the mass or bulk of three-dimensional works. This work by David Smith is a good example of geometric form.
  • Readymades Assemblages
  • Works of art that are "nonobjective" resemble no object in the real world Dale Chihuly (and team) Seattle, WA, based glass artist. Installed with thousands of hand-blown glass elements. The works radiate light from the sun or other light sources.
  • Christo and Jeanne-Claude. The Gates, Central Park, New York, NY 2005
  • Sculpture

    1. 1. Three-Dimensional Art Sculpture Architecture Craft & Design 0
    2. 2. <ul><li>A sculptor is a person obsessed with the form and shape of things, and it’s not just the shape of one thing, but the shape of anything and everything: the hard, tense strength, although delicate form of a bone; the strong, solid fleshiness of a beech tree trunk. –Henry Moore </li></ul>0
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>What is sculpture? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is sculpture important to us? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does sculpture create an emotion in humans? </li></ul><ul><li>Why have we felt the need to create sculptures and monumental sculptures throughout our history? </li></ul>0
    4. 4. Venus of Willendorf, Paleolithic. 30,000 BCE
    5. 5. Sculpture <ul><li>Sculpture - The art of carving, casting, modeling, or assembling materials into three-dimensional figures or forms </li></ul><ul><li>Freestanding sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Relief sculpture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bas-Relief or low relief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Relief </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Palette of Narmer, Egyptian, c. 3000 BCE
    7. 7. Column of Trajan , Forum of Trajan, Rome, dedicated 112. 128 feet high
    8. 8. Types of Sculpture: Subtractive and Additive <ul><li>Subtractive Process - Carving; unwanted materials are removed. </li></ul><ul><li>Additive Process - Modeling, Casting, Construction </li></ul>
    9. 9. Carving <ul><li>Carving - removing portions of a block of materials to create a form. </li></ul><ul><li>Can use stone, plaster, wood, ivory, glass, ice, chocolate… </li></ul><ul><li>Can be done by hand or with power tools. </li></ul>
    10. 10. MICHELANGELO. The Cross-Legged Captive (c. 1530–1534). Marble. H: 7 ’ 6 1⁄2 ” .
    11. 11. Michelangelo. David , (1500) marble
    12. 12. Modeling <ul><li>Modeling - using a pliable materials such as clay or wax the artist shapes the material into a 3D form. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be done by hand or with tools. </li></ul>
    13. 14. LOUISE BOURGEOIS. Portrait of Robert (1969). Cast bronze with white patina. 13 ” x 12 1⁄2 ” x 10 ” .
    14. 15. Casting <ul><li>Casting - liquid material is poured into a mold to create a form. </li></ul><ul><li>Mold - the form into which the material is poured. </li></ul><ul><li>Any material that hardens can be used for casting; i.e. metal, slip, plaster, plastic resins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the oldest and most common is bronze. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. Auguste Rodin. The Thinker , cast bronze
    16. 17. EDGAR DEGAS. The Little Dancer, 14 Years Old (1880–1881). Bronze. H: 39 ” . <ul><li>Readymade </li></ul><ul><li>Polychrome </li></ul>
    17. 18. The Lost-Wax Technique <ul><li>Lost-Wax Technique </li></ul><ul><li>The artist creates a form and then from this form a mold is created by covering the shape usually in plaster or resin. </li></ul><ul><li>The inside of the mold is is then filled or covered with wax. </li></ul><ul><li>The wax is removed and covered in a sandy mixture of silica, clay and plaster to create a investiture . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investiture - is a fire resistant mold into which the liquid metal will be poured. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The wax is heated and pour out of the now sold investiture and replaced with the liquid metal. </li></ul><ul><li>The finished metal sculpture is removed from the investiture, and burnished. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burnished - treated chemically to take on a texture and color. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. GEORGE SEGAL. Three Figures and Four Benches (1979). Painted bronze. 52 ” x 144 ” x 58 ” . Casting of Human Models
    19. 20. Construction <ul><li>Constructed sculpture - forms are built from materials such as wood, paper, string, sheet metal, and wire. </li></ul>
    20. 21. Joseph Cornell. Hotel Eden, (c. 1945) assemblage
    21. 22. Maya Lin. Vietnam Veterans Memorial, (1982) Washington, DC
    22. 23. Traditional Sculpture Materials <ul><li>Marble </li></ul><ul><li>Wood </li></ul><ul><li>Clay </li></ul><ul><li>Metal </li></ul>
    23. 24. Marble <ul><li>Marble is extremely hard </li></ul><ul><li>It is also very durable </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate for monuments and statues </li></ul><ul><li>Stone tools include the chisel, mallet, and rasp. </li></ul><ul><li>Artists, also, use contemporary power tools </li></ul>
    24. 25. POLYKLEITOS. Spear Bearer ( Doryphoros ) (c. 450–440 BCE). Roman copy after bronze Greek original. Marble. 6 ’ 6 ” The Weight-shift (Contrapposto) asymmetrical, naturalistic, relaxed stance.
    25. 26. Brancusi. The Kiss 1912
    26. 27. LOUISE BOURGEOIS. Eyes (1982). Marble. 74 3⁄4 ” x 54 ” x 45 3⁄4 ” .
