Two-Dimensional Art• Drawing• Painting• Printmaking• Imaging: Photography, Film,Video, and Digital Arts
Drawing . . . is the necessary beginning of everything in art, and not having it, one has nothing. –Giorgio Vasari
Drawing• The most basic of all the visual arts• The most common support is monochromatic paper or parchment. But, drawing can be found on a large variety of different surfaces.• Drawing - the result of implement running over a surface and leaving some trace of this gesture• Support - the surface• Monochromatic - one color• Linear - made of lines
DRAWING CATAGORIES 1. Sketches 2. Plans 3. Fully developed works of art
Dry MediaSilverpoint• Uses a ground of bone or chalk mixed with gum, water and pigment• Drag a silver tipped instrument over the surface, and the particles stick to the ground.• To make an area darker you have to use cross hatching.• Very delicate in appearance
Pencil• Most traditional media• Replaced silverpoint• Capable of creating a wide range of effectsHistory:• Came into use in the 1500s• Mass produced pencils invented in late eighteenth century• Uses a thin rod of graphite encased in wood or paper• The graphite is ground to dust, mixed with clay, and baked.• The more clay that is added to the mixture, the harder the pencil.
PencilFigure 5.6, p.109: ADRIAN PIPER. Self-Portrait Exaggerating My Negroid Features (1981). Pencil on paper.10” x 8”.
Charcoal• Has a long history• Used by prehistoric man on cave walls!• Charcoal is burnt pieces of wood or bone.• Now charcoal is made from controlled charring of special hardwoods.• Charcoals range from hard to soft.• Can be easily smudged or rubbed• Shows the surface of the paper• Needs to be fixed with varnish, or will rub off
CharcoalFigure 5.9, p.111: CLAUDIO BRAVO. Package (1969). Charcoal, pastel, and sanguine. 30-7⁄8” x 22-1⁄2”.
Chalk and Pastel• Chalk and pastel are very similar to charcoal.• The compositions of the media differ.• Created by combining pigments and a binder – such as gum arabic and then shaped into a workable stick• Relatively young, only introduced to France in the 1400s.• Available in many colors – Ocher - dark yellow that comes from iron oxide in some clays – Umber - yellowish or reddish brown color that comes from earth containing oxides or manganese and iron – Sanguine - a “earthy” red color
Chalk and PastelFigure 5.10, p.111: MICHELANGELO. Studies for The Libyan Sybil (1510–1511). Red chalk. 11-3⁄8” x 8-3⁄8”.
Crayon• Strictly defined, the term crayon includes any drawing material in stick form (This can include charcoal, chalk, and pastel, plus wax implements.)• Conte Crayon is one of the most popular commercially manufactured crayons.• Wax crayons combine ground pigment with wax as their binder. – They are less apt to smudge.
Fluid Media• Pen and Ink• Pen and Wash• Brush and Ink• Brush and Wash
Fluid Media• The primary fluid medium used in drawing is ink.• Instruments used with ink are primarily pen and brush.• Ink has been used for thousands of years.• Egyptians used it on papyrus.• Ancient people made ink from dyes of plants, squid, and octopus.• Oldest known ink is India or China ink – Used in calligraphy – Made of carbon black and water
Pen and Ink• Used since ancient times• Earliest were hollow reeds• Quills, plucked from live birds, were used in the Middle Ages.• Replaced in the nineteenth century with mass produced metal nib, which is slipped into a stylus. – Many artists still use a these today.
Pen and WashFigure 5.21, p.116: GIOVANNI BATTISTA TIEPOLO. Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness (c. 1725–1735).Pen, brush and brown ink, and wash, over sketch in black chalk. 16-1⁄2” x 11-1⁄8”.
Pen and WashWash - diluted ink that is applied with brush• Often combined with fine clear lines of pure ink to provide tonal emphasis• The use of a wash allows for a tonal emphasis, not visible in pen-and-ink drawings.
Brush and Ink• Extremely versatile• Brushes come in a wide variety of materials, textures, and shapes. – These create different effects.
Cartoons• Cartoon - derived from the Italian word cartone meaning paper• Originally referred to full-scale preliminary drawings done on paper for projects such as fresco paintings, stained glass, or tapestries.• In 1843, the definition was expanded to what we know now, when a parody of fresco cartoons which were submitted for decoration of the House of Parliaments, appeared in an English magazine.• Modern cartoons rely on caricature.
Figure 5.24, p.118: HONORÉ DAUMIER. Counsel for the Defense (the Advocate) (1862-1865). Pen and ink,charcoal, crayon, gouache, and watercolor. 20⅜" × 23¾".
New Approaches to DrawingDrawing displays endless versatility in:• Purpose• Media• Technique