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Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
Yr 13 love through the ages exam
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Yr 13 love through the ages exam

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  • some resources are mentioned but not available. Where can I find them?
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  • Superb materials, thank you for sharing.
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  • This is brilliant :) Which Paradise Lost Extracts did you choose?
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  • Very impressive! Do you find using a chronological method works best!?
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  • Really impressive resource. How have you found this chronological method working with your classes?
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  • Print slides as a handout for students or enlarge onto A3 and get them to circulate the room annotating the image
  • Print slides as a handout for students or enlarge onto A3 and get them to circulate the room annotating the image
  • Print slides as a handout for students or enlarge onto A3 and get them to circulate the room annotating the image
  • Print slides as a handout for students or enlarge onto A3 and get them to circulate the room annotating the image
  • Print this off and give to students as a handout
  • Transcript

    • 1. Welcome to Year 13!<br />Love Through the Ages<br />
    • 2. As you are waiting for the lesson to begin, think about...<br />At the end of year 12 you conducted a project on Love Through the Ages. Write down:<br /><ul><li>2 – 3 things you can remember about the specific time period you researched.
    • 3. 2 – 3 things you can remember about the poet/ poem you researched.
    • 4. At least 1 piece of information about another poet you watched a presentation on.</li></li></ul><li>Lesson Objectives<br /><ul><li>To understand the expectations of the exam unit of A2 and the structure of the lessons.
    • 5. To begin to consider the social and historical context of the key areas of literary history. </li></li></ul><li>A2 Expectations<br />You will all be expected to purchase a writing pad and a separate folder specifically for these lessons.<br />You will have to bring a Unit 3 folder with you every lesson so that all your material can be correctly organised as you will be bombarded with information. All of this will be used for your exam revision so it is vital that you are organised from the on set.<br />You will need 10 dividers in your folder to help you separate the different periods of literary history and their texts.<br />Actively participate in lessons and complete all homework on time!<br />
    • 6. Information about the Exam and this Unit<br />This unit is 60% of your A2 grade and 30% of your overall A’ Level mark.<br />The exam is 2 hours 30 minutes long and in this time you will need to write two essays.<br />The paper will consist of two compulsory questions on four unprepared texts, covering all three genres. All four extracts on the paper will be on the subject of love, and will be further connected through a theme such as ‘partings’ or ‘loss’.<br />The first question will ask students to compare two texts from the same genre refer to wider reading from the same genre.<br />The second question will ask students to compare the two texts and will specifically require students to compare them with their wider reading across the literature of love.<br />Your wider reading should make up approx. 30 – 40% of each essay.<br />
    • 7. How will you be assessed in this part of the examination?<br />All of the assessment objectives are equally weighted in this exam...<br />
    • 8. One of the most important elements of this exam and this unit is the ability to understand a text in its context...<br />We are going to examine some art work from some important literary periods.<br />When examining the images you must consider:<br /><ul><li>What does this suggest about the society of the time?
    • 9. How do things appear to be similar to / different from other periods?
    • 10. What perhaps might this suggest about the presentation of love in this period?</li></li></ul><li>Fourteenth Century<br />
    • 11. Elizabethans<br />
    • 12. Jacobeans<br />
    • 13. Restoration<br />
    • 14. Romantics<br />
    • 15. Victorians<br />
    • 16. World War One - Females<br />
    • 17. Modernists<br />
    • 18. To end the lesson...<br />Which of the eras do you think will appeal to you the most and why?<br />Are you familiar with any texts from these periods?<br />
    • 19. As you are waiting for the lesson to begin…<br />What do the following images suggest about life in the Middle Ages?<br />
    • 20. Fourteenth Century-Chaucer<br />1340s-1400<br />
    • 21. Lesson Objectives<br /><ul><li>To understand the social and historical context of Chaucer’s writing.
    • 22. To begin to have an understanding of the features of Chaucer’s writing. </li></li></ul><li>Who was Chaucer?<br />
    • 23. Who was Chaucer?<br /><ul><li>Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1342 – 25 October 1400) was an English author, poet, and philosopher. Although he wrote many works, he is best remembered for his Canterbury Tales.
    • 24. He is sometimes referred to as the father of English literature.
    • 25. Chaucer was born circa 1342 in London, though the exact date and location of his birth are not known. </li></li></ul><li>Who was Chaucer?<br /><ul><li>He is believed to have died of unknown causes on 25 October, 1400, but there is no firm evidence for this date, as it comes from the engraving on his tomb, erected more than one hundred years after his death.
    • 26. There is some speculation—that he was murdered by enemies of Richard II . Chaucer was buried in Westminster Abbey in London.
    • 27. In 1556, his remains were transferred to a more ornate tomb, making Chaucer the first writer interred in the area now known as Poets' Corner.
    • 28. One hundred and fifty years after his death, The Canterbury Tales was selected by William Caxton to be one of the first books to be printed in England.</li></li></ul><li>The Middle Ages<br />Read through your handout with notes about life in the Middle Ages. Highlight or underline the key features of life at the time. Discuss a brief summary of the key details with a partner, ready to share with the class.<br />
    • 29. What was The Canterbury Tales?<br />
    • 30. What was The Canterbury Tales?<br />The Canterbury Tales contrasts with other literature of the period in the naturalism of its narrative, the variety of stories the pilgrims tell and the varied characters who are engaged in the pilgrimage. Chaucer drew on real life for his cast of pilgrims.<br />The many jobs that Chaucer held in medieval society—page, soldier, messenger, valet, bureaucrat, foreman and administrator—probably exposed him to many of the types of people he depicted in the Tales. He was able to shape their speech and satirize their manners in what was to become popular literature among people of the same types.<br />
    • 31. The Canterbury Tales-The Prologue<br />To understand Chaucer’s language, and to begin to understand some of the themes and features of his language, use the handout you have been given and match the original lines of the General Prologue to The Canterbury Tales with the modern translations.<br />When you have matched the translations, see if you can form a list of what you think some of the themes and features of the tales might be.<br />
    • 32. The Canterbury Tales-The Prologue<br />When April with its showers sweet and blessedThe drought of March has thoroughly redressed,And bathed each plant in its reviving powerBy virtue of which blooms the springtime flower;And gentle winds blow sweetly from the west,Life breathing into tender leaves caressedIn field and forests, and a youthful sunIn Aries only half its course has run,And birds begin to chirp a cheerful song,Those that with open eyes sleep all night long(Inspired by Nature with an instinct strong),Then folks to pilgrimages turn their faces,The more adventuresome to foreign places,To very distant shrines of great renown;But mostly common folk from every townIn England, off to Canterbury wind,That they the holy martyr there might find,<br />
    • 33. The Canterbury Tales-The Prologue<br />When April with its showers sweet and blessedThe drought of March has thoroughly redressed,And bathed each plant in its reviving powerBy virtue of which blooms the springtime flower;And gentle winds blow sweetly from the west,Life breathing into tender leaves caressedIn field and forests, and a youthful sunIn Aries only half its course has run,And birds begin to chirp a cheerful song,Those that with open eyes sleep all night long(Inspired by Nature with an instinct strong),Then folks to pilgrimages turn their faces,The more adventuresome to foreign places,To very distant shrines of great renown;But mostly common folk from every townIn England, off to Canterbury wind,That they the holy martyr there might find,<br />Superstitious<br />
    • 34. The Canterbury Tales-The Prologue<br />When April with its showers sweet and blessedThe drought of March has thoroughly redressed,And bathed each plant in its reviving powerBy virtue of which blooms the springtime flower;And gentle winds blow sweetly from the west,Life breathing into tender leaves caressedIn field and forests, and a youthful sunIn Aries only half its course has run,And birds begin to chirp a cheerful song,Those that with open eyes sleep all night long(Inspired by Nature with an instinct strong),Then folks to pilgrimages turn their faces,The more adventuresome to foreign places,To very distant shrines of great renown;But mostly common folk from every townIn England, off to Canterbury wind,That they the holy martyr there might find,<br />Religious<br />
    • 35. The Canterbury Tales-The Prologue<br />When April with its showers sweet and blessedThe drought of March has thoroughly redressed,And bathed each plant in its reviving powerBy virtue of which blooms the springtime flower;And gentle winds blow sweetly from the west,Life breathing into tender leaves caressedIn field and forests, and a youthful sunIn Aries only half its course has run,And birds begin to chirp a cheerful song,Those that with open eyes sleep all night long(Inspired by Nature with an instinct strong),Then folks to pilgrimages turn their faces,The more adventuresome to foreign places,To very distant shrines of great renown;But mostly common folk from every townIn England, off to Canterbury wind,That they the holy martyr there might find,<br />Adventurous/Would travel far on pilgrimages<br />