    27. 28. Wood <ul><li>Wood can be carved, scraped, drilled, and polished, laminated, and bent. </li></ul><ul><li>Different woods have a different hardness and grain. </li></ul><ul><li>Wood appeals to sculptures because of its grain, color, and workability. </li></ul><ul><li>Wood is lighter and easier to carved than stone. </li></ul><ul><li>Tensile strength - The inherent strength of a material. </li></ul>
    28. 29. BARBARA HEPWORTH (1903–1975). Two Figures (Menhirs) (1954–1955). Teak. H: 54 ” .
    29. 30. PO SHUN LEONG. Figure (1993). Mahogany with hidden drawers. H: 50 ” .
    30. 31. Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods <ul><li>Throughout history sculptors have searched for new forms expression. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constructed sculpture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assemblage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Readymades </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed media </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic sculpture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light sculpture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land art </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 32. Constructed sculpture <ul><li>The artist “builds” the sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Materials could include, sheet metal, cardboard, celluloid, or wire </li></ul><ul><li>Some artworks are lighter than those from stone or wood </li></ul><ul><li>Unorthodox materials can also be used </li></ul>
    32. 33. David Smith. Cubi XX (1964) welded stainlesss steel, UCLA
    33. 34. PABLO PICASSO. Mandolin and Clarinet (1913). Wood construction and paint.
    34. 35. DEBORAH BUTTERFIELD. Verde (1990). Found steel. 79 ” x 108 ” x 31 ”
    35. 36. CLAES OLDENBURG. Soft Toilet (1966). Vinyl filled with kapok painted with Liquitex, and wood. 57 x 27 x 28 ” .
    36. 37. Assemblage <ul><li>A form of constructed sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-existing or found objects take on a new form as artworks </li></ul><ul><li>Novel combinations that take on a new life and meaning </li></ul><ul><li>One of the best-known examples is Picasso’s Bull’s Head </li></ul>
    37. 38. Louise Nevelson. Royal Tide I , 1960, painted wood, 86 x 40 x 8 inches.
    38. 39. PABLO PICASSO. Bull’s Head (1943). Bronze cast of parts of a bicycle. H: 16 1⁄8 ” .
    39. 40. Readymades <ul><li>Found objects (readymades) can be elevated to works of art on pedestals, such as Duchamp’s urinal, turned upside down. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a 20th-century artistic trend </li></ul><ul><li>No assembly is needed for this artform </li></ul>
    40. 41. <ul><li>Readymade – found objects that are exhibited as works of art </li></ul><ul><li>Assemblage – a work of art that consists of assembled three-dimensional objects </li></ul>Duchamp. Fountain
    41. 42. Mixed Media <ul><li>Mixed Media - Use materials and ready-mades or found objects that are not normally elements of a work of art. </li></ul>
    42. 43. SIMON RODIA. Simon Rodia Towers in Watts (1921–1954). Cement with various objects. H: 98 ’ .
    43. 44. Kinetic Sculpture <ul><li>Kinetic sculpture - Sculptures that move, art + action. Example: the mobile. </li></ul><ul><li>Forms of movement might include: </li></ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic fields </li></ul><ul><li>Jets of water </li></ul><ul><li>Electric motors </li></ul><ul><li>The intensity of light </li></ul><ul><li>Human manipulations </li></ul>
    44. 45. ALEXANDER CALDER. Untitled (1972). East Building mobile.
    45. 46. GEORGE RICKEY. Cluster of Four Cubes (1992). Stainless steel.
    46. 47. Light Sculpture <ul><li>Light and its reflections have always been an important elements in sculpture (and art!) </li></ul><ul><li>However, “light sculpture” is a 20th-century artform </li></ul><ul><li>What are the physical psychological and physical effects of color and the creation of illusion? </li></ul>
    47. 48. Dale Chihuly, Glass Art
    48. 49. Land Art <ul><li>Earthworks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site specific installations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monumental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary </li></ul></ul>
    49. 50. Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty , (1970) earthwork , Great Salt Lake, Utah
    50. 51. Christo and Jeanne-Claude. The Gates , Central Park, New York, NY 2005
    51. 52. Christo and Jeanne-Claude. The Umbrellas Japan and California
    52. 53. More Recent Work <ul><li>Sculpture today uses not only traditional materials, but also materials that have never been used before. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: beeswax and microcrystalline wax, glass, chocolate, Styrofoam, etc… </li></ul>
    53. 54. JANINE ANTONI. Chocolate Gnaw (1992). Chocolate (600 lb before biting), gnawed by the artist. 24 ” x 24 ” x 24 ”
    54. 55. DAVID GILHOOLY. Bowl of Chocolate Moose (1989). Ceramic. 10 ” x 6 ” x 7 ”
    55. 56. Claes Oldenburg: Clothespins, Baseball Bats, and Other Monuments 0
    56. 57. SYLVIE FLEURY. Dog Toy 3 (Crazy Bird) (2000). Styrofoam, paint. 260 cm x 210 cm x 180 cm.
    57. 58. Richard Serra, Sculptures, steel, Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain.