SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Welcome	
   to	
   the	
   most	
   important	
   booklet	
   that	
   you’ll	
   get	
   all	
  
year!!!	
  
	
  
The	
   words	
   contained	
   in	
   this	
   glossary	
   only	
   provide	
   the	
   basis	
   for	
  
quality	
  analysis.	
  Do	
  not	
  make	
  the	
  mistake	
  of	
  assuming	
  that	
  one	
  
need	
   only	
   learn	
   a	
   proportion	
   in	
   order	
   to	
   grade	
   well	
   in	
   all	
  
assessments	
   on	
   an	
   A-­‐level	
   English	
   Language	
   course.	
   All	
   terms	
  
MUST	
  be	
  learnt	
  as	
  early	
  as	
  possible;	
  it	
  is	
  evidently	
  better	
  to	
  be	
  
as	
  familiar	
  as	
  you	
  can	
  with	
  the	
  terms.	
  	
  
	
  
Read	
  this	
  over	
  and	
  over,	
  get	
  your	
  family	
  or	
  friends	
  to	
  test	
  you,	
  
practise	
  attributing	
  these	
  terms	
  to	
  texts	
  you	
  read...	
  whatever	
  it	
  
takes,	
  just	
  make	
  sure	
  you	
  learn	
  these	
  terms	
  (of	
  which	
  there	
  are	
  
approximately	
  200…YAY!).	
  
Common	
  noun	
  –	
  a	
  naming	
  word	
  for	
  a	
  thing	
  that	
  is	
  tangible,	
  e.g.	
  chair,	
  penguin,	
  man,	
  
arsonist,	
  murderer,	
  ghost,	
  crumpet,	
  trumpet.	
  	
  
	
  
Abstract	
  noun	
  –	
  a	
  naming	
  word	
  for	
  an	
  idea,	
  concept,	
  state	
  of	
  being	
  or	
  belief,	
  e.g.	
  
tidiness,	
  sadness,	
  antidisestablishmentarianism,	
  love,	
  politics,	
  Marxism.	
  	
  
	
  
Proper	
  noun	
  –	
  a	
  naming	
  word	
  for	
  a	
  specific	
  example	
  of	
  a	
  common	
  noun	
  (often	
  are	
  
names	
  of	
  places	
  or	
  specific	
  people),	
  e.g.	
  Bob,	
  Eiffel	
  Tower,	
  Burnley,	
  Wayne	
  Rooney.	
  
	
  
Verb	
  –	
  a	
  word	
  that	
  represents	
  an	
  action	
  or	
  process:	
  in	
  simple	
  terms	
  a	
  ‘doing’	
  word.	
  
	
  
Active	
  verb	
  –	
  a	
  word	
  that	
  represents	
  a	
  physical	
  action,	
  e.g.	
  jump,	
  run,	
  kill,	
  slap,	
  kiss,	
  
make-­‐love,	
  wallop,	
  sleep.	
  
	
  
Stative	
  verb	
  –	
  a	
  word	
  that	
  represents	
  a	
  process	
  that	
  is	
  often	
  only	
  mental,	
  e.g.	
  think,	
  
love,	
  ponder,	
  believe,	
  (to)	
  fear.	
  	
  
	
  
Auxiliary	
  verb	
  –	
  a	
  verb	
  that	
  has	
  to	
  be	
  used	
  with	
  another	
  verb	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  create	
  
present	
  participles	
  or	
  the	
  future	
  tense,	
  e.g.	
  “DID	
  you	
  go?”;	
  “I	
  AM	
  going”;	
  you	
  WILL	
  
go”.	
  
	
  
Modal	
  verb	
  –	
  an	
  auxiliary	
  verb	
  that	
  express	
  a	
  degree	
  of	
  either	
  possibility	
  or	
  
necessity,	
  e.g.	
  might,	
  could,	
  must,	
  should,	
  may.	
  	
  
	
  
Adjective	
  –	
  a	
  describing	
  word	
  that	
  modifies	
  a	
  noun.	
  	
  
	
  
Adverb	
  –	
  a	
  describing	
  word	
  that	
  modifies	
  all	
  types	
  of	
  word,	
  excluding	
  nouns.	
  
	
  
Superlative	
  –	
  an	
  adjective	
  that	
  displays	
  the	
  most	
  extreme	
  value	
  of	
  its	
  quality,	
  e.g.	
  
most,	
  biggest,	
  smallest,	
  worst,	
  furthest,	
  farthest,	
  quietest,	
  zaniest.	
  Most	
  of	
  the	
  time	
  
superlatives	
  end	
  with	
  ‘-­‐est’.	
  
	
  
Comparative	
  –	
  an	
  adjective	
  that	
  relates	
  one	
  thing	
  in	
  some	
  way	
  to	
  another	
  and	
  
usually	
  ends	
  in	
  ‘er’:	
  bigger,	
  smaller,	
  further,	
  farther,	
  quieter,	
  zanier.	
  
	
  
Definite	
  article	
  –	
  the.	
  
	
  
Indefinite	
  article	
  –	
  a	
  or	
  an.	
  
	
  
Pronoun	
  –	
  a	
  word	
  that	
  takes	
  the	
  place	
  of	
  a	
  noun	
  in	
  a	
  sentence,	
  e.g.	
  him,	
  her,	
  it,	
  he,	
  
she,	
  I,	
  you,	
  me	
  (self-­‐reflexive	
  pronoun),	
  they.	
  
	
  
First	
  person	
  pronoun	
  –	
  I,	
  and	
  the	
  first	
  person	
  plural:	
  we,	
  our,	
  us.	
  
	
  
Second	
  person	
  pronoun	
  –	
  you.	
  
Third	
  person	
  pronoun	
  –	
  him,	
  her,	
  he,	
  she,	
  it,	
  and	
  the	
  third	
  person	
  plural:	
  them,	
  
those.	
  
	
  
Possessive	
  pronoun	
  (1st,	
  2nd	
  or	
  3rd	
  person	
  depending)	
  –	
  my,	
  mine,	
  our,	
  your,	
  his,	
  
hers,	
  theirs.	
  
	
  
Demonstrative	
  pronoun	
  –	
  this,	
  that,	
  those.	
  
	
  
Monosyllabic	
  lexis	
  –	
  words	
  of	
  one	
  syllable.	
  
	
  
Polysyllabic	
  lexis	
  –	
  words	
  of	
  two	
  or	
  more	
  syllable.	
  
	
  
Imperative	
  sentence	
  mood	
  –	
  when	
  a	
  sentence	
  is	
  issuing	
  a	
  command.	
  
	
  
Declarative	
  sentence	
  mood	
  –	
  when	
  a	
  sentence	
  is	
  making	
  a	
  statement.	
  
	
  
Interrogative	
  sentence	
  mood	
  –	
  when	
  a	
  sentence	
  is	
  asking	
  a	
  question.	
  
	
  
Exclamatory	
  sentence	
  mood	
  –	
  when	
  a	
  sentence	
  conveys	
  a	
  strong	
  sense	
  of	
  emotion,	
  
sense	
  of	
  alarm	
  or	
  overly	
  strong	
  emphasis.	
  
	
  
Register	
  –	
  the	
  level	
  of	
  formality	
  of	
  a	
  text.	
  
	
  
Tenor	
  –	
  the	
  tone,	
  or	
  the	
  relationship	
  between	
  author	
  and	
  reader	
  and	
  how	
  it	
  is	
  
created.	
  
	
  
Attitudes	
  –	
  The	
  opinions	
  expressed	
  in	
  the	
  text.	
  
	
  
Content	
  –	
  What	
  the	
  text	
  is	
  about.	
  
	
  
Context	
  –	
  Things	
  outside	
  the	
  text	
  which	
  may	
  shape	
  its	
  meaning,	
  e.g.	
  when	
  it	
  was	
  
written,	
  who	
  wrote	
  it.	
  
	
  
Form	
  –	
  the	
  structure	
  and	
  shape	
  of	
  a	
  text.	
  
	
  
Themes	
  –	
  the	
  recurring	
  ideas	
  and	
  images	
  in	
  a	
  text.	
  
	
  
Colloquialism	
  –	
  Informal	
  language	
  usage,	
  e.g.	
  bloke,	
  fella,	
  lass,	
  bog	
  (toilet),	
  arse,	
  
bum,	
  grub,	
  scram,	
  	
  
	
  
Exclamation	
  –	
  a	
  one	
  word	
  sentence	
  (always	
  a	
  minor	
  sentence)	
  with	
  an	
  exclamation	
  
mark	
  at	
  the	
  end.	
  
	
  
Ellipsis	
  –	
  when	
  parts	
  of	
  a	
  written	
  structure	
  are	
  missing.	
  In	
  texts,	
  sometimes	
  they	
  are	
  
indicated	
  by	
  three	
  full	
  stops	
  in	
  a	
  row,	
  denoting	
  perhaps	
  a	
  significant	
  pause...	
  Do	
  you	
  
see?	
  
	
  
Syntax	
  –	
  the	
  way	
  words	
  form	
  sentences	
  (the	
  ordering	
  of	
  them	
  to	
  create	
  meaning).	
  
	
  
Parenthesis	
  –	
  an	
  aside	
  within	
  a	
  text	
  created	
  by	
  sectioning	
  off	
  extra	
  information	
  
between	
  brackets,	
  dashes	
  or	
  between	
  two	
  commas.	
  
	
  
Parenthetic	
  commas,	
  dashes	
  or	
  brackets	
  –	
  see	
  above.	
  
	
  
Rhetorical	
  question	
  –	
  a	
  question	
  designed	
  not	
  to	
  be	
  answered,	
  perhaps	
  to	
  pique	
  
interest	
  or	
  make	
  a	
  point;	
  a	
  stylistic	
  choice.	
  
	
  
Hypophora	
  –	
  when	
  a	
  rhetorical	
  question	
  is	
  immediately	
  followed	
  by	
  an	
  answer	
  in	
  a	
  
text,	
  e.g.	
  “Is	
  this	
  the	
  best	
  film	
  ever?	
  You	
  bet	
  it	
  is!”	
  
	
  
Hyperbole	
  –	
  deliberate	
  over-­‐exaggeration	
  of	
  things	
  for	
  effect.	
  
	
  
Litotes	
  –	
  deliberate	
  downplaying	
  of	
  things	
  for	
  effect.	
  
	
  
Parallelism/patterning	
  –	
  the	
  creation	
  of	
  patterns	
  in	
  a	
  text,	
  through	
  repetition	
  of	
  
words	
  or	
  phrases	
  (phonological	
  parallelism)	
  or	
  by	
  balancing	
  meanings	
  (semantic	
  
parallelism)	
  for	
  deliberate	
  effect.	
  
	
  
Repetition	
  –	
  the	
  repetition	
  of	
  words	
  or	
  phrases	
  (see	
  parallelism)	
  
	
  
Tricolon/tripling	
  –	
  grouping	
  in	
  threes,	
  either	
  through	
  repetition	
  or	
  through	
  
structures	
  (either	
  within	
  a	
  sentence	
  or	
  paragraph).	
  This	
  can	
  be	
  for	
  emphasis	
  or	
  to	
  
add	
  a	
  sense	
  of	
  gathering	
  momentum	
  to	
  a	
  point	
  being	
  made.	
  
	
  
Imagery	
  –	
  a	
  descriptive	
  or	
  metaphorical	
  use	
  of	
  language	
  to	
  create	
  a	
  vivid	
  picture.	
  
	
  
Pre-­‐modification	
  –	
  a	
  descriptive	
  technique	
  where	
  the	
  descriptive	
  words	
  come	
  before	
  
the	
  thing	
  they	
  are	
  describing,	
  e.g.	
  the	
  big,	
  fat	
  wad	
  of	
  cash	
  spewed	
  from	
  his	
  
inadequate	
  pocket.	
  
	
  
Post-­‐modification	
  -­‐	
  a	
  descriptive	
  technique	
  where	
  the	
  descriptive	
  words	
  come	
  after	
  
the	
  thing	
  they	
  are	
  describing,	
  e.g.	
  the	
  wad	
  of	
  cash,	
  big	
  and	
  fat,	
  spewed	
  from	
  his	
  
pocket.	
  
	
  
Metaphor	
  –	
  a	
  comparison	
  that	
  states	
  that	
  something	
  is	
  actually	
  something	
  else.	
  
“Take	
  a	
  leaf	
  out	
  of	
  her	
  book”	
  or	
  “I’m	
  a	
  demon	
  driver”.	
  
	
  
Simile	
  –	
  a	
  comparison	
  that	
  states	
  that	
  something	
  is	
  ‘like’	
  or	
  ‘as’	
  something	
  else.	
  “I	
  
drive	
  like	
  a	
  demon”	
  or	
  “he’s	
  as	
  big	
  as	
  a	
  house”.	
  	
  
	
  
Synecdoche	
  –	
  a	
  metaphor	
  that	
  states	
  that	
  something	
  is	
  only	
  a	
  small	
  constituent	
  part	
  
of	
  itself,	
  even	
  though	
  we	
  commonly	
  understand	
  otherwise,	
  e.g.	
  “a	
  new	
  set	
  of	
  
wheels”	
  (car)	
  or	
  “he’s	
  behind	
  bars”	
  (prison)	
  
	
  
Analogy	
  –	
  explaining	
  something	
  in	
  terms	
  of	
  something	
  else.	
  	
  
	
  
Allusion	
  –	
  to	
  refer	
  to	
  something	
  indirectly	
  or	
  metaphorically.	
  
	
  
Pathetic	
  Fallacy	
  –	
  when	
  the	
  environment	
  or	
  weather	
  mirrors	
  emotions.	
  
	
  
Personification	
  –	
  a	
  device	
  in	
  which	
  the	
  non-­‐human	
  is	
  given	
  personal	
  and	
  human	
  
qualities,	
  e.g.	
  the	
  trees	
  danced	
  in	
  the	
  wind.	
  
	
  
Extended	
  metaphor	
  –	
  when	
  a	
  metaphor	
  continues	
  throughout	
  a	
  text	
  with	
  recurring	
  
references	
  to	
  the	
  compared	
  item.	
  
	
  
Homeric/epic	
  simile	
  –	
  see	
  extended	
  metaphor	
  and	
  apply	
  to	
  simile.	
  The	
  ‘Homeric’	
  
part	
  refers	
  to	
  Homer’s	
  Odyssey	
  to	
  connote	
  length	
  and	
  recurrence.	
  	
  	
  
	
  
Symbolism	
  –	
  using	
  figurative	
  and	
  metaphoric	
  language,	
  items	
  or	
  incident	
  in	
  a	
  way	
  
that	
  means	
  that	
  certain	
  things	
  represent	
  other	
  things,	
  e.g.	
  a	
  colour	
  could	
  represent	
  
the	
  sadness	
  of	
  a	
  character	
  or	
  a	
  volcano	
  erupting	
  could	
  symbolise	
  the	
  political	
  
infighting	
  of	
  the	
  townspeople	
  beneath	
  the	
  volcano.	
  	
  
	
  
Lexis	
  –	
  another	
  word	
  for	
  the	
  word	
  ‘word’!!!	
  
	
  
Field	
  specific	
  lexis	
  –	
  the	
  language	
  of	
  a	
  certain	
  area	
  (be	
  it	
  vocation,	
  activity	
  or	
  subject	
  
etc),	
  e.g.	
  field	
  specific	
  lexis	
  for	
  computing	
  would	
  include	
  mouse,	
  monitor,	
  RAM,	
  
gigabyte	
  etc;	
  field	
  specific	
  lexis	
  for	
  English	
  Language	
  would	
  include	
  everything	
  in	
  this	
  
glossary.	
  
	
  
Lexical	
  set	
  –	
  the	
  selection	
  of	
  relative	
  lexemes	
  from	
  a	
  text.	
  One	
  can	
  take	
  a	
  lexical	
  set	
  
of	
  field	
  specific	
  lexis,	
  modifiers,	
  proper	
  nouns…	
  or	
  whatever	
  would	
  support	
  a	
  
statement	
  an	
  English	
  student	
  would	
  like	
  to	
  make	
  about	
  a	
  text.	
  	
  
	
  
Lexical	
  bundle	
  –	
  a	
  recurrent	
  sequence	
  of	
  words	
  or	
  a	
  collection	
  of	
  words	
  that,	
  
through	
  repetition	
  of	
  use,	
  just	
  naturally	
  go	
  together,	
  e.g.	
  “I	
  don’t	
  think…”,	
  “would	
  
you	
  mind…”,	
  “I	
  don’t	
  want	
  to.”	
  	
  
	
  
Semantics	
  –	
  the	
  meaning	
  of	
  words.	
  
	
  
Acronym	
  –	
  words	
  created	
  by	
  the	
  initials	
  of	
  other	
  grouped	
  words,	
  e.g.	
  the	
  UN,	
  NATO,	
  
RSPCA.	
  
	
  
Synonym	
  –	
  an	
  alternative	
  word	
  choice	
  that	
  has	
  the	
  same	
  or	
  a	
  very	
  similar	
  meaning,	
  
e.g.	
  a	
  synonym	
  of	
  horror	
  is	
  fright.	
  
	
  
Homophone	
  –	
  different	
  words	
  that	
  sound	
  exactly	
  the	
  same	
  when	
  said	
  out	
  loud	
  (be	
  
very	
  careful	
  of	
  these	
  with	
  regards	
  to	
  your	
  spelling),	
  e.g.	
  they’re,	
  their,	
  there;	
  new,	
  
knew,	
  no,	
  know;	
  need,	
  knead,	
  kneed;	
  led,	
  lead.	
  
	
  
Homonym	
  –	
  when	
  one	
  word	
  has	
  multiple	
  meanings,	
  e.g.	
  great	
  can	
  mean	
  both	
  size	
  
and	
  positivity;	
  cool	
  can	
  mean	
  both	
  coldness	
  and	
  a	
  ‘cool	
  dude’;	
  heavy	
  can	
  mean	
  
physical	
  weight	
  or	
  the	
  seriousness	
  of	
  a	
  situation.	
  
	
  
Archaism	
  –	
  a	
  word	
  that,	
  over	
  time,	
  has	
  fallen	
  out	
  of	
  common	
  usage.	
  Older	
  ones	
  
include	
  zounds,	
  thus,	
  betwixt	
  etc,	
  however	
  slang	
  can	
  become	
  archaic	
  as	
  new	
  
generations	
  opt	
  to	
  choose	
  new	
  terms	
  for	
  things:	
  dig	
  it,	
  bodacious	
  and	
  radical	
  are	
  
perhaps	
  examples	
  of	
  this.	
  
	
  
Juxtaposition	
  –	
  the	
  placing	
  together	
  of	
  elements	
  (whether	
  text,	
  image	
  etc)	
  for	
  some	
  
conscious	
  effect,	
  whether	
  that	
  be	
  complimentary	
  or	
  contrasting.	
  	
  	
  
	
  
Antithesis	
  –	
  when	
  ideas	
  contrast	
  or	
  oppose	
  one	
  another;	
  a	
  semantic	
  contrast	
  in	
  a	
  
text.	
  Often	
  used	
  in	
  reasoned	
  arguments	
  or	
  to	
  create	
  emphasised	
  contrast.	
  
	
  
Binary	
  opposites	
  –	
  elements	
  of	
  a	
  text	
  that	
  hold	
  opposite	
  ends	
  of	
  a	
  notional	
  scale	
  e.g.	
  
hot/cold,	
  big/small,	
  loud/quiet.	
  
	
  
Oxymoron	
  –	
  The	
  use	
  of	
  apparently	
  contradictory	
  words	
  in	
  a	
  phrase,	
  e.g.	
  peaceful	
  
war,	
  hot	
  ice.	
  
	
  
Collocations	
  –	
  words	
  that,	
  through	
  usage	
  just	
  naturally	
  go	
  together.	
  We	
  collectively	
  
understand	
  they	
  are	
  inextricably	
  linked,	
  e.g.	
  Laurel	
  and	
  Hardy,	
  fish	
  and	
  chips,	
  salt	
  
and	
  vinegar,	
  John,	
  Paul,	
  George	
  and	
  Ringo,	
  fire	
  and	
  ice,	
  broad	
  grin,	
  broad	
  backed.	
  
	
  
Asyndetic	
  Listing	
  –	
  the	
  listing	
  of	
  elements	
  that	
  excludes	
  any	
  form	
  of	
  co-­‐ordinating	
  
conjunction.	
  The	
  prefix	
  ‘a’	
  basically	
  means	
  ‘absence	
  of’.	
  	
  
	
  
Syndetic	
  listing	
  –	
  the	
  listing	
  of	
  elements	
  that	
  features	
  a	
  co-­‐ordinating	
  conjunction.	
  
	
  
Phonological	
  features	
  –	
  any	
  devices	
  used	
  that	
  relate	
  to	
  sound,	
  e.g.	
  alliteration,	
  
repetition.	
  
	
  
Onomatopoeia	
  –	
  when	
  a	
  word	
  is	
  spelled	
  exactly	
  as	
  the	
  same	
  as	
  the	
  sound	
  it	
  
describes…	
  kaboom,	
  drip,	
  plop,	
  quack,	
  miaow.	
  	
  
	
  
Consonance	
  –	
  the	
  repetition	
  of	
  double	
  consonants	
  in	
  the	
  middle	
  of	
  words,	
  e.g.	
  I’d	
  
better	
  buy	
  more	
  butter	
  before	
  I	
  go	
  out	
  and	
  post	
  these	
  letters.	
  	
  
	
  
Assonance	
  –	
  the	
  repetition	
  of	
  vowel	
  sounds,	
  e.g.	
  you	
  should	
  wear	
  a	
  hood	
  while	
  you	
  
chop	
  the	
  wood	
  good.	
  Assonance	
  can	
  create	
  rhyme.	
  	
  
	
  
Alliteration	
  (guttural,	
  lateral,	
  sibilant,	
  bilabial/plosive,	
  dental,	
  aspirant,	
  fricative)	
  –	
  
the	
  repetition	
  of	
  consonant	
  sounds	
  in	
  a	
  text,	
  often	
  at	
  the	
  beginning	
  of	
  words.	
  You	
  
must	
  always	
  correctly	
  label	
  the	
  exact	
  type	
  of	
  alliteration	
  as	
  listed	
  above.	
  	
  
	
  
Plot	
  –	
  the	
  structured	
  cause	
  and	
  effect	
  of	
  incidents	
  experienced	
  by	
  a	
  protagonist	
  that	
  
makes	
  a	
  story	
  interesting:	
  the	
  exposition,	
  the	
  complication	
  and	
  the	
  resolution.	
  	
  
	
  
Exposition	
  –	
  the	
  parts	
  of	
  a	
  story	
  (usually	
  early	
  on)	
  where	
  the	
  writer	
  gets	
  across	
  all	
  
the	
  information	
  about	
  the	
  situation	
  of	
  a	
  character,	
  who	
  they	
  are,	
  where	
  they	
  are	
  and	
  
what	
  the	
  ‘status	
  quo’	
  is	
  before	
  the	
  plot	
  begins	
  in	
  earnest.	
  It	
  should	
  always	
  be	
  as	
  
subtle	
  as	
  possible,	
  which	
  usually	
  means	
  avoiding	
  expressing	
  exposition	
  through	
  
dialogue.	
  	
  	
  
	
  
Narrator	
  –	
  the	
  ‘voice’	
  that	
  tells	
  a	
  fictional	
  story.	
  Can	
  be	
  a	
  first,	
  second	
  or	
  third	
  person	
  
narrator	
  (see	
  personal	
  pronouns	
  to	
  find	
  out	
  more).	
  
	
  
Protagonist	
  –	
  the	
  character	
  the	
  reader	
  is	
  meant	
  to	
  identify	
  with	
  the	
  most	
  and	
  follow	
  
through	
  the	
  story.	
  The	
  hero	
  (or	
  anti-­‐hero).	
  
	
  
Anti-­‐hero	
  –	
  a	
  protagonist	
  who	
  isn’t	
  always	
  morally	
  virtuous	
  but	
  has	
  enough	
  qualities	
  
to	
  endear	
  themselves	
  to	
  a	
  reader.	
  	
  
	
  
Antagonist	
  –	
  the	
  character	
  who	
  opposes	
  the	
  goals	
  of	
  the	
  protagonist.	
  	
  
	
  
Dialogue	
  –	
  the	
  presentation	
  of	
  character’s	
  speech.	
  	
  
	
  
Monologue	
  -­‐	
  a	
  type	
  of	
  poem	
  or	
  a	
  prolonged	
  piece	
  of	
  drama	
  where	
  one	
  ‘character’	
  
delivers	
  a	
  speech	
  that	
  reveals	
  their	
  innermost	
  feelings.	
  Dramatic	
  monologues	
  can	
  
infer	
  an	
  addressee	
  or	
  audience	
  who	
  the	
  speaking	
  character	
  is	
  relating	
  to.	
  
	
  
Soliloquy	
  –	
  see	
  monologue.	
  
	
  
Dramatic	
  irony	
  –	
  When	
  the	
  audience	
  is	
  aware	
  of	
  more	
  than	
  one	
  of	
  the	
  characters	
  in	
  
either	
  a	
  play	
  or	
  a	
  piece	
  of	
  fiction	
  to	
  create	
  a	
  dramatic	
  effect.	
  
	
  
Ambiguity	
  –	
  when	
  there	
  can	
  be	
  more	
  than	
  one	
  possible	
  meanings	
  or	
  outcomes	
  in	
  a	
  
story,	
  creating	
  a	
  sense	
  of	
  intrigue.	
  
	
  
Anthropomorphism	
  –	
  when	
  an	
  animal	
  takes	
  on	
  the	
  characteristics	
  of	
  a	
  human	
  being,	
  
e.g.	
  wearing	
  clothes,	
  buying	
  cakes	
  and	
  talking.	
  	
  
	
  
Suspension	
  of	
  disbelief	
  –	
  the	
  reader’s	
  ability	
  to	
  take	
  for	
  granted	
  fantastical	
  aspects	
  
of	
  fiction	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  enjoy	
  the	
  story.	
  
	
  
Genre	
  –	
  category	
  of	
  fiction	
  or	
  type	
  of	
  text,	
  e.g.	
  romance,	
  horror,	
  thriller,	
  magazines,	
  
etc.	
  	
  
	
  
Audience	
  –	
  who	
  the	
  text	
  is	
  aimed	
  at.	
  
	
  
Purpose	
  –	
  the	
  reason	
  the	
  text	
  has	
  been	
  produced,	
  e.g.	
  to	
  entertain,	
  inform	
  etc.	
  
	
  
Foreshadowing	
  –	
  the	
  hinting	
  at	
  things	
  to	
  come	
  through	
  early	
  elements	
  of	
  a	
  story.	
  
	
  
Mimesis	
  –	
  mimicry.	
  A	
  story,	
  for	
  example,	
  may	
  mimic	
  the	
  gasping	
  breath	
  of	
  a	
  pursued	
  
protagonist	
  by	
  using	
  short,	
  sharp,	
  sentences	
  and	
  lots	
  of	
  aspirant	
  alliteration.	
  
	
  
Pastiche	
  –	
  a	
  piece	
  of	
  art	
  or	
  writing	
  that	
  imitates	
  a	
  form	
  or	
  genre	
  to	
  generate	
  
humour.	
  
	
  
Satire	
  –	
  a	
  piece	
  of	
  writing	
  or	
  art	
  that	
  pokes	
  fun	
  at	
  the	
  societal	
  establishment.	
  	
  
	
  
Neologism	
  –	
  a	
  newly	
  invented	
  word.	
  
	
  
Portmanteau	
  –	
  a	
  newly	
  invented	
  word,	
  created	
  by	
  merging	
  two	
  words	
  together,	
  for	
  
example	
  snozcumber	
  (from	
  schnoz	
  and	
  cucumber)	
  or	
  chillax	
  (from	
  ‘chill	
  out’	
  and	
  
‘relax’).	
  	
  
	
  
Compound	
  words	
  –	
  a	
  word	
  created	
  by	
  utilising	
  two	
  existing	
  words	
  separated	
  by	
  a	
  
hyphen,	
  e.g.	
  global-­‐village,	
  bone-­‐headed,	
  to	
  go-­‐straight.	
  There	
  are	
  compound	
  
versions	
  of	
  nouns,	
  adjective,	
  adverbs,	
  verbs.	
  
	
  
Clipping	
  –	
  colloquial	
  omission	
  of	
  parts	
  of	
  words	
  to	
  create	
  a	
  more	
  casual	
  alternative,	
  
e.g.	
  ‘cause,	
  bra,	
  pram.	
  	
  
	
  
Rhetoric	
  –	
  an	
  example	
  of	
  persuasive	
  language,	
  arguably	
  including	
  advertising.	
  
	
  
Stereotype	
  –	
  a	
  label	
  for	
  a	
  social	
  group,	
  utilising	
  certain	
  characteristics	
  of	
  group	
  
members	
  and	
  applying	
  it	
  to	
  everyone	
  within	
  the	
  grouping.	
  
	
  
Taboo	
  language	
  –	
  words	
  that	
  are	
  considered	
  socially	
  unacceptable	
  to	
  say	
  in	
  polite,	
  
civilised	
  society,	
  e.g.	
  swear	
  words	
  or	
  words	
  that	
  are	
  politically	
  incorrect.	
  	
  
	
  
Connotation	
  –	
  the	
  associations	
  that	
  can	
  be	
  gleaned	
  from	
  words.	
  
	
  
Denotation	
  –	
  the	
  literal	
  meaning	
  of	
  the	
  words.	
  
	
  
Irony	
  –	
  language	
  that	
  conveys	
  a	
  meaning	
  other	
  to	
  than	
  that	
  literally	
  expressed	
  by	
  the	
  
words,	
  usually	
  for	
  humorous	
  effect.	
  	
  
	
  
Sarcasm	
  –	
  the	
  use	
  of	
  language	
  in	
  an	
  ironic	
  way	
  with	
  the	
  express	
  purpose	
  of	
  
offending	
  or	
  wounding	
  the	
  recipient	
  in	
  some	
  way.	
  
	
  
Euphemism	
  –	
  the	
  polite	
  way	
  to	
  say	
  something	
  not	
  normally	
  considered	
  socially	
  
appropriate,	
  usually	
  to	
  refer	
  to	
  going	
  to	
  the	
  toilet,	
  death	
  etc.	
  I	
  need	
  a	
  tinkle,	
  I	
  need	
  
the	
  little	
  boys’	
  room,	
  he’s	
  pushing	
  up	
  daisies,	
  she’s	
  gone	
  to	
  meet	
  her	
  maker.	
  
	
  
Dysphemism	
  –	
  an	
  unnecessarily	
  extreme	
  way	
  of	
  saying	
  something,	
  not	
  normally	
  
socially	
  appropriate.	
  It	
  could	
  incorporate	
  taboo	
  language	
  or	
  contain	
  too	
  much	
  
information	
  than	
  necessary.	
  You’re	
  husband	
  had	
  his	
  head	
  blown	
  off	
  and	
  there	
  was	
  
blood	
  everywhere.	
  	
  
	
  
Headline	
  –	
  the	
  large	
  text/title	
  of	
  a	
  newspaper	
  article.	
  Often	
  these	
  can	
  incorporate	
  
word	
  play	
  and	
  alliteration.	
  	
  
	
  
Tagline	
  –	
  beneath	
  the	
  headline,	
  there	
  may	
  be	
  a	
  slightly	
  smaller	
  sentence,	
  designed	
  
to	
  clarify	
  the	
  gist	
  of	
  the	
  story.	
  	
  
	
  
Subheading	
  –	
  usually	
  a	
  one	
  or	
  two	
  word,	
  emboldened	
  phrase	
  that	
  breaks	
  up	
  the	
  
main	
  article,	
  often	
  foreshadowing	
  what	
  is	
  to	
  come	
  later	
  in	
  the	
  story.	
  	
  
	
  
Caption	
  –	
  part	
  of	
  a	
  multi-­‐modal	
  text,	
  these	
  will	
  be	
  juxtaposed	
  with	
  an	
  image.	
  Often	
  
they	
  are	
  used	
  to	
  say	
  something	
  witty	
  or	
  humorous,	
  maybe	
  punning	
  or	
  taking	
  out	
  of	
  
context	
  the	
  image	
  in	
  question.	
  	
  
	
  
Grab	
  quote	
  –	
  an	
  enlarged	
  example	
  taken	
  from	
  the	
  text,	
  usually	
  a	
  sensationalised	
  
piece.	
  It	
  attempts	
  to	
  draw	
  the	
  reader’s	
  eye,	
  engender	
  curiosity,	
  and	
  thus	
  make	
  the	
  
reader	
  read	
  the	
  story.	
  	
  
	
  
Slogan	
  –	
  a	
  catchy	
  line,	
  often	
  a	
  minor	
  sentence,	
  that	
  sums	
  up	
  an	
  advert,	
  sticks	
  in	
  the	
  
mind,	
  and	
  makes	
  the	
  product,	
  ultimately,	
  seem	
  more	
  appealing.	
  	
  
	
  
Pun	
  –	
  a	
  play	
  on	
  words:	
  “SupercallygoballisticCelticareatrocious”	
  Caledonian	
  Thistle	
  
beat	
  Celtic	
  5-­‐0;	
  “Celebrity	
  Big	
  Blubber”	
  Wally	
  the	
  Whale	
  dies	
  in	
  the	
  Thames,	
  right	
  by	
  
the	
  Celebrity	
  Big	
  Brother	
  house.	
  
	
  
Journalese	
  –	
  the	
  sensationalised	
  language	
  that	
  is	
  particular	
  to	
  tabloid	
  newspapers,	
  
e.g.	
  slam,	
  probe,	
  spat	
  (as	
  in	
  fight),	
  shocker.	
  
	
  
Multiple	
  modifiers	
  –	
  doubling	
  and	
  trebling	
  up	
  of	
  adjectives	
  is	
  used	
  frequently	
  in	
  
tabloid	
  newspapers	
  and	
  also	
  other	
  genres	
  of	
  text.	
  	
  
	
  
Cliché	
  –	
  when	
  language	
  is	
  used	
  over	
  and	
  over	
  until	
  it	
  becomes	
  so	
  well	
  known	
  that	
  it	
  
loses	
  its	
  original	
  potency,	
  e.g.	
  at	
  the	
  end	
  of	
  the	
  day,	
  I’m	
  over	
  the	
  moon,	
  he	
  was	
  as	
  
quiet	
  as	
  a	
  mouse.	
  	
  
	
  
Idiom	
  –	
  a	
  saying,	
  often	
  a	
  cliché	
  where	
  the	
  words	
  that	
  make	
  up	
  the	
  saying	
  do	
  not	
  
have	
  the	
  same	
  meaning	
  as	
  the	
  overall	
  semantic	
  effect,	
  e.g.	
  I’m	
  over	
  the	
  moon;	
  you’re	
  
taking	
  the	
  Mickey;	
  he’s	
  pushing	
  up	
  daisies;	
  you’re	
  having	
  a	
  laugh.	
  	
  
	
  
Malapropism	
  –	
  when	
  a	
  speaker	
  accidentally	
  uses	
  the	
  wrong	
  word	
  that	
  sounds	
  the	
  
same,	
  or	
  like	
  it	
  should	
  belong	
  in	
  their	
  sentence/utterance:	
  The	
  world’s	
  my	
  lobster;	
  I	
  
will	
  illiterate	
  you	
  from	
  my	
  memory.	
  
	
  
Text	
  speak	
  –	
  the	
  phonetic	
  spelling	
  of	
  text	
  too	
  long	
  to	
  type	
  out	
  in	
  full	
  on	
  a	
  mobile	
  
phone.	
  	
  
 
	
                                                    	
                                            	
  
	
  
	
  
Orthography	
  –	
  the	
  method	
  of	
  spelling/correct	
  spelling	
  –	
  we	
  would	
  refer	
  to	
  the	
  ‘non-­‐
standard	
  orthography’	
  of	
  words	
  from	
  the	
  past	
  in	
  comparison	
  to	
  how	
  we	
  write	
  them	
  
today.	
  
	
  
Etymology	
  –	
  the	
  origin	
  of	
  a	
  word	
  or	
  the	
  history	
  of	
  how	
  it	
  came	
  to	
  be.	
  	
  
	
  
Ampersand	
  –	
  the	
  symbol	
  “&”,	
  arguably	
  more	
  prominent	
  in	
  the	
  past.	
  