    • 36. The Canterbury Tales-The Prologue<br />When April with its showers sweet and blessedThe drought of March has thoroughly redressed,And bathed each plant in its reviving powerBy virtue of which blooms the springtime flower;And gentle winds blow sweetly from the west,Life breathing into tender leaves caressedIn field and forests, and a youthful sunIn Aries only half its course has run,And birds begin to chirp a cheerful song,Those that with open eyes sleep all night long(Inspired by Nature with an instinct strong),Then folks to pilgrimages turn their faces,The more adventuresome to foreign places,To very distant shrines of great renown;But mostly common folk from every townIn England, off to Canterbury wind,That they the holy martyr there might find,<br />Chaucer focuses in a wide range of people from all levels of society<br />
    • 37. Read the next section of The General Prologue<br />It happened one day in that time of year,I did to Southwerk’s Tabard Inn draw near,As I to Canterbury started outUpon my pilgrimage, with heart devout.At night into the inn to stay and dineMore pilgrims came, in number twenty-nine.People of every kind, a motley lot,Into a fellowship by Fortune brought.Who, Canterbury-bound, some lodging sought.With bedrooms large, this was the place to stay,All nicely furnished in the finest way.And briefly, when it was no longer day,In every one of them I had confided,And so o’er this assemblage I presided.All early out of bed agreed to riseAnd leave, as later I shall thee advise.<br />But now, while our departure we await,Ere of our journey further I relate,I think it might be good to go intoThe circumstances of each of our crew,As noted from my humble point of view - The social rank and status of each guest,And also in what outfits they were dressed;So with the Knight I’ll start off, then the rest.<br />
    • 38. Read the next section of The General Prologue<br />It happened one day in that time of year,I did to Southwerk’s Tabard Inn draw near,As I to Canterbury started outUpon my pilgrimage, with heart devout.At night into the inn to stay and dineMore pilgrims came, in number twenty-nine.People of every kind, a motley lot,Into a fellowship by Fortune brought.Who, Canterbury-bound, some lodging sought.With bedrooms large, this was the place to stay,All nicely furnished in the finest way.And briefly, when it was no longer day,In every one of them I had confided,And so o’er this assemblage I presided.All early out of bed agreed to riseAnd leave, as later I shall thee advise.<br />But now, while our departure we await,Ere of our journey further I relate,I think it might be good to go intoThe circumstances of each of our crew,As noted from my humble point of view - The social rank and status of each guest,And also in what outfits they were dressed;So with the Knight I’ll start off, then the rest.<br />What is being described? Summarise in your own words<br />What do we learn about life in the Middle Ages?<br />What do you expect of the tales from The General Prologue?<br />
    • 39. The General Prologue<br />What is being described? Summarise in your own words<br />What doe we learn about life in the Middle Ages?<br />What do you expect of the tales from The General Prologue?<br />1. The narrator opens the General Prologue with a description of the return of spring. He describes the April rains, the burgeoning flowers and leaves, and the chirping birds. Around this time of year, the narrator says, people begin to feel the desire to go on a pilgrimage. Many devout English pilgrims set off to visit shrines in distant holy lands, but even more choose to travel to Canterbury to visit the relics of Saint Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral, where they thank the martyr for having helped them when they were in need. The narrator tells us that as he prepared to go on such a pilgrimage, staying at a tavern in Southwark called the Tabard Inn, a great company of twenty-nine travelers entered. The travelers were a diverse group who, like the narrator, were on their way to Canterbury. They happily agreed to let him join them. That night, the group slept at the Tabard, and woke up early the next morning to set off on their journey. Before continuing the tale, the narrator declares his intent to list and describe each of the members of the group, focusing on their social rank and status.<br />
    • 40. The General Prologue<br />What is being described? Summarise in your own words<br />What doe we learn about life in the Middle Ages?<br />What do you expect of the tales from The General Prologue?<br />2 and 3. The speaker celebrates the vitality and richness of spring. This approach gives the opening lines a dreamy, timeless, unfocused quality, and it is therefore surprising when the narrator reveals that he’s going to describe a pilgrimage that he himself took rather than telling a love story. A pilgrimage is a religious journey undertaken for penance and grace. As pilgrimages went, Canterbury was not a very difficult destination for an English person to reach. It was, therefore, very popular in fourteenth-century England, as the narrator mentions. Pilgrims traveled to visit the remains of Saint Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, who was murdered in 1170 by knights of King Henry II. Soon after his death, he became the most popular saint in England. The pilgrimage in The Canterbury Tales should not be thought of as an entirely solemn occasion, because it also offered the pilgrims an opportunity to abandon work and take a vacation. This is evident from the starting location of the pilgrimage-the inn!<br />
    • 41. The General Prologue<br />What is being described? Summarise in your own words<br />What doe we learn about life in the Middle Ages?<br />What do you expect of the tales from The General Prologue?<br />2 and 3. The speaker’s intention to describe each pilgrim as he or she seemed to him is also important, for it emphasizes that his descriptions are not only subject to his memory but are also shaped by his individual perceptions and opinions regarding each of the characters. He spends considerable time characterizing the group members according to their social positions. The pilgrims represent a diverse cross section of fourteenth-century English society. Medieval social theory divided society into three broad classes, called “estates”: the military, the clergy, and the laity. (The nobility, not represented in the General Prologue, traditionally derives its title and privileges from military duties and service, so it is considered part of the military estate.) <br />
    • 42. To finish the lesson…<br />Turn to the person next to you. Discuss two things you know about Chaucer now which you did not know at the beginning of the lesson.<br />Discuss three things you know about the Middle Ages that you didn’t know at the beginning of the lesson.<br />Discuss one thing you would still like to know about Chaucer and the Middle Ages.<br />
    • 43. To finish the lesson…<br />Turn to the person next to you. Discuss two things you know about Chaucer now which you did not know at the beginning of the lesson.<br />Discuss three things you know about the Middle Ages that you didn’t know at the beginning of the lesson.<br />Discuss one thing you would still like to know about Chaucer and the Middle Ages.<br />HOMEWORK: Make a note of what the class wants to know about Chaucer and the Middle Ages and research these areas. Be ready to share your findings at the beginning of next lesson.<br />
    • 44. As you are waiting for the lesson to begin…<br />What can you remember about Chaucer and life in the Middle Ages?<br />
    • 45. Lesson Objectives<br /><ul><li>To begin to consider what The Knight’s Tale reveals about life and love in the Middle Ages
    • 46. To understand and analyse how courtly love is presented in Chaucer’s The Knight’s Tale.</li></li></ul><li>To start the lesson…<br />Share your research. What did you find out about Chaucer and the Middle Ages to add to your knowledge of the social and historical context for this unit?<br />
    • 47. The Knight’s Tale<br />The Knight’s Tale forms part of the Canterbury Tales, Chaucer’s collection of tales told by a group of characters who are on a pilgrimage to Canterbury. The Knight is the pilgrim of highest social rank, and is held in awe by some of the others. He is noble in every sense of the word: "a very parfitgentil knight". He has served in tough campaigns and bears the scars of battle and he understands the etiquette of courtly love.<br />The outline of the story is this: Palamon and Arcite, cousins of the royal house of Thebes, are taken prisoner in battle by Theseus, and imprisoned in a tower. From here they see Hippolyta's sister, Emily, with whom both fall in love. Arcite is ransomed but banished from Athens; nevertheless, he returns in disguise. Palamon escapes but remains in Athens. Theseus discovers them fighting over Emily; he orders them to return in a year to fight properly, in a tournament, each backed by a hundred knights. Arcite prays to Mars for victory, while Palamon prays to Venus for success in love. Arcite wins the tournament, but Venus has called on the aid of Saturn: as he rides in triumph around the arena, Arcite is thrown by his horse. Fatally injured, he survives long enough to be reconciled to Palamon, to whom he freely yields the right to Emily's hand.<br />
    • 48. Courtly Love<br />The "courtly love" relationship typically was not between husband and wife, not because the poets and the audience were immoral, but because it was an idealised sort of relationship that could not exist within the context of "real life" medieval marriages. In the middle ages, marriages amongst the nobility were typically based on practical and dynastic concerns rather than on love. The idea that a marriage could be based on love was a radical notion. But the audience for romance was perfectly aware that these romances were fictions, not models for actual behaviour. <br />Courtly love is the term used to describe the conventional refined behaviour of aristocratic lovers in literature. <br />In these high romances featuring courtly love, the lady remains unattainably chaste while the lover composes songs for her, keeps his love secret to protect her reputation, becomes unable to eat or sleep and is in danger of death if she will not allow him to declare his love and offer her his service.<br />
    • 49. Love in The Knight’s Tale<br />Read the modern translation of the opening of the Knight’s Tale. In pairs, answer the following questions:<br /> What is happening in this extract?<br />How is Emily presented? What does this reveal about Palamon and Arcite’s feelings for her?<br />How is love presented in this extract?<br />What elements of courtly love do we see in this extract?<br />
    • 50. To finish the lesson…<br />Bullet point how love is presented by Chaucer in The Knight’s Tale.<br />Have you learnt anything different about medieval life and times?<br />
    • 51. To finish the lesson…<br />Bullet point how love is presented by Chaucer in The Knight’s Tale.<br />Have you learnt anything different about medieval life and times?<br />HOMEWORK: Complete at least two PEE paragraphs answering the question:<br />How does Chaucer present love in Medieval England in The Knight’s Tale?<br />
    • 52. As you are waiting for the lesson to begin…<br />Can you match the following Middle English phrases from The Miller’s Tale with the modern translations?<br />And seyde, "Lemman, love me al atones<br />Or I woldyen, also God me save!"                   <br />And she sproong as a colt dooth in the trave,               <br />And with hir heed she wryedfasteawey,                    <br />Or I will die, so save me God!" <br />And with her head she twisted fast away,<br /> And she sprang as a colt does when restrained,<br />And said, "Sweetheart, love me immediately<br />
    • 53. Lesson Objectives<br /><ul><li>To begin to consider what The Miller’s Tale reveals about life and love in the Middle Ages
    • 54. To understand and analyse how love is presented in Chaucer’s The Miller’s Tale, in comparison to The Knight’s Tale.</li></li></ul><li>The Miller’s Tale<br />The Miller’s Tale forms part of the Canterbury Tales, Chaucer’s collection of tales told by a group of characters who are on a pilgrimage to Canterbury. In this tale Chaucer creates a parody of a tale of courtly romance in response to The Knight’s Tale which preceded it.<br />The Tale is written in rhyming couplets, allowing Chaucer to explore a variety of complex ideas in a deceptively simple format, as well as broad comedy, he uses subtle humour to challenge attitudes and values.<br />
    • 55. The Miller’s Tale<br />The Host asks the Monk to tell the next tale, but the drunken Miller interrupts and insists that his tale should be the next. He tells the story of an impoverished student named Nicholas, who persuades his landlord’s sexy young wife, Alisoun, to spend the night with him. He convinces his landlord, a carpenter named John, that the second flood is coming, and tricks him into spending the night in a tub hanging from the ceiling of his barn.<br />Absolon, a young parish clerk who is also in love with Alisoun, appears outside the window of the room where Nicholas and Alisoun lie together.<br /> When Absolon begs Alisoun for a kiss, she sticks her rear end out the window in the dark and lets him kiss it. Absolon runs and gets a red-hot poker, returns to the window, and asks for another kiss; when Nicholas sticks his bottom out the window and farts, Absolon brands him on the buttocks. Nicholas’ cries for water make the carpenter think that the flood has come, so the carpenter cuts the rope connecting his tub to the ceiling, falls down, and breaks his arm.<br />
    • 56. The Miller’s Tale<br />Read the extracts of both Nicholas and Absolon’s wooing of Alison: Half the class will answer the questions based on Nicholas’ wooing, and half will answer on Absolon’s wooing. In your small groups, divide the questions among you ready to feedback to the class.<br />A01 –<br />What attitudes to love are presented in the extract through the characters of Nicholas, Absolon and Alisoun? <br />Why is this significant for the period and its representation of love?<br />“She hir love hymgrauntedattelaste” - What does this line tell you about the character of Alisoun?<br />A03 – <br />4. Do these extracts remind you of other texts that you have read, heard or seen? How does it compare to The Knight’s Tale?<br />A02 – <br />5. How does Chaucer use form, language and structure in the extracts to create characters and tell the story?<br />Consider the following – <br /><ul><li>Use of rhyming couplets.
    • 57. Sexually explicit language in contrast with courtly love.
    • 58. Use of any similes and what effect it has.
    • 59. Any religious imagery used and its effect.</li></ul>A04 – <br />6. Chaucer is writing in the 14th century. The context in which you are reading The Miller’s Tale is the 21st century. As a reader would you agree that Chaucer’s comedy is universal or do you feel that too much of it depends on its period?<br />
    • 60. The Miller’s Tale<br />How does Chaucer parody courtly love in these extracts?<br />How is it contrasted to The Knight’s Tale?<br />
    • 61. To finish the lesson…<br />Discuss with the person next to you:<br />What have you learnt about love in Medieval England? <br />How does Chaucer present love in Medieval England?<br />HOMEWORK: Complete the following essay:<br />What do we learn about love in Medieval England through Chaucer’s The Miller’s Tale and The Knight’s Tale?<br />
    • 62. As you are waiting for the lesson to begin…<br />Discuss with a partner: What do you already know about the Elizabethan era and William Shakespeare?<br />How do the following images support what you know?<br />Be prepared to feedback your ideas.<br />
    • 63. Elizabethan Era<br />1558 - 1603<br />
    • 64. Lesson Objectives<br /><ul><li>To understand the social and historical context of the Elizabethan Era.
    • 65. To begin to consider similarities and differences with the Middle Ages. </li></li></ul><li>The Elizabethan Era<br />Read through your handout about life in the Elizabethan Era. Highlight or underline the key features of life at the time. Discuss a brief summary of the key details with a partner, ready to share with the class. <br />In your discussions you should consider any similarities and differences to the Middle Ages that we have been studying.<br />
    • 66. Merchant of Venice<br />The Merchant of Venice is typically placed under the genre of comedy. Though classified as a comedy and sharing certain aspects with Shakespeare's other romantic comedies, a modern audience may well consider it to be more of a tragedy as the play is perhaps most remembered for its dramatic scenes, and is best known for Shylock and the famous 'pound of flesh' speech. <br />The play combines two stories, the flesh-bond tale and the love caskets tale.<br />Love-caskets tale: Bassanio wishes to marry Portia, the heiress of Belmont, which provides a great fortune. Her father’s will states that she can only marry the man who chooses the casket (gold, silver or lead) which contains her portrait. <br />Bassanio, a scholar and soldier asks his friend Antonio (the merchant of Venice) to lend him money to clear his debts and buy gifts to impress the wealthy Portia, whom he hopes to marry. Antonio has no spare money so he offers Bassanio his credit instead.<br />
    • 67. Merchant of Venice<br />In Belmont, Portia is awash with suitors. If the suitor chose the right casket, he got Portia; if he lost, he had to go away and never trouble her or any other woman again with a proposal of marriage. The first suitor, the money-obsessed Prince of Morocco, chooses the gold casket, which states "Choose me and get what most men desire“. Inside the casket are a few gold coins and a skull with a scroll with a riddle stating that he had not made the right choice.<br />The second suitor is the conceited Prince of Aragon. He decides not to choose lead, because it is so common, and will not choose gold because he will then get what many men desire and wants to be distinguished from the barbarous multitudes. He decides to choose silver, which proclaims "Choose Me And Get What You Deserve". Inside the casket, however, is the picture of a court jester's head on a baton , meaning that he was foolish to imagine that a pompous man like him could ever be a fit husband for Portia.<br />The last suitor is Bassanio, who chooses the leaden casket. Bassanio remarks, "So may the outward shows be least themselves. / The world is still deceived with ornament." And at the end of the same speech, just before choosing the least valuable, and least showy metal, Bassanio says, "Thy paleness moves me more than eloquence; / And here choose I; joy be the consequence!" He has made the right choice.<br />
    • 68. Merchant of Venice<br />Read the following extract before we look at the rest of the scene. - What impression do you get of Portia from here?- How do you think she feels about Bassanio, as he is about to choose a casket?- Do you think Portia conforms or subverts the role of Elizabethan women, based on this short extract?<br />PORTIA<br />(to BASSANIO)<br />I pray you, tarry. Pause a day or two<br />Before you hazard, for in choosing wrong<br />I lose your company. Therefore forbear awhile.<br />There’s something tells me—but it is not love—<br />I would not lose you, and you know yourself<br />Hate counsels not in such a quality.<br />But lest you should not understand me well—<br />And yet a maiden hath no tongue but thought—<br />I would detain you here some month or two<br />Before you venture for me. I could teach you<br />How to choose right, but I am then forsworn.<br />So will I never be. So may you miss me.<br />But if you do, you’ll make me wish a sin,<br />That I had been forsworn. Beshrew your eyes,<br />They have o'erlooked me and divided me.<br />One half of me is yours, the other half yours—<br />Mine own, I would say. But if mine, then yours,<br />And so all yours. Oh, these naughty times<br />Put bars between the owners and their rights!<br />And so, though yours, not yours. Prove it so.<br />
    • 69. Merchant of Venice<br />What is happening in this scene? Summarise in your own words.<br />How is love presented?<br />How is this extract representative of life and love in the Elizabethan Era?<br />How is this extract similar or different to the representation of love in the Chaucer extracts we have looked at previously?<br />
    • 70. Merchant of Venice<br />What is happening in this scene? Summarise in your own words.<br />How is love presented?<br />How is this extract representative of life and love in the Elizabethan Era?<br />How is this extract similar or different to the representation of love in the Chaucer extracts we have looked at previously?<br /><ul><li>Homework:
    • 71. Research the Elizabethan era and bring in at least five facts that we have not looked at today.</li></li></ul><li>To end the lesson…<br /><ul><li> Have we met our objectives?
    • 72. To understand the social and historical context of the Elizabethan Era. Can you write down three things that you have learned about the Elizabethan Era this lesson?
    • 73. To begin to consider similarities and differences with the Middle Ages. Can you confidently tell the person next to one way that Merchant of Venice is similar or different to work by Chaucer?</li></li></ul><li>As you are waiting for the lesson to begin…<br />Rearrange the following words:<br />ARONTIMC<br />RFOBEIDDN<br />AOSSPIATNE<br />YDUT<br />NERIFDSIHP<br />FINAATUTINO<br />OCMPNIOASHNPI<br />ROMANTIC<br />FORBIDDEN<br />PASSIONATE<br />DUTY<br />FRIENDSHIP<br />Infatuation<br />COMPANIONSHIP<br />What do the above words have in common and how are they important to this unit?<br />
    • 74. Learning Objectives<br /><ul><li> To consider different types of love and how they are portrayed.
    • 75. To closely analyse two extracts and encourage comparisons between them and with others that we have studied. </li></li></ul><li>Romeo and Juliet and Taming of the Shrew<br /><ul><li> Read through the extracts you have been given from two plays.
    • 76. Summarise what is happening in the extracts.
    • 77. What different types of love can you see presented?</li></ul>In the exam, you will only be given a small amount of information about each unseen extract and you will be required to cover all of the assessment objectives based on this. <br />Based on you initial reading – what do you know about the Elizabethan Era / Shakespeare that you could comment on in relation to these extracts<br />
    • 78. All of the character’s in this scene have a different focus on love. In groups you will investigate how love is presented in relation to this character.<br />
    • 79. Homework<br /><ul><li> Choose one of the extracts from the lesson today.
    • 80. Complete two PEE paragraphs analysing the portrayal of love in the entire extract – ensure you link it back to the Elizabethan era.</li></li></ul><li>…To end the lesson<br />What one thing do you want to know for the future?<br />What two things do you know about the Elizabethan Era and the exam unit that helped you today?<br />What three things did you feel confident doing today?<br />
    • 81. As you are waiting for the lesson to begin…<br /><ul><li> Based on what you have learnt over previous lessons, how would you categorize the Elizabethan era?
    • 82. What similarities / differences have you noticed between this and time in which Chaucer was writing.</li></li></ul><li>Shakespearean Sonnets<br /><ul><li> Read through the sonnets you have been given.
    • 83. What is a sonnet?
    • 84. What are the features of a sonnet?
    • 85. Sonnets are usually centred around the theme of love.
    • 86. The rhyme scheme is a-b-a-b, c-d-c-d, e-f-e-f, g-g; the last two lines are a rhyming couplet.
    • 87. Sonnets have 14 lines, each with 10 syllables. These syllables are referred to as iambic pentameter, which creates rhythm. The syllables are divided into five pairs called iambs or iambic feet. An iamb is a metrical unit made up of one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable. A line of iambic pentameter flows like this: da DUM / da DUM / da DUM / da DUM / da DUM
    • 88. Let ME / not TO / the MAR / riage OF / true MINDS</li></li></ul><li>Shakespearean Sonnets<br />Looking at structure:<br /><ul><li> There are fourteen lines in a Shakespearean sonnet.
    • 89. The first twelve lines are divided into three quatrains with four lines each.
    • 90. In the three quatrains the poet establishes a theme or problem and then resolves it in the final two lines, called the couplet. </li></ul>GROUP ANALYSIS<br />Read through each of the sonnets on your handout. Label the three quatrains.<br />In small groups, can you work out what each of the quatrains is about?<br />What resolution is reached by the couplet?<br />In your analysis, remember that you must consider the comparisons between each sonnet and how they link to the Elizabethan era.<br />Be prepared to feedback your ideas!<br />
    • 91. Group Task – Close analysis<br /><ul><li>In groups, you will be writing three PEE paragraphs analysing the two sonnets you have been given. The paragraphs will be assessed by another group.
    • 92. Firstly you must consider the key areas of the extracts.
    • 93. Then, in your groups, plan your response using the mark scheme you have been given. Consider how you will aim to reach the higher band.
    • 94. Your paragraphs should focus on the following objectives:</li></ul>AO2 - Demonstrate detailed critical understanding in analysing the ways in which structure, form and language shape meanings in literary texts. (Select a specific area of the text and encourage close analysis.)<br />AO3 – Explore connections and comparisons between different literary texts, informed by interpretations of other readers. (Encourage comparisons between the extracts and others that we have looked at.)<br />AO4 - Demonstrate understanding of the significance and influence of the contexts in which literary texts are written and received. (How does this affect the content?)<br />
    • 95. Homework<br /><ul><li> Using the target you will be given, re-write one of your paragraphs.</li></li></ul><li>To end the lesson<br /><ul><li> Swap your paragraphs with another group.
    • 96. Using the mark scheme you have been given, decide on the band and mark for each paragraph.
    • 97. At the bottom of each paragraph, you must set a target for future development – use the language from the mark scheme to help you write this.</li></li></ul><li>As you are waiting for the lesson to begin…<br /><ul><li>Write one sentence summarising how love is presented by Chaucer in the Middle Ages.
    • 98. Write one sentence summarising how love is presented by Shakespeare in the Elizabethan Era. Use your notes to help if necessary.
    • 99. What similarities/differences are there?</li></li></ul><li>Jacobean (Metaphysical)<br />1603-1625<br />
    • 100. Lesson Objectives<br /><ul><li>To understand the social and historical context of John Webster’s writing.
    • 101. To begin to have an understanding of the features of Webster’s writing and his presentation of love. </li></li></ul><li>How is love presented?<br />Before we look at social and historical context, analyse the following quotations which come from Webster’s play The Duchess of Malfi. Analyse the quotations exploring what the language, structure and form suggest about love at this time.<br />DUCHESS.The misery of us that are born great!We are forc'd to woo, because none dare woo us;<br />[Enter] CARDINAL and JULIACARDINAL. Sit: thou art my best of wishes. Prithee, tell meWhat trick didst thou invent to come to RomeWithout thy husband?JULIA. Why, my lord, I told himI came to visit an old anchorite<61>Here for devotion.CARDINAL. Thou art a witty false one,--I mean, to him.<br />DUCHESS. Will you hear me?I 'll never marry.CARDINAL. So most widows say;But commonly that motion lasts no longerThan the turning of an hour-glass: the funeral sermonAnd it end both together.<br />
    • 102. Who was Webster and what was typical of the Jacobean period?<br />Read through the social and historical context on your handout. <br />What do you think is significant?<br />How would you summarise the period?<br />
    • 103. What happens in The Duchess of Malfi?<br />The play is set in the court of Malfi Italy over the period 1504 to 1510. The recently widowed Duchess falls in love with Antonio, a lowly steward, but her brothers, not wishing her to share their inheritance, forbid her from remarrying. She marries Antonio in secret, and bears him several children.<br />The Duchess' lunatic and incestuously obsessed brother Ferdinand threatens and disowns her. In an attempt to escape, the Duchess and Antonio concoct a story that Antonio has swindled her out of her fortune and has to flee into exile. She takes Bosola into her confidence, not knowing that he is Ferdinand's spy, and arranges that he will deliver her jewellery to Antonio at his hiding-place in Ancona. She will join them later, whilst pretending to make a pilgrimage to a town nearby. The Cardinal hears of the plan, instructs Bosola to banish the two lovers, and sends soldiers to capture them. Antonio escapes with their eldest son, but the Duchess, her maid and her two younger children are returned to Malfi and, under instructions from Ferdinand, die at the hands of executioners under Bosola's command. This experience, combined with a long-standing sense of injustice and his own feeling of a lack of identity, turns Bosola against the Cardinal and his brother.<br />The Cardinal confesses to his mistress Julia his part in the killing of the Duchess, and then murders her to silence her, using a poisoned Bible. Next, Bosola overhears the Cardinal plotting to kill him (though he accepts what he sees as punishment for his actions), and so visits the darkened chapel to kill the Cardinal at his prayers. Instead, he mistakenly kills Antonio, who has just returned to Malfi to attempt a reconciliation with the Cardinal. Bosola then stabs the Cardinal, who dies. In the brawl that follows, Ferdinand and Bosola stab each other to death.<br />
    • 104. Analysing The Duchess of Malfi<br />Despite her brothers’ threats, the end of Act One, Scene One sees the marriage between The Duchess and her chief steward, Antonio.<br />At the time, it would have been expected that a wealthy widow remain unmarried, but she is determined to marry beneath her social status and at times seems driven purely by lust.<br />In this extract the Duchess calls Antonio to write her will. This leads to a discussion about marriage and the Duchess gives her ring to Antonio to soothe a bloodshot eye (the cold metal of the ring was supposed to soothe it). The Duchess declares her intentions and with Cariola as a witness, she believes they do not need the Church to make it any more binding or legal.<br />Read the extract from Act One, Scene One which describes the Duchess’ marriage proposal. <br />What type of love is Webster presenting the audience with?<br />
    • 105. Analysing The Duchess of Malfi<br />We see forbidden, lustful and yet romantic love. The Duchess could be criticised for not following the conventions of the time and ignoring the responsibilities and expectations of her position. She lies to her brothers and defies the church by proclaiming that no church is needed to formalise her marriage. <br />However, the Duchess can also be seen as a powerful, determined woman who is beyond her time as she will not be bound by social conventions. She remains bold and dignified until the end-even in the face of death.<br />
    • 106. Analysing The Duchess of Malfi<br />Analyse the extract. Make notes on the following:<br /><ul><li>What language/devices are used to present love and what are the effects?
    • 107. The Duchess performs a lengthy and important speech where she discusses the woes and misfortunes of being nobility and capable of love. What does the Duchess complain about in this speech? What reaction in Antonio do you think this speech is designed to provoke?
    • 108. The Duchess says ‘what can the church force more’ meaning the church cannot make her and Antonio any more legitimately married. Do you think this is the case in Jacobean England? What do you think Webster is trying to suggest by not having the Duchess marry in a church?</li></li></ul><li>Love in The Duchess of Malfi<br /><ul><li>Write an extended answer to the following question, using close analysis of the extract:</li></ul>How is love presented in the extract from Act One, Scene One of The Duchess of Malfi?<br />Remember to analyse the effects of language, structure and form and explore whether it is ‘typical’ or not of this period by exploring the impact of social and historical context.<br />
    • 109. To finish the lesson…<br />What have you learnt about love in The Duchess of Malfi?<br />How is love presented by Webster?<br />Taking account of social and historical context, why might he have presented love in this way?<br />Is this similar/different to the way love is presented in the other time periods we have studied?<br />Homework: Complete your extended answer:<br />How is love presented in the extract from Act One, Scene One of The Duchess of Malfi?<br />
    • 110. As you are waiting for the lesson to begin…<br /><ul><li>How do the following images link to the presentation of love in The Duchess of Malfi as discussed last lesson?</li></li></ul><li>Lesson Objectives<br /><ul><li>To analyse what The Duchess of Malfi reveals about life and love in the Jacobean era.</li></li></ul><li>The Duchess of Malfi<br />Read your partner’s extended answer to the question:<br />How is love presented in the extract from Act One, Scene One of The Duchess of Malfi?<br /><ul><li>What have they done well?
    • 111. What do they need to improve?
    • 112. Write one positive comment and one target for improvement, based on their analysis of language, structure and form and their understanding of the time period.</li></li></ul><li>Analysing The Duchess of Malfi<br />Read the extract from The Duchess of Malfi. In this extract, Julia has lied to her husband so that she can visit her lover, The Cardinal (The Duchess’ brother) in Rome. The Cardinal, however, has some arguably misogynistic views of women. Read through the extract carefully.<br />Firstly, on your own, make notes answering the following question:<br />What impression of the Cardinal and Julia’s relationship do we get in this scene? Think about:<br />What the Cardinal says about the ‘constancy’ of women.<br />How Julia reacts to the Cardinal’s comments.<br />The way in which the Cardinal demands and commands affection from Julia.<br />
    • 113. Analysing The Duchess of Malfi<br />Now, in pairs, discuss your ideas and answer the following question:<br />How does Webster present love in this scene?<br />Consider:<br /><ul><li>The techniques Webster uses in this scene
    • 114. How the characters interact with each other
    • 115. How this scene relates to the social and historical context of the play.</li></li></ul><li>Analysing The Duchess of Malfi<br />Now, form a group of 3 or 4. Share your findings and make notes answering the following questions:<br />How does this compare with the presentation of love in the previous scene we analysed?<br />How does this compare with the presentation of love in other time periods?<br />
    • 116. To finish the lesson…<br />In Webster’s time, most widows did not remarry; wealthy widows even less-not least because, for the first time in their lives, they found themselves truly independent with the means to enjoy it, their identity no longer derived from either husband or father. <br />The Duchess’ passion drives her to challenge conventional chastity. Despite the marriage being fruitful and beneficial, the marriage is ultimately destroyed.<br />What is Webster’s message about love throughout the play? Comment on the scenes you have studied. Why does the Duchess ultimately die?<br />Homework: Essay:<br />Compare the ways Shakespeare and Webster present forbidden love in two extracts of your choice. <br />
    • 117. As you are waiting for the lesson to begin…<br /><ul><li>What does the following quotation suggest about love?
    • 118. What does it suggest about John Donne’s views of love?
    • 119. Is this similar or different to the views of love we have seen by other writers?</li></ul>“He is stark mad, whoever says,    That he hath been in love an hour,Yet not that love so soon decays,    But that it can ten in less space devour “<br />
    • 120. Lesson Objectives<br /><ul><li>To recognise and analyse the features of metaphysical poetry
    • 121. To analyse how Donne presents love in his poetry.</li></li></ul><li>Who was John Donne?<br />John Donne was born in 1572 in London. He is known as the founder of the Metaphysical Poets. The Metaphysical Poets are known for their ability to startle the reader and coax new perspective through paradoxical images, subtle argument, inventive syntax, and imagery from art, philosophy, and religion. <br />Donne entered the world during a period of theological and political unrest for both England and France; a Protestant massacre occurred on Saint Bartholomew's day in France; while in England, the Catholics were the persecuted minority. Born into a Roman Catholic family, Donne's personal relationship with religion was tumultuous and passionate, and at the center of much of his poetry. He finally succumbed to religious pressure and joined the Anglican Church after his younger brother, convicted for his Catholic loyalties, died in prison. Donne wrote most of his love lyrics, erotic verse, and some sacred poems in the 1590's, creating two major volumes of work: Satires, and Songs and Sonnets. <br />In 1598, after returning from a two-year naval expedition against Spain, Donne was appointed private secretary to Sir Thomas Egerton. While sitting in Queen Elizabeth's last Parliament in 1601, Donne secretly married Anne More, the sixteen-year-old niece of Lady Egerton. Donne's father-in-law disapproved of the marriage. As punishment, he did not provide a dowry for the couple and had Donne briefly imprisoned. This left the couple isolated and dependent on friends, relatives, and patrons. Donne suffered social and financial instability in the years following his marriage, exacerbated by the birth of many children. In his later years, Donne's writing reflected his fear of his inevitable death. <br />
    • 122. What is metaphysical poetry?<br />Metaphysical poetry typically employs unusual verse forms, complex figures of speech applied to elaborate and surprising metaphorical conceits. Donne’s poetry exhibits each of these characteristics. His jarring, unusual meters; his abstract puns and double entendres; his often bizarre metaphors (in one poem he compares love to a carnivorous fish; in another he pleads with God to make him pure by raping him); and his process of oblique reasoning are all characteristic traits of the metaphysicals, unified in Donne as in no other poet.<br />Metaphysical poetry is concerned with the whole experience of man, but the intelligence, learning and seriousness of the poets means that the poetry is about the profound areas of experience especially - about love, romantic and sensual; about man's relationship with God - the eternal perspective, and, to a less extent, about pleasure, learning and art.<br />Metaphysical poems are lyric poems. They are brief but intense meditations, characterized by striking use of wit, irony and wordplay. Beneath the formal structure (of rhyme, metre and stanza) is the underlying (and often hardly less formal) structure of the poem's argument. There may be two (or more) kinds of argument in a poem. <br />
    • 123. John Donne and Metaphysical poetry<br />John Donne's Songs and Sonnets do not describe a single unchanging view of love; they express a wide variety of emotions and attitudes, as if Donne himself were trying to define his experience of love through his poetry. Love can be an experience of the body, the soul, or both; it can be a religious experience, or merely a sensual one, and it can give rise to emotions ranging from ecstasy to despair.<br />Donne is both a great religious poet and a great erotic poet, and perhaps no other writer strove as hard to unify and express such incongruous, mutually discordant passions. As such, he often contradicts himself in his poetry.<br />
    • 124. THE BROKEN HEART.by John DonneHe is stark mad, whoever says,    That he hath been in love an hour,Yet not that love so soon decays,    But that it can ten in less space devour ;Who will believe me, if I swearThat I have had the plague a year?    Who would not laugh at me, if I should say    I saw a flash of powder burn a day?Ah, what a trifle is a heart,    If once into love's hands it come !All other griefs allow a part    To other griefs, and ask themselves but some ;They come to us, but us love draws ;He swallows us and never chaws ;    By him, as by chain'd shot, whole ranks do die ;    He is the tyrant pike, our hearts the fry.<br />If 'twere not so, what did become    Of my heart when I first saw thee?I brought a heart into the room,    But from the room I carried none with me.If it had gone to thee, I knowMine would have taught thine heart to show    More pity unto me ; but Love, alas !    At one first blow did shiver it as glass.Yet nothing can to nothing fall,    Nor any place be empty quite ;Therefore I think my breast hath all    Those pieces still, though they be not unite ;And now, as broken glasses showA hundred lesser faces, so    My rags of heart can like, wish, and adore,    But after one such love, can love no more.<br />
    • 125. What is John Donne saying about love in this poem?<br />
    • 126. What is John Donne saying about love in this poem?<br />The poem declares that any man who claims to have loved for an hour is insane. The man is insane, not because love “decays,” but because love “devours.” The poet uses an analogy of the plague and ignited gun powder to love. Similar to the plague and gun powder, love is violent and swift.<br />
    • 127. Metaphysical Poetry<br />Read through the poem again and on your own make notes/annotations analysing how love is presented by Donne. Analyse the:<br /><ul><li>Language
    • 128. Structure/form
    • 129. Features of metaphysical poetry (use your handout to help you)</li></ul>If you finish, make notes exploring the similarities and differences between how the writers present love through the different time periods we have studied.<br />
    • 130. Metaphysical Poetry<br /><ul><li>Now share your annotations and ideas with a partner. Can you now consider any alternative/additional interpretations?</li></ul>If you finish, make notes exploring the similarities and differences between how the writers present love through the different time periods we have studied.<br />
    • 131. To finish the lesson…<br />What have you learnt about love in the Jacobean era?<br /><ul><li>How does the writing and the views of love expressed reflect the time period?
    • 132. What is typical about the presentation of love at this time?
    • 133. Are there any common features it shares with other time periods?</li></ul>Homework:<br />Write a detailed analysis of the ways John Donne presents love in his poetry. <br />
    • 134. As you are waiting for the lesson to begin…<br />Look at the images in front of you. They are illustrations of the text we will study today.<br /><ul><li>What does it suggest about the text we are about to read?
    • 135. What type(s) of love do you think are / will be present?</li></ul>Can you see any immediate connections with other texts we have studied?<br />Make notes on your handout.<br />
    • 136. Illustrations of Paradise Lost<br />Satan, Sin, and Death: Satan Comes to the Gates of Hell<br />
    • 137. Illustrations of Paradise Lost<br />Satan Watching the Endearments of Adam and Eve<br />
    • 138. Illustrations of Paradise Lost<br />The Temptation and Fall of Eve<br />
    • 139. Illustration of Paradise Lost<br />The Expulsion from Paradise<br />
    • 140. Restoration Period1660 - 1689<br />Read through the handout you have been given.<br />What do you think the significant points are?<br />How does this period compare to the other periods that we have studied?<br />Do you see any great changes that may impact on the literature of the time?<br />
    • 141. Who was John Milton?<br />John Milton (9 December 1608 – 8 November 1674) was an English poet, best known for his epic poem Paradise Lost. <br />He wrote at a time of religious flux and political upheaval in England, and his poetry and prose reflect deep convictions and deal with contemporary issues, such as his treatise condemning censorship,<br />He was an official serving under Oliver Cromwell. Though Cromwell’s death in 1658 caused the English Republic to collapse into feuding military and political factions, Milton stubbornly clung to the beliefs that had originally inspired him to write for the Commonwealth. In 1659 he published A Treatise of Civil Power, attacking the concept of a state-dominated church, denouncing corrupt practices in church governance. As the Republic disintegrated, Milton wrote several proposals to retain a non-monarchical government - against the wishes of parliament.<br />Upon the Restoration in May 1660, Milton went into hiding for his life following his propaganda writings, while a warrant was issued for his arrest and his writings burnt. He re-emerged after a general pardon was issued, but was nevertheless arrested and briefly imprisoned before influential friends intervened. On 24 February 1663 Milton remarried, for a third and final time, and spent the remaining decade of his life living quietly in London, only retiring to a cottage – Milton’s Cottage – in Chalfont St. Giles, his only existing home. Milton died of kidney failure on 8 November 1674 and was buried in the church ofSt. Giles, Cripplegate. <br />
    • 142. What is Paradise Lost?<br />Paradise Lost is an epic poem by the 17th-century English poet John Milton. The poem concerns the Christian story of the Fall of Man: the temptation of Adam and Eve by the fallen angel Satan and their expulsion from the Garden of Eden. Milton's purpose, stated in Book I, is to "justify the ways of God to men" and clarify the conflict between God's eternal foresight and free will.<br />Milton incorporates Paganism, classical Greek references, and Christianity within the poem. It deals with diverse topics from marriage, politics and the monarchy, along with issues including fate, predestination and the introduction of sin and death into the world. Milton's epic is generally considered one of the greatest literary works in the English language.<br />
    • 143. Task<br />Read through the extracts from Paradise Lost.<br />What is happening in each extract?<br />How is Eve presented in the first extract?<br />How is the love between Adam and Eve presented overall?<br />How do you think this extract links to the context?<br />
    • 144. Group Task<br />You will be working in groups, analysing the extracts from Paradise Lost, Book IX.<br />You will be required to analyse your extract with a particular focus and then present your ideas to the rest of the class.<br />You should ensure you include textual evidence with detailed analysis and interpretations.<br />
    • 145. Group Task<br />Be prepared to feedback your ideas!<br />
    • 146. …To end the lesson<br />Three things that you have learnt about the restoration or the work of John Milton this lesson.<br />Two things that you would like to know about the restoration or the work of John Milton.<br />One thing you knew about the Restoration or John Milton at the start of the lesson.<br />
    • 147. As you are waiting for the lesson to begin…<br />Summarise your understanding of Paradise Lost by John Milton to 8 bullet points.<br />What texts have you read so far that you could compare to Paradise Lost? How do they compare?<br />
    • 148. Lesson Objectives<br /><ul><li>To analyse Paradise Lost further.
    • 149. To explore the links between Paradise Lost and other texts studied.
    • 150. To consider how to respond to an unseen extract and an exam based question.</li></li></ul><li>The Bible story of Adam and Eve<br />Genesis III<br />1 The snake was sneakier than any of the other wild animals that the LORD God had made. One day it came to the woman and asked, "Did God tell you not to eat fruit from any tree in the garden?" 2 The woman answered, "God said we could eat fruit from any tree in the garden, 3 except the one in the middle. He told us not to eat fruit from that tree or even to touch it. If we do, we will die." 4 "No, you won't!" the snake replied. 5 "God understands what will happen on the day you eat fruit from that tree. You will see what you have done, and you will know the difference between right and wrong, just as God does." 6 The woman stared at the fruit. It looked beautiful and tasty. She wanted the wisdom that it would give her, and she ate some of the fruit. Her husband was there with her, so she gave some to him, and he ate it too. 7 Right away they saw what they had done, and they realized they were naked. Then they sewed fig leaves together to make something to cover themselves. <br />Genesis 3<br />Genesis 3 introduces the Serpent, "slier than every beast of the field." The serpent tempts the woman to eat from the tree of knowledge, telling her that it will make her more like God and it will not lead to death. She succumbs, and gives the fruit to the man, who eats also, "and the eyes of the two of them were opened." Aware now of their nakedness, they make coverings of fig leaves, and hide from the sight of God. God asks them about what they have done. Adam blames Eve, and Eve blames the serpent. <br /><ul><li>Read through the Bible story:
    • 151. What links can you see between this and Paradise Lost?
    • 152. How is Paradise Lost different to the Bible story?
    • 153. Why do you think Milton has emulated such a well-known story?
    • 154. Why do you think Milton chooses to change some of the Bible story?</li></li></ul><li>Group Task<br />Be prepared to feedback your ideas!<br />
    • 155. How is love presented in the poem On Desire by Aphra Behn?<br />In the exam, you will be given two unseen extracts. <br />The questions test your wider reading in the prescribed area for study – Love Through the Ages. In your answer, you should take every opportunity to refer to your wider reading.<br />You will work in groups to devise an essay plan on one unseen poem from the Restoration era. <br />
    • 156. How is love presented in the poem On Desire by AphraBehn?<br />In groups devise an essay plan to answer this question.<br />In it you must include or think about:<br /><ul><li> An exploration of the presentation of love in this extract.
    • 157. Key quotations to support your points.
    • 158. The ways the writers’ use form, structure and language to express their thoughts and ideas .
    • 159. Specific and detailed links to texts from this era and other eras that we have studied so far.</li></li></ul><li>To end the lesson…<br />Look over your essay plan and consider the following (brief) assessment objectives:<br />AO1: Creative, informed and relevant responses to show understanding.<br />AO2: Analyse the ways in which structure, form and language shape meanings.<br />AO3: Explore connections and comparisons between texts.<br />AO4: Demonstrate understanding of the significance and influence of the contexts.<br />What do you feel you still need to cover, based on your plan? Set this as your target.<br />Homework: Complete the essay for the plan you have just prepared.<br />Due next exam lesson.<br />
    • 160. As you are waiting for the lesson to begin…<br />Consider the poem ‘On Loving Two Equally’ you read and analysed for homework .<br />How would you summarise the style of Aphra Behn, based on this initial reading?<br />As we study her work further, what do you expect to see with regards the theme of love?<br />
    • 161. Lesson Objectives<br /><ul><li> To consider the writer Aphra Behn and her influence on the Restoration Era and literature in general.
    • 162. To analyse the work of Aphra Behn, paying close attention to language, structure and form.</li></li></ul><li>Aphra Behn<br />Read through the handout on Aphra Behn<br />Summarise the background information into ten key points.<br />In what way does Aphra Behn present a shift from what we have studied so far?<br />
    • 163. Group Task<br /><ul><li> In your exam you will be required to analyse unseen extracts across different genres.
    • 164. You will be required to:
    • 165. write a comparative essay showing your understanding of the text,
    • 166. provide a close analysis of language, structure and form,
    • 167. compare the unseen extracts to 3 – 4 texts from your wider reading
    • 168. relate the extracts to your wider reading.
    • 169. You will now work in groups to analyse an Aphra Behn unseen extract.
    • 170. Each group will be looking at a different genre and will be required to present their ideas at the end of the lesson. </li></li></ul><li>Summary of extracts:<br /><ul><li> The Lover’s Watch: Iris and Damon are two young lover’s, prone to hours of sighing and reflection. When Iris goes to the country for a few months she creates a ‘watch’ for Damon – a witty volume of instructions detailing hour by hour the correct way to spend a day apart.
    • 171. The Rover: It features multiple plots, dealing with the amorous adventures of a group of Englishmen. The "rover" of the play's title is Willmore, a naval captain, who falls in love with a young woman named Hellena, who has set out to experience love before her brother sends her to a convent. Complications arise when Angellica Bianca, a famous coutesan who falls in love with Willmore, swears revenge on him for his betrayal. </li></li></ul><li>
    • 172. To end the lesson…<br /><ul><li>HOMEWORK
    • 173. Read and analyse the extract from ‘The Way of the World’.
    • 174. Complete an essay answering the question:
    • 175. Compare how Congreave portrays love in the extract from ‘The Way of the World’ with other texts from your wider reading.
    • 176. You must consider your wider reading and the social and historical context.</li></li></ul><li>Romantics<br />
    • 177. As you are waiting for the lesson to begin…<br />The words below are from the text we will be looking at today. What predictions can you make about the presentation of love?<br />Agony<br />Catastrophe<br />Caution<br />Suffered<br />Beautiful<br />Creation<br />Miserable<br />Compassion<br />
    • 178. Lesson Objectives<br /><ul><li> To analyse the presentation of love in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein.
    • 179. To consider how Shelley conforms to the conventions of Romanticism, but how she also subverts them.</li></li></ul><li>Presentation of Love...<br />Were you correct?!<br />How is love presented in the following clip from a film adaption of our text?<br />
    • 180. ‘Frankenstein’ by Mary Shelley<br />Victor Frankenstein experiences an idyllic childhood in Switzerland, surrounded by a loving family and accompanied by his adored cousin Elizabeth. He is fascinated by ancient philosophers whose grandiose ambitions included looking for an Elixir of Life. After the death of his mother, his first unhappy experience, he attends University in Germany where he applies his new-found knowledge of science to manufacture a human being of enormous size and strength.When his creation comes to life, Frankenstein is so horrified by his own bizarre accomplishment that he falls into a delirious illness which last months. Meanwhile, the creature flees into the woods and disappears.Two years later, Frankenstein returns home upon learning that his brother has been mysteriously murdered. Justine, a friend of Frankenstein, is falsely convicted and executed. Having been hated, rejected and feared by every human encountered, the creature considers all of humanity to be his enemy. He demands that Frankenstein create a female companion for him so that he will not be lonely, and promises that with his companion he will flee to a remote corner of South America and never come into contact with humans again.Frankenstein cannot forgive the creature for the death of his brother and Justine; he refuses to build the female companion. In desperation and rage, the creature promises to make his creator as miserable as himself. In his vengeance, the creature murders Frankenstein's friends and family one by one, including his beloved cousin Elizabeth (who he married; 19th-century writers apparently weren't too bothered by incest; Wuthering Heights featured inter-cousin romance as well).When the creator and his creature are at last equally alone and family-less, Frankenstein seeks his own revenge and pursues his enemy into the Arctic northern wastes where together they meet their climatic fate.<br />
    • 181. ‘Frankenstein’ by Mary Shelley<br />Mary Shelley’s ‘Frankenstein’ was a phenomenal book that included shocking ideas about ambition, desire and individual limits. Read through the two extracts as a class and then individually find evidence (with analysis) to support the following statements about the presentation of love in the text.<br />Mary Shelley’s ‘Frankenstein’ presents an individual who’s passion and desire to create life and therefore play the role of God, leads to disaster – thus providing a moral message to its reader. <br />Mary Shelley’s ‘Frankenstein’ presents an unconventional parent / child relationship.<br />Mary Shelley’s ‘Frankenstein’ presents the misery associated with loneliness and a lack of family and companionship. <br />
    • 182. To finish the lesson...<br />Mary Shelley’s ‘Frankenstein’ was written during the literary period referred to as Romanticism and she was heavily influenced by famous poets during this time – such as her husband Percey Shelley.<br />TASK: Read through the handout on the Romantic period and highlight features of the period that you think are prevalent in Shelley’s text. <br />Extension: Is there anything unusual about ‘Frankenstein’ that doesn’t link to the literary period of Romanticism?<br />
    • 183. Homework<br />Research<br />In our next two lessons we will be analysing Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice and Emma. <br />You therefore must research Jane Austen’s life, her writing style and the presentation of love and relationships in her novels. <br />
    • 184.
    • 185. As you are waiting for the lesson to begin…<br />Jane Austen was the first ‘Chick Lit’ author.<br />DISCUSS<br />Points to Consider...<br /><ul><li>What are the ingredients for a contemporary ‘Chick Lit’ </li></ul>novel/ ‘Chick Flick’?<br /><ul><li>What genre do you think Austen’s writing fits into and </li></ul>why?<br /><ul><li>What did you find out about Jane Austen for your </li></ul>homework?<br />
    • 186. Social and Historical Background<br />Read through the handout you have been given and summarise Austen’s writing style.<br />Do you think Austen fits into the ‘Romantics’ genre?<br />
    • 187. Social and Historical Background<br />Do you think Austen fits into the ‘Romantics’ genre?<br />Romanticism was deeply connected to the politics of the time, and this is certainly evident in Austen’s work (social politics)<br />
    • 188. Lesson Objectives<br /><ul><li>To consider Jane Austen’s writing style.
    • 189. To analyse the theme of marriage and the opening chapter of ‘Pride and Prejudice’</li></li></ul><li>Homework from the holidays…<br /><ul><li>HOMEWORK
    • 190. Read and analyse the extract from ‘The Way of the World’.
    • 191. Complete an essay answering the question:
    • 192. Compare how Congreave portrays love in the extract from ‘The Way of the World’ with other texts from your wider reading.
    • 193. You must consider your wider reading and the social and historical context.</li></li></ul><li>‘Pride and Prejudice’ by Jane Austen<br />What do the following quotations suggest about love and marriage in the novel? <br />“It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of good fortune must be in want of a wife.”<br />“The business of her life was to get her daughters married.” <br />“Without thinking highly either of men or of matrimony, marriage had always been her object.” <br />“Ah! Jane, I take your place now, and you must go lower, because I am a married woman.” <br />“You could not have made me the offer of your hand in any possible way that would have tempted me to accept.” <br />
    • 194. ‘Pride and Prejudice’ by Jane Austen<br />Love and marriage is a key theme in the novel and is introduced immediately in chapter one. Read chapter one and then discuss the following question:<br />How is the theme of marriage introduced in the opening of the ‘Pride and Prejudice’?<br />Extension<br /><ul><li>A typical element of romance literature is an obstacle in the way of blossoming love. How has Austen also established a key ‘problem’ in the opening of her novel?
    • 195. What similarities or differences can you make between Pride and Prejudice and Frankenstein?</li></li></ul><li>‘Pride and Prejudice’ by Jane Austen<br />Love and marriage is a key theme in the novel and is introduced immediately in chapter one. Now answer the following question in as much detail as possible (close analysis is required!):<br />How is the theme of marriage introduced in the opening of the ‘Pride and Prejudice’?<br />
    • 196. To finish the lesson...<br />Read through your partner’s response and comment on two of the following areas with one positive observation and one target.<br />Understanding of the chapter, the theme of marriage and the relationship between Mr and Mrs Bennet. <br />Understanding of the social and historical context. <br />Close analysis of language and its effects.<br />Analysis of the structure of the chapter e.g. The opening statement.<br />The tone of the piece and the use of humour in the chapter.<br />Consideration of alternative interpretations – of the characters, situation or quotations.<br />
    • 197.
    • 198. ‘Emma’ by Jane Austen – Plot Summary<br />Although convinced that she herself will never marry (because she has no financial concerns, so believes she has no inducement to marry), Emma Woodhouse, a precocious twenty-year-old resident of the village of Highbury, imagines herself to be naturally gifted in conjuring love matches. After self-declared success at matchmaking between her governess and Mr. Weston, a village widower, Emma takes it upon herself to find an eligible match for her new friend, Harriet Smith. Though Harriet’s parentage is unknown, Emma is convinced that Harriet deserves to be a gentleman’s wife and sets her friend’s sights on Mr. Elton, the village vicar. Meanwhile, Emma persuades Harriet to reject the proposal of Robert Martin, a well-to-do farmer for whom Harriet clearly has feelings.<br />Harriet becomes infatuated with Mr. Elton under Emma’s encouragement, but Emma’s plans go awry when Elton makes it clear that his affection is for Emma, not Harriet. Emma realizes that her obsession with making a match for Harriet has blinded her to the true nature of the situation. Mr. Knightley, Emma’s brother-in-law and treasured friend, watches Emma’s matchmaking efforts with a critical eye. He believes that Mr. Martin is a worthy young man whom Harriet would be lucky to marry. He and Emma quarrel over Emma’s meddling, and, as usual, Mr. Knightley proves to be the wiser of the pair. Elton, spurned by Emma and offended by her insinuation that Harriet is his equal, leaves for the town of Bath and marries a young woman there almost immediately.<br />Emma is left to comfort Harriet and to wonder about the character of a new visitor expected in Highbury—Mr. Weston’s son, Frank Churchill. Frank is set to visit his father in Highbury after having been raised by his aunt and uncle in London, who have also adopted him as their heir. Emma knows nothing about Frank, who has long been deterred from visiting his father by his aunt’s illnesses and complaints. Mr. Knightley is immediately suspicious of the young man, especially after Frank rushes back to London merely to have his hair cut. Emma, however, finds Frank delightful and notices that his charms are directed mainly toward her. Though she plans to discourage these charms, she finds herself flattered and engages in a flirtation with the young man. Emma greets Jane Fairfax, another addition to the Highbury set, with less enthusiasm. Jane is beautiful and accomplished, but Emma dislikes her because of her reserve and, the narrator insinuates, because she is jealous of Jane.<br />Suspicion, intrigue, and misunderstandings ensue. Mr. Knightley defends Jane, saying that she deserves compassion because, unlike Emma, she has no independent fortune and must soon leave home to work as a governess. Mrs. Weston suspects that the warmth of Mr. Knightley’s defence comes from romantic feelings, an implication Emma resists. Everyone assumes that Frank and Emma are forming an attachment, though Emma soon dismisses Frank as a potential suitor and imagines him as a match for Harriet. At a village ball, Knightley earns Emma’s approval by offering to dance with Harriet, who has just been humiliated by Mr. Elton and his new wife. The next day, Frank saves Harriet from Gypsy beggars. When Harriet tells Emma that she has fallen in love with a man above her social station, Emma believes that she means Frank. Knightley begins to suspect that Frank and Jane have a secret understanding, and he attempts to warn Emma. Emma laughs at Knightley’s suggestion and loses Knightley’s approval when she flirts with Frank and insults Miss Bates, a kindhearted spinster and Jane’s aunt, at a picnic. When Knightley reprimands Emma, she weeps.<br />News comes that Frank’s aunt has died, and this event paves the way for an unexpected revelation that slowly solves the mysteries. Frank and Jane have been secretly engaged; his attentions to Emma have been a screen to hide his true preference. With his aunt’s death and his uncle’s approval, Frank can now marry Jane, the woman he loves. Emma worries that Harriet will be crushed, but she soon discovers that it is Knightley, not Frank, who is the object of Harriet’s affection. Harriet believes that Knightley shares her feelings. Emma finds herself upset by Harriet’s revelation, and her distress forces her to realize that she is in love with Knightley. Emma expects Knightley to tell her he loves Harriet, but, to her delight, Knightley declares his love for Emma. Harriet is soon comforted by a second proposal from Robert Martin, which she accepts. The novel ends with the marriage of Harriet and Mr. Martin and that of Emma and Mr. Knightley, resolving the question of who loves whom after all<br />
    • 199. As you are waiting for the lesson to begin…<br />Although convinced that she herself will never marry, Emma Woodhouse, a precocious twenty-year-old resident of the village of Highbury, imagines herself to be naturally gifted in conjuring love matches. After self-declared success at matchmaking between her governess and Mr. Weston, a village widower, Emma takes it upon herself to find an eligible match for her new friend, Harriet Smith. Though Harriet’s parentage is unknown, Emma is convinced that Harriet deserves to be a gentleman’s wife and sets her friend’s sights on Mr. Elton, the village vicar. Meanwhile, Emma persuades Harriet to reject the proposal of Robert Martin, a well-to-do farmer for whom Harriet clearly has feelings.<br />Harriet becomes infatuated with Mr. Elton under Emma’s encouragement, but Emma’s plans go awry when Elton makes it clear that his affection is for Emma, not Harriet. Emma realizes that her obsession with making a match for Harriet has blinded her to the true nature of the situation. Mr. Knightley, Emma’s brother-in-law and treasured friend, watches Emma’s matchmaking efforts with a critical eye. He believes that Mr. Martin is a worthy young man whom Harriet would be lucky to marry. He and Emma quarrel over Emma’s meddling, and, as usual, Mr. Knightley proves to be the wiser of the pair. Elton, spurned by Emma and offended by her insinuation that Harriet is his equal, leaves for the town of Bath and marries a young woman there almost immediately.<br />Emma is left to comfort Harriet and to wonder about the character of a new visitor expected in Highbury—Mr. Weston’s son, Frank Churchill. Frank is set to visit his father in Highbury after having been raised by his aunt and uncle in London, who have also adopted him as their heir. Emma knows nothing about Frank, who has long been deterred from visiting his father by his aunt’s illnesses and complaints. Mr. Knightley is immediately suspicious of the young man, especially after Frank rushes back to London merely to have his hair cut. Emma, however, finds Frank delightful and notices that his charms are directed mainly toward her. Though she plans to discourage these charms, she finds herself flattered and engages in a flirtation with the young man. Emma greets Jane Fairfax, another addition to the Highbury set, with less enthusiasm. Jane is beautiful and accomplished, but Emma dislikes her because of her reserve and, the narrator insinuates, because she is jealous of Jane.<br />Suspicion, intrigue, and misunderstandings ensue. Mr. Knightley defends Jane, saying that she deserves compassion because, unlike Emma, she has no independent fortune and must soon leave home to work as a governess. Mrs. Weston suspects that the warmth of Mr. Knightley’s defence comes from romantic feelings, an implication Emma resists. Everyone assumes that Frank and Emma are forming an attachment, though Emma soon dismisses Frank as a potential suitor and imagines him as a match for Harriet. At a village ball, Knightley earns Emma’s approval by offering to dance with Harriet, who has just been humiliated by Mr. Elton and his new wife. The next day, Frank saves Harriet from Gypsy beggars. When Harriet tells Emma that she has fallen in love with a man above her social station, Emma believes that she means Frank. Knightley begins to suspect that Frank and Jane have a secret understanding, and he attempts to warn Emma. Emma laughs at Knightley’s suggestion and loses Knightley’s approval when she flirts with Frank and insults Miss Bates, a kindhearted spinster and Jane’s aunt, at a picnic. When Knightley reprimands Emma, she weeps.<br />News comes that Frank’s aunt has died, and this event paves the way for an unexpected revelation that slowly solves the mysteries. Frank and Jane have been secretly engaged; his attentions to Emma have been a screen to hide his true preference. With his aunt’s death and his uncle’s approval, Frank can now marry Jane, the woman he loves. Emma worries that Harriet will be crushed, but she soon discovers that it is Knightley, not Frank, who is the object of Harriet’s affection. Harriet believes that Knightley shares her feelings. Emma finds herself upset by Harriet’s revelation, and her distress forces her to realize that she is in love with Knightley. Emma expects Knightley to tell her he loves Harriet, but, to her delight, Knightley declares his love for Emma. Harriet is soon comforted by a second proposal from Robert Martin, which she accepts. The novel ends with the marriage of Harriet and Mr. Martin and that of Emma and Mr. Knightley, resolving the question of who loves whom after all<br />Read through the plot summary you have been given and consider the following:<br /><ul><li>How is love presented in this Austen novel?
    • 200. What similarities / differences are there between ‘Emma’ and ‘Pride and Prejudice’?
    • 201. We know that Jane Austen mostly wrote about the upper and middle classes - How is class presented in this novel? </li></li></ul><li>Lesson Objectives<br /><ul><li>To understand the character Emma and Austen’s comment on the English class system.
    • 202. To analyse the presentation of love in ‘Emma’.
    • 203. To consider comparisons between Shelley and Austen.</li></li></ul><li>Background<br />Unlike many British writers at the time, Austen criticises the manners and values of the upper class in English society. Jane Austen noticed the corruption of society: and that money took precedence over everything else, so, important values were being "undermined". This is the perspective in which Austen wrote most of her novels including Emma.<br />Before she began the novel, Austen wrote, "I am going to take a heroine whom no-one but myself will much like." In the very first sentence she introduces the title character as "Emma Woodhouse, handsome, clever, and rich." Emma, however, is also rather spoiled; she greatly overestimates her own matchmaking abilities; and she is blind to the dangers of meddling in other people's lives and is criticised by other characters for her snobbery and preoccupation with social status and rank.<br />
    • 204. ‘Emma’ by Jane Austen<br />In this extract from the novel, Emma has met her friend Harriet’s love interest Mr Martin and offers her opinion on him. <br />Read through the extract (pg 28-29) and then answer the following questions:<br />Jane Austen had said, that she wanted to create a heroine who no-one will much like. How is Emma Woodhouse presented in this extract?<br />How has Harriet been presented in the extract?<br />Why doesn’t Emma approve of Mr Martin as a match for Harriet?<br />What is Austen suggesting about the class system in England at this time?<br />
    • 205. Final Thought<br /><ul><li>What similarities / differences are there between the presentation of love and relationships in Shelley and Austen’s novels?
    • 206. How does the presentation of love reflect the period they were writing in?</li></li></ul><li>Homework<br />Pick one of the following essay titles to complete for next week:<br /><ul><li>Compare the presentation of love and desire in Mary Shelley and Jane Austen’s novels. How does the presentation of love reflect the period they were writing in?
    • 207. Compare the presentation of love in upper-middle class England in ‘Pride and Prejudice’ and ‘Emma’. </li>

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