	
  
Non	
  standard	
  capitalisation	
  –	
  you	
  may	
  see	
  in	
  very	
  old	
  texts,	
  capital	
  letters	
  being	
  
allocated	
  mid-­‐sentence	
  to	
  words	
  other	
  than	
  proper	
  nouns,	
  perhaps	
  for	
  emphasis,	
  or	
  
perhaps	
  arbitrarily.	
  Look	
  at	
  the	
  specific	
  text	
  in	
  question	
  and	
  put	
  forward	
  your	
  own	
  
reasoning	
  for	
  it.	
  
	
  
Archaism/archaic	
  language	
  –	
  a	
  word	
  that	
  has	
  fallen	
  out	
  of	
  common	
  usage	
  or	
  is	
  old	
  
fashioned.	
  These	
  can	
  also	
  include	
  slang	
  words	
  that	
  have	
  fallen	
  out	
  of	
  the	
  youth	
  
lexicon.	
  	
  
	
  
Anachronistic	
  language	
  –	
  language	
  that	
  seems	
  ‘out	
  of	
  time’.	
  For	
  example,	
  something	
  
may	
  be	
  written	
  in	
  a	
  very	
  old	
  fashioned	
  way	
  for	
  stylistic	
  reasons,	
  say	
  a	
  fantasy	
  style	
  
novel,	
  yet	
  it	
  may	
  contain	
  dialogue	
  that	
  would	
  appeal	
  to	
  a	
  modern	
  young	
  audience,	
  
using	
  slang	
  etc.	
  It’s	
  like	
  when	
  you	
  spot	
  an	
  extra	
  wearing	
  a	
  digital	
  watch	
  in	
  a	
  historical	
  
movie.	
  	
  
	
  
Semantic	
  shift	
  –	
  the	
  shift	
  in	
  a	
  word’s	
  meaning	
  over	
  time,	
  e.g.	
  ‘sick’	
  evolves	
  to	
  
become	
  something	
  other	
  than	
  illness	
  but	
  a	
  slang	
  reference	
  to	
  something	
  positive..	
  	
  
	
  
Inverted	
  syntax	
  –	
  when	
  the	
  ordering	
  of	
  words	
  is	
  rearranged	
  to	
  create	
  an	
  alternative	
  
weighting	
  to	
  a	
  sentence.	
  Think	
  of	
  Yoda	
  on	
  Star	
  Wars	
  –	
  “Good	
  with	
  the	
  force,	
  he	
  is.”	
  
	
  
Slang	
  –	
  colloquial	
  language,	
  often	
  coined	
  by	
  the	
  younger	
  generations	
  to	
  imprint	
  their	
  
own	
  social	
  identity	
  on	
  the	
  language	
  and	
  differentiate	
  themselves	
  from	
  the	
  perceived	
  
establishment.	
  
	
  
Globalised	
  vocabulary	
  –	
  in	
  the	
  20th	
  Century,	
  in	
  the	
  advent	
  of	
  mass-­‐media,	
  social	
  
mobilization	
  and	
  international	
  travel,	
  there	
  have	
  been	
  an	
  influx	
  of	
  new	
  words	
  and	
  
phrases	
  that	
  we	
  now	
  take	
  for	
  granted,	
  e.g.	
  kebab,	
  cab,	
  sushi,	
  karaoke,	
  knish,	
  talk	
  to	
  
the	
  hand,	
  zombie,	
  savoir-­‐faire.	
  	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
 
	
  
Discourse	
  –	
  the	
  study	
  of	
  spoken	
  language.	
  
	
  
Mode	
  –	
  the	
  mode	
  of	
  the	
  text	
  is	
  how	
  it	
  is	
  presented.	
  Is	
  it	
  in	
  the	
  written	
  or	
  spoken	
  
mode?	
  Whichever	
  mode	
  it	
  is,	
  it	
  will	
  be	
  governed	
  by	
  differing	
  rules	
  and	
  structures.	
  	
  
	
  
Vocabulary	
  –	
  the	
  amount	
  of	
  words	
  available	
  to	
  an	
  individual.	
  
	
  
Paralinguistic	
  features	
  –	
  literally	
  ‘beyond	
  language’.	
  The	
  things	
  that	
  aid	
  
communication	
  but	
  don’t	
  literally	
  constitute	
  language,	
  e.g.	
  body	
  language,	
  facial	
  
expressions,	
  laughter,	
  sighs,	
  whispering.	
  
	
  
Prosodic	
  features	
  –	
  the	
  ‘sound	
  effects’	
  of	
  spoken	
  language.	
  Things	
  like	
  stress,	
  
intonation	
  and	
  pitch.	
  	
  
	
  
Stress	
  –	
  the	
  emphasis	
  placed	
  on	
  certain	
  words,	
  through	
  volume,	
  significant	
  pauses	
  
beforehand,	
  or	
  inflexion.	
  	
  
	
  
Intonation	
  –	
  the	
  rise	
  and	
  fall	
  of	
  an	
  individual’s	
  natural	
  speaking	
  voice	
  or	
  the	
  variation	
  
or	
  ‘tune’	
  to	
  keep	
  listeners	
  interested.	
  These	
  naturally	
  differ	
  from	
  nation	
  to	
  nation	
  as	
  
different	
  languages	
  have	
  different	
  intonation	
  qualities.	
  	
  
	
  
Pitch	
  –	
  the	
  rise	
  or	
  fall	
  of	
  the	
  voice.	
  High	
  pitch	
  is	
  squeaky	
  and	
  low	
  pitch	
  is	
  deep.	
  
	
  
Turn	
  taking	
  –	
  co-­‐ordinated	
  and	
  rule	
  governed	
  co-­‐operation	
  between	
  two	
  or	
  more	
  
participants	
  of	
  a	
  conversation.	
  
	
  
Adjacency	
  pair	
  –	
  a	
  moment	
  in	
  turn	
  taking	
  where	
  one	
  utterance	
  constrains	
  the	
  
response	
  in	
  some	
  way,	
  e.g.	
  a	
  question	
  leads	
  to	
  an	
  answer;	
  a	
  suggestion	
  leads	
  to	
  an	
  
acceptance	
  or	
  declination.	
  
	
  
Back	
  channelling	
  –	
  the	
  process	
  of	
  giving	
  feedback	
  through	
  encouraging	
  noises	
  and	
  
positive	
  comments	
  when	
  a	
  speaker	
  is	
  talking	
  to	
  encourage	
  them.	
  	
  
	
  
Running	
  repair	
  –	
  the	
  process	
  of	
  socially	
  organising	
  a	
  conversation	
  if	
  two	
  people	
  find	
  
that	
  they	
  have	
  been	
  talking	
  simultaneously.	
  	
  
	
  
Topic	
  marker	
  –	
  an	
  utterance	
  that	
  establishes	
  the	
  topic	
  of	
  a	
  conversation.	
  
	
  
Topic	
  shifter	
  –	
  an	
  utterance	
  that	
  moves	
  a	
  conversation	
  on	
  to	
  another	
  topic,	
  e.g.	
  
“Anyway...	
  “	
  
	
  
Interrupted	
  construction	
  –	
  the	
  breakdown	
  of	
  an	
  utterance	
  where	
  half	
  way	
  through	
  
the	
  speaker	
  will	
  completely	
  change	
  tact,	
  focus	
  or	
  even	
  topic	
  and	
  move	
  onto	
  
something	
  else,	
  sometimes	
  abandoning	
  the	
  original	
  utterance	
  mid	
  word.	
  Explain	
  in	
  
detail	
  how	
  these	
  have	
  occurred.	
  	
  
 
False	
  starts	
  –	
  The	
  speaker	
  realises	
  the	
  beginning	
  of	
  an	
  utterance	
  isn’t	
  working	
  and	
  so	
  
effectively	
  re-­‐starts	
  by	
  rephrasing.	
  
	
  
Hesitation	
  indicators	
  –	
  moments	
  in	
  discourse	
  that	
  indicate	
  that	
  the	
  speaker	
  is	
  in	
  
some	
  way	
  playing	
  for	
  time.	
  This	
  can	
  be	
  seen	
  in	
  certain	
  forms	
  of	
  stuttering	
  and	
  in	
  
fillers	
  such	
  as	
  um,	
  err	
  and	
  ahh	
  when	
  the	
  speaker	
  is	
  thinking	
  of	
  the	
  next	
  thing	
  to	
  say.	
  
	
  
Fillers	
  –	
  the	
  insertion	
  of	
  words,	
  phrases	
  or	
  noises	
  into	
  a	
  speaker’s	
  discourse,	
  e.g.	
  like,	
  
y’know,	
  sort	
  of,	
  right.	
  These	
  can	
  be	
  due	
  to	
  the	
  individual’s	
  own	
  idiolect	
  or	
  convey	
  
some	
  subliminal	
  conversational	
  purpose,	
  depending	
  on	
  the	
  context.	
  	
  	
  
	
  
Latch-­‐ons	
  –	
  when	
  a	
  speaker	
  takes	
  their	
  turn	
  immediately	
  after	
  the	
  preceding	
  speaker	
  
has	
  finished	
  speaking	
  leaving	
  no,	
  or	
  little,	
  pause.	
  This	
  can	
  be	
  due	
  to	
  an	
  attempt	
  for	
  
conversational	
  dominance	
  or	
  a	
  degree	
  of	
  familiarity	
  between	
  the	
  speakers,	
  among	
  
other	
  reasons.	
  
	
  
Overlaps	
  –	
  when	
  one	
  speaker	
  speaks	
  over	
  another.	
  
	
  
Glottal	
  stops	
  –	
  the	
  omission	
  of	
  (usually)	
  dental	
  sounds	
  in	
  the	
  middle	
  of	
  words	
  like	
  
butter,	
  letter,	
  better	
  etc,	
  in	
  pronunciation.	
  Occasionally	
  these	
  can	
  occur	
  at	
  the	
  ends	
  
of	
  words	
  like	
  ‘what’.	
  	
  	
  
	
  
Non-­‐fluency	
  features	
  –	
  any	
  feature	
  which	
  would	
  indicate	
  that	
  the	
  speaker	
  is	
  not	
  
speaking	
  with	
  fluency	
  for	
  whatever	
  reason,	
  e.g.	
  someone	
  might	
  stammer	
  if	
  they	
  are	
  
under	
  severe	
  pressure,	
  or	
  a	
  foreign	
  speaker	
  may	
  invert	
  syntax	
  or	
  elide	
  certain	
  words	
  
from	
  their	
  utterances.	
  	
  
	
  
Tag	
  question	
  –	
  a	
  question	
  tagged	
  onto	
  the	
  end	
  of	
  an	
  statement,	
  e.g	
  ‘It’s	
  cold,	
  isn’t	
  
it?’	
  
	
  
Vocative	
  –	
  a	
  direct	
  reference	
  to	
  another	
  speaker	
  in	
  discourse,	
  e.g.	
  “Bob,	
  can	
  you...”	
  
	
  
Elision	
  –	
  the	
  omission	
  of	
  a	
  vowel	
  or	
  syllable	
  in	
  the	
  pronunciation	
  of	
  a	
  word…	
  OR	
  the	
  
omission	
  of	
  a	
  vowel	
  at	
  the	
  end	
  of	
  a	
  word	
  when	
  the	
  subsequent	
  word	
  begins	
  with	
  a	
  
vowel	
  (as	
  apparent	
  in	
  northern	
  pronunciation),	
  e.g.	
  “it’s	
  either	
  one	
  or	
  t’other.”	
  
	
  
Code	
  switching	
  –	
  the	
  ability	
  of	
  a	
  speaker	
  to	
  alter	
  the	
  register	
  or	
  clarity	
  of	
  their	
  
speech	
  to	
  suit	
  a	
  different	
  social	
  situation.	
  	
  
	
  
Received	
  Pronunciation	
  –	
  the	
  typical	
  pronunciation	
  associated	
  with	
  the	
  social	
  elite	
  
of	
  Britain.	
  The	
  Queen’s	
  English	
  etc.	
  	
  
	
  
Accent	
  –	
  The	
  manner	
  of	
  pronunciation	
  particular	
  to	
  a	
  certain	
  geographical	
  region.	
  
	
  
Regional	
  Dialect	
  –	
  the	
  actual	
  words	
  used	
  and	
  the	
  spoken	
  grammar	
  which	
  is	
  
particular	
  to	
  a	
  certain	
  geographical	
  region.	
  	
  
 
Sociolect	
  –	
  the	
  vocabulary	
  and	
  spoken	
  grammar	
  which	
  is	
  particular	
  to	
  a	
  certain	
  social	
  
group.	
  	
  
	
  
Idiolect	
  –	
  the	
  speech	
  patterns	
  of	
  an	
  individual.	
  
	
  




	
  
	
  
Alternate	
  rhyme	
                 Lines	
  of	
  poetry	
  where	
  the	
  rhyme	
  is	
  on	
  every	
  other	
  line	
  
                                     (abab)	
  
Caesura	
                            A	
  mid-­‐line	
  pause	
  
Couplet	
                            A	
  two	
  line	
  verse	
  (often	
  rhyming)	
  
End-­‐focus	
                        A	
  change	
  in	
  the	
  structure	
  of	
  the	
  sentence	
  to	
  place	
  emphasis	
  
                                     on	
  a	
  closing	
  sentence	
  element.	
  
Enjambment	
                         Run-­‐on	
  lines	
  
Eye	
  rhyme	
                       Where	
  the	
  rhyme	
  looks	
  like	
  it	
  should	
  rhyme	
  but	
  the	
  sound	
  
                                     is	
  not	
  exactly	
  the	
  same.	
  
foregrounding	
                      A	
  change	
  in	
  the	
  structure	
  of	
  the	
  sentence	
  to	
  place	
  emphasis	
  
                                     on	
  an	
  opening	
  sentence	
  element	
  
Form	
                               The	
  structure	
  and	
  shape	
  of	
  the	
  text	
  
Iambic	
                             A	
  unit	
  of	
  poetic	
  meter	
  containing	
  one	
  unstressed	
  syllable	
  
                                     followed	
  by	
  one	
  stressed	
  syllable	
  -­‐/	
  
Internal	
  rhyme	
                  Where	
  the	
  rhyming	
  sound	
  occurs	
  within	
  a	
  line	
  of	
  verse	
  
Octet	
                              An	
  eight	
  line	
  verse	
  
Pentameter	
                         A	
  unit	
  of	
  poetic	
  meter	
  containing	
  five	
  feet	
  (10	
  syllables	
  in	
  
                                     total)	
  
Petrarchan	
  or	
  Italian	
        A	
  poem	
  of	
  14	
  lines,	
  divided	
  into	
  an	
  octet	
  and	
  a	
  sestet,	
  
sonnet	
                             written	
  in	
  iambic	
  pentameter,	
  rhyming	
  abbaabbba	
  cdecde	
  
                                     (sestet	
  may	
  vary)	
  
Quatrain	
                           A	
  four-­‐line	
  verse	
  
Rhythm	
                             The	
  pattern	
  of	
  syllables	
  and	
  stresses	
  within	
  poetry	
  
Sestet	
                             A	
  six-­‐line	
  verse	
  
Shakespearean	
  or	
                A	
  poem	
  of	
  14	
  lines,	
  divided	
  into	
  three	
  quatrains	
  and	
  a	
  
English	
  sonnet	
                  couplet,	
  written	
  in	
  iambic	
  pentameter,	
  rhyming	
  abab	
  cdcd	
  
                                     efef	
  gg	
  
Stanza	
                             The	
  division	
  of	
  lines	
  in	
  a	
  poem,	
  also	
  called	
  a	
  verse	
  
Verse	
  Type	
                      The	
  type	
  of	
  poem	
  e.g.	
  sonnet,	
  lyric,	
  ballad,	
  ode,	
  narrative	
  
                                     poem	
  etc.	
  
Volta	
                              The	
  turning	
  point	
  in	
  a	
  sonnet	
  
When analysing a text, the worst thing you could possibly do is dive
straight in and start analysing. There are things you need to consider
before you start writing in order for you to successfully structure
your work and analyse in sufficient depth to succeed on this course
to the required level.


First, you must GASP at the text, whatever it may be. You’ve probably
guessed that GASP is one of those horrible acronyms, but it should help you
remember the process of initial consideration.

G – Genre – what type of text is it? Is it a leaflet, advertisement, piece of
rhetoric, transcript of somebody singing in the bath, shopping list, or maybe a
piece of high literature… what is it? Once, you’ve answered this question, you
should begin thinking about the general linguistic conventions of such a text.

A – Audience – who is it written for (specifically)? So, it’s an advert for
chocolate, for example, but who is the target audience? Is the text trying to
appeal to men and women, old or young, rich or poor?

S – Subject – what is the text about? If it is an article, what is the subject
and will that have an effect on the language used?

P–    Purpose – what is it trying to do overall?


So imagine if you were confronted with, say, an introduction to a Jamie Oliver
cook book - you may be able to make the following statement:



(G) The text is the introduction to a cookbook by Jamie Oliver where he
directly addresses the reader and welcomes them in a friendly tone. (A) It
is written for people with a direct interest in cooking and, because of his
informal and approachable manner on television, it could be assumed that
a lot of people would read this who might be initially intimidated by the
notion of cooking. (S) The text details the contents of the book and what
the reader can expect from the overall publication. (P) Overall it is
attempting to entice perhaps browsers in bookshops to make a purchase,
or for people who have bought the book to take a chance on some of the
more difficult recipes within.
After thinking about the GASP you need to write your analytical essay. To
 do this you will need to apply the CLIPO framework. CLIPO is not a hard
 and fast rule that must be applied; however you must include all its
 elements in some form within your analytical work.

 C – CONTEXT – you need to begin your essay with a rundown of the
 contextual factors that will shape the thrust of your discussion. Who has
 written the text, when was it written etc? In essence, you can make this
 opening to the essay something resembling the GASP paragraph.

 L – LEXIS – or the ‘language’ used. Make analytical comments on
 grammar, syntax, imagery, lexical choices etc.

 I – INTERACTIONAL FEATURES - how does the text interact with the
 audience. Look at the graphology. Are there any typographical features.
 Does it address the audience directly using first person pronouns? Does it
 utilise images? Are modal elements juxtaposed for effect?

 P – PHONOLOGICAL FEATURES – are there any sound effects utilised by
 the text? Is there alliteration, assonance, consonance, onomatopoeia,
 phonetic spelling etc?

 O – OVERVIEW – sum up your findings and perhaps evaluate the
 effectiveness of all the features that you have analysed in relation to the
 points you made in the CONTEXT section, referring once again to GASP.



   In theory, now you have the makings of a decent essay.

  However, there is one last framework that you have to now
apply to this ‘skeleton’ in order to flesh it out and proclaim
                    ‘I’m a top notch essay!’
At school, you will probably have been told to use POINT, EVIDENCE &
EVALUATION when analysing texts.

We’re going to be a little bit more grown up here at College (well, a bit
anyway) so from now on we’ll use CQA. Once, you’ve GASP(ed) and
planned your analytical essay with CLIPO, every single point you make
must follow thusly:


C – COMMENT – okay, so you’ve spotted a feature of language so now
you need to mention it. Go on – write a declarative sentence. That’s all you
need to do. Just come out and say it!


Q – QUOTE – oh? Does the text really utilise synecdoche to create a
parallel image to the central notion that the concept of robots symbolise a
whole totalitarian society of emotionless drudgery. What an excellent
comment. Although an examiner will always want proof that you know
what you’re talking about and that you aren’t trying to merely create a
good impression with waffled terms. Prove it! Follow up your comment with
a direct quote from the text to support your astute claims.

A – ANALYSIS – Going good so far. You’ve commented well and proved it
with a quote. Now analyse the quote in depth. Discuss the effect of the
notion you’ve outlaid in the comment and relate it to GASP. For example,
why is it using metaphor? How does the metaphor work? Why will the
intended audience appreciate this particular metaphor? Is it a cliché? If it is
a rather commonly understood metaphor, used in wider circles, then what
effect does this have on the audience? Is it usual for this type of text to
utilise imagery like this?


This is how you write a good essay. This is how you
get the top grades. This booklet is just about the
best thing ever …remember …love it, hug it …and it’ll
              just hug you right back.

More Related Content

What's hot

Gothic fiction
Gothic fictionGothic fiction
Gothic fiction
trixiatan
 
Writer’s Effect 1
Writer’s Effect 1Writer’s Effect 1
Writer’s Effect 1
Andy Fisher
 
Setting and theme-critical analysis- mill on the floss
Setting and theme-critical analysis- mill on the flossSetting and theme-critical analysis- mill on the floss
Setting and theme-critical analysis- mill on the floss
Laiba Farooq
 
Themes in macbeth
Themes in macbethThemes in macbeth
Themes in macbeth
Apurva Ankolkar
 
Hamlet as tragicHero
Hamlet as tragicHeroHamlet as tragicHero
Hamlet as tragicHero
solankijayshree
 
Symbolism in literature
Symbolism in literatureSymbolism in literature
Symbolism in literature
debbiewomble
 
Victorian novel
Victorian novelVictorian novel
Victorian novel
AminaKSiraj
 
Macbeth
MacbethMacbeth
Macbeth
derick howard
 
Theatre of absurd
Theatre of absurdTheatre of absurd
Theatre of absurd
AdnanMughal16
 
The modernist literature- to the lighthouse
The modernist literature-  to the lighthouseThe modernist literature-  to the lighthouse
The modernist literature- to the lighthouse
PrinjalShiyal
 
PARALLELISM.pptx
PARALLELISM.pptxPARALLELISM.pptx
PARALLELISM.pptx
RuzelPallegaBaydal
 
I a richard
I a richardI a richard
I a richard
jyotiba gohil
 
My Last Duchess
My Last DuchessMy Last Duchess
My Last Duchess
cbolsover
 
A street car named desire by tennessee williams
A street car named desire by tennessee williamsA street car named desire by tennessee williams
A street car named desire by tennessee williams
Samiulhaq32
 
New criticism
New criticismNew criticism
New criticism
Angela Locsin
 
2. elizabethan vs greek2
2. elizabethan vs greek22. elizabethan vs greek2
2. elizabethan vs greek2
ddertili
 
Frankenstein power point
Frankenstein power pointFrankenstein power point
Frankenstein power point
Susan Muchmore
 
Gothic Literature presentation
 Gothic Literature presentation Gothic Literature presentation
Gothic Literature presentation
MinaMahmoudi5
 
To the lighthouse art as a means of preservation.
To the lighthouse art as a means of preservation.To the lighthouse art as a means of preservation.
To the lighthouse art as a means of preservation.
drashtimehtab01011993
 
Gothic literature
Gothic literatureGothic literature
Gothic literature
Michael Hatch
 

What's hot (20)

Gothic fiction
Gothic fictionGothic fiction
Gothic fiction
 
Writer’s Effect 1
Writer’s Effect 1Writer’s Effect 1
Writer’s Effect 1
 
Setting and theme-critical analysis- mill on the floss
Setting and theme-critical analysis- mill on the flossSetting and theme-critical analysis- mill on the floss
Setting and theme-critical analysis- mill on the floss
 
Themes in macbeth
Themes in macbethThemes in macbeth
Themes in macbeth
 
Hamlet as tragicHero
Hamlet as tragicHeroHamlet as tragicHero
Hamlet as tragicHero
 
Symbolism in literature
Symbolism in literatureSymbolism in literature
Symbolism in literature
 
Victorian novel
Victorian novelVictorian novel
Victorian novel
 
Macbeth
MacbethMacbeth
Macbeth
 
Theatre of absurd
Theatre of absurdTheatre of absurd
Theatre of absurd
 
The modernist literature- to the lighthouse
The modernist literature-  to the lighthouseThe modernist literature-  to the lighthouse
The modernist literature- to the lighthouse
 
PARALLELISM.pptx
PARALLELISM.pptxPARALLELISM.pptx
PARALLELISM.pptx
 
I a richard
I a richardI a richard
I a richard
 
My Last Duchess
My Last DuchessMy Last Duchess
My Last Duchess
 
A street car named desire by tennessee williams
A street car named desire by tennessee williamsA street car named desire by tennessee williams
A street car named desire by tennessee williams
 
New criticism
New criticismNew criticism
New criticism
 
2. elizabethan vs greek2
2. elizabethan vs greek22. elizabethan vs greek2
2. elizabethan vs greek2
 
Frankenstein power point
Frankenstein power pointFrankenstein power point
Frankenstein power point
 
Gothic Literature presentation
 Gothic Literature presentation Gothic Literature presentation
Gothic Literature presentation
 
To the lighthouse art as a means of preservation.
To the lighthouse art as a means of preservation.To the lighthouse art as a means of preservation.
To the lighthouse art as a means of preservation.
 
Gothic literature
Gothic literatureGothic literature
Gothic literature
 

Viewers also liked

How to write an effective essay - Ten top tips for students
How to write an effective essay - Ten top tips for studentsHow to write an effective essay - Ten top tips for students
How to write an effective essay - Ten top tips for students
uollearnteach
 
The importance of morphology and syntax in the formation as teachers
The importance of morphology and syntax in the formation as teachersThe importance of morphology and syntax in the formation as teachers
The importance of morphology and syntax in the formation as teachers
Percy Cosme
 
Lesson 1. linguistics and applied linguistics 2
Lesson 1. linguistics and applied linguistics 2Lesson 1. linguistics and applied linguistics 2
Lesson 1. linguistics and applied linguistics 2
Prisci Jara
 
Second Language Acquisition & Applied Linguistics for session with Kazakh tea...
Second Language Acquisition & Applied Linguistics for session with Kazakh tea...Second Language Acquisition & Applied Linguistics for session with Kazakh tea...
Second Language Acquisition & Applied Linguistics for session with Kazakh tea...
Robert Dickey
 
English Language Terminology: High Grade Features
English Language Terminology: High Grade FeaturesEnglish Language Terminology: High Grade Features
English Language Terminology: High Grade Features
Cool
 
Linguistic Devices
Linguistic DevicesLinguistic Devices
Linguistic Devices
wendron
 
Linguistic Features & Functions
Linguistic Features & FunctionsLinguistic Features & Functions
Linguistic Features & Functions
Masitah ZulkifLy
 

Viewers also liked (7)

How to write an effective essay - Ten top tips for students
How to write an effective essay - Ten top tips for studentsHow to write an effective essay - Ten top tips for students
How to write an effective essay - Ten top tips for students
 
The importance of morphology and syntax in the formation as teachers
The importance of morphology and syntax in the formation as teachersThe importance of morphology and syntax in the formation as teachers
The importance of morphology and syntax in the formation as teachers
 
Lesson 1. linguistics and applied linguistics 2
Lesson 1. linguistics and applied linguistics 2Lesson 1. linguistics and applied linguistics 2
Lesson 1. linguistics and applied linguistics 2
 
Second Language Acquisition & Applied Linguistics for session with Kazakh tea...
Second Language Acquisition & Applied Linguistics for session with Kazakh tea...Second Language Acquisition & Applied Linguistics for session with Kazakh tea...
Second Language Acquisition & Applied Linguistics for session with Kazakh tea...
 
English Language Terminology: High Grade Features
English Language Terminology: High Grade FeaturesEnglish Language Terminology: High Grade Features
English Language Terminology: High Grade Features
 
Linguistic Devices
Linguistic DevicesLinguistic Devices
Linguistic Devices
 
Linguistic Features & Functions
Linguistic Features & FunctionsLinguistic Features & Functions
Linguistic Features & Functions
 

Similar to A-Level English Glossary

grammar guide parts of speach sections .ppt
grammar guide  parts of speach sections .pptgrammar guide  parts of speach sections .ppt
grammar guide parts of speach sections .ppt
AbdelazizMostafa6
 
9 diapositivas 1
9 diapositivas 19 diapositivas 1
9 diapositivas 1
ingles01
 
Evidence and rhetorical devices
Evidence and rhetorical devicesEvidence and rhetorical devices
Evidence and rhetorical devices
Samantha Arvesen
 
Honors english 12_final_review
Honors english 12_final_reviewHonors english 12_final_review
Honors english 12_final_review
Kenneth Bui
 
6572121.ppt
6572121.ppt6572121.ppt
6572121.ppt
migo12
 
Parts of Speech
Parts of SpeechParts of Speech
Parts of Speech
Babu Rao
 
GRAMMAR MADE SIMPLE
GRAMMAR MADE SIMPLEGRAMMAR MADE SIMPLE
GRAMMAR MADE SIMPLE
kgomotso matshitse
 
Presentation of english (parts of speech)
Presentation of english (parts of speech)Presentation of english (parts of speech)
Presentation of english (parts of speech)
Kunnu Aggarwal
 
Morphology and syntax Overview
Morphology and syntax OverviewMorphology and syntax Overview
Morphology and syntax Overview
Google, Facebook, Twitter, Hotmail
 
Poetic Devices.pptx
Poetic Devices.pptxPoetic Devices.pptx
Poetic Devices.pptx
Muhammad Haris Nadeem
 
Verbs
VerbsVerbs
Grammar for Matric & Intermediate by Muhammad Azam
Grammar for Matric & Intermediate by Muhammad Azam Grammar for Matric & Intermediate by Muhammad Azam
Grammar for Matric & Intermediate by Muhammad Azam
MUHAMMAD AZAM, VICE PRINCIPAL IMSB G-6/4, ISLAMABAD
 
Eight-Parts-of-Speech.pptx
Eight-Parts-of-Speech.pptxEight-Parts-of-Speech.pptx
Eight-Parts-of-Speech.pptx
MaylanieLamarca1
 
Use and form of adverb
Use and form of adverbUse and form of adverb
Use and form of adverb
ErikaElizath
 
Use and-form-of-adverb
Use and-form-of-adverbUse and-form-of-adverb
Use and-form-of-adverb
Liset Ramirez
 
Use and form of adverb
Use and form of adverbUse and form of adverb
Use and form of adverb
ErikaElizath
 
Literary terms
Literary termsLiterary terms
Literary terms
Merve Kurt
 
Morphology
MorphologyMorphology
Morphology
toobasharif
 
AS AO1 English Language
AS AO1 English LanguageAS AO1 English Language
AS AO1 English Language
Polox3
 
The Parts of The SpeechPP.pdf
The Parts of The SpeechPP.pdfThe Parts of The SpeechPP.pdf
The Parts of The SpeechPP.pdf
NetziValdelomar1
 

Similar to A-Level English Glossary (20)

grammar guide parts of speach sections .ppt
grammar guide  parts of speach sections .pptgrammar guide  parts of speach sections .ppt
grammar guide parts of speach sections .ppt
 
9 diapositivas 1
9 diapositivas 19 diapositivas 1
9 diapositivas 1
 
Evidence and rhetorical devices
Evidence and rhetorical devicesEvidence and rhetorical devices
Evidence and rhetorical devices
 
Honors english 12_final_review
Honors english 12_final_reviewHonors english 12_final_review
Honors english 12_final_review
 
6572121.ppt
6572121.ppt6572121.ppt
6572121.ppt
 
Parts of Speech
Parts of SpeechParts of Speech
Parts of Speech
 
GRAMMAR MADE SIMPLE
GRAMMAR MADE SIMPLEGRAMMAR MADE SIMPLE
GRAMMAR MADE SIMPLE
 
Presentation of english (parts of speech)
Presentation of english (parts of speech)Presentation of english (parts of speech)
Presentation of english (parts of speech)
 
Morphology and syntax Overview
Morphology and syntax OverviewMorphology and syntax Overview
Morphology and syntax Overview
 
Poetic Devices.pptx
Poetic Devices.pptxPoetic Devices.pptx
Poetic Devices.pptx
 
Verbs
VerbsVerbs
Verbs
 
Grammar for Matric & Intermediate by Muhammad Azam
Grammar for Matric & Intermediate by Muhammad Azam Grammar for Matric & Intermediate by Muhammad Azam
Grammar for Matric & Intermediate by Muhammad Azam
 
Eight-Parts-of-Speech.pptx
Eight-Parts-of-Speech.pptxEight-Parts-of-Speech.pptx
Eight-Parts-of-Speech.pptx
 
Use and form of adverb
Use and form of adverbUse and form of adverb
Use and form of adverb
 
Use and-form-of-adverb
Use and-form-of-adverbUse and-form-of-adverb
Use and-form-of-adverb
 
Use and form of adverb
Use and form of adverbUse and form of adverb
Use and form of adverb
 
Literary terms
Literary termsLiterary terms
Literary terms
 
Morphology
MorphologyMorphology
Morphology
 
AS AO1 English Language
AS AO1 English LanguageAS AO1 English Language
AS AO1 English Language
 
The Parts of The SpeechPP.pdf
The Parts of The SpeechPP.pdfThe Parts of The SpeechPP.pdf
The Parts of The SpeechPP.pdf
 

More from BC ALevels

New York student briefing powerpoint
New York student briefing powerpointNew York student briefing powerpoint
New York student briefing powerpoint
BC ALevels
 
The A2 Agenda
The A2 AgendaThe A2 Agenda
The A2 Agenda
BC ALevels
 
Cheese Creative task
Cheese Creative taskCheese Creative task
Cheese Creative task
BC ALevels
 
Crisp packet business
Crisp packet businessCrisp packet business
Crisp packet business
BC ALevels
 
Crisp packet business
Crisp packet businessCrisp packet business
Crisp packet business
BC ALevels
 
Welcome to english lit
Welcome to english litWelcome to english lit
Welcome to english lit
BC ALevels
 
Burnley college expects 2012
Burnley college expects 2012Burnley college expects 2012
Burnley college expects 2012
BC ALevels
 
Welcome To AS English Language & Literature
Welcome To AS English Language & LiteratureWelcome To AS English Language & Literature
Welcome To AS English Language & Literature
BC ALevels
 

More from BC ALevels (8)

New York student briefing powerpoint
New York student briefing powerpointNew York student briefing powerpoint
New York student briefing powerpoint
 
The A2 Agenda
The A2 AgendaThe A2 Agenda
The A2 Agenda
 
Cheese Creative task
Cheese Creative taskCheese Creative task
Cheese Creative task
 
Crisp packet business
Crisp packet businessCrisp packet business
Crisp packet business
 
Crisp packet business
Crisp packet businessCrisp packet business
Crisp packet business
 
Welcome to english lit
Welcome to english litWelcome to english lit
Welcome to english lit
 
Burnley college expects 2012
Burnley college expects 2012Burnley college expects 2012
Burnley college expects 2012
 
Welcome To AS English Language & Literature
Welcome To AS English Language & LiteratureWelcome To AS English Language & Literature
Welcome To AS English Language & Literature
 

Recently uploaded

How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptxHow to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
HajraNaeem15
 
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptxNEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
iammrhaywood
 
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
ImMuslim
 
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
nitinpv4ai
 
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brubPharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
danielkiash986
 
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skillsspot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
haiqairshad
 
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptxBIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
RidwanHassanYusuf
 
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptxSWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
zuzanka
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
IsmaelVazquez38
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
سمير بسيوني
 
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
EduSkills OECD
 
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptxBeyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
EduSkills OECD
 
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
National Information Standards Organization (NISO)
 
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdfREASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
giancarloi8888
 
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
Mohammad Al-Dhahabi
 
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
nitinpv4ai
 
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
khuleseema60
 

Recently uploaded (20)

How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptxHow to deliver Powerpoint  Presentations.pptx
How to deliver Powerpoint Presentations.pptx
 
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptxNEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
 
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
 
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
 
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brubPharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
 
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skillsspot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
 
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptxBIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
 
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptxSWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
 
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
 
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
 
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
 
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptxBeyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
 
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
 
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdfREASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
 
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
 
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
 
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
 
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
 

A-Level English Glossary

  • 1. Welcome   to   the   most   important   booklet   that   you’ll   get   all   year!!!     The   words   contained   in   this   glossary   only   provide   the   basis   for   quality  analysis.  Do  not  make  the  mistake  of  assuming  that  one   need   only   learn   a   proportion   in   order   to   grade   well   in   all   assessments   on   an   A-­‐level   English   Language   course.   All   terms   MUST  be  learnt  as  early  as  possible;  it  is  evidently  better  to  be   as  familiar  as  you  can  with  the  terms.       Read  this  over  and  over,  get  your  family  or  friends  to  test  you,   practise  attributing  these  terms  to  texts  you  read...  whatever  it   takes,  just  make  sure  you  learn  these  terms  (of  which  there  are   approximately  200…YAY!).  
  • 2. Common  noun  –  a  naming  word  for  a  thing  that  is  tangible,  e.g.  chair,  penguin,  man,   arsonist,  murderer,  ghost,  crumpet,  trumpet.       Abstract  noun  –  a  naming  word  for  an  idea,  concept,  state  of  being  or  belief,  e.g.   tidiness,  sadness,  antidisestablishmentarianism,  love,  politics,  Marxism.       Proper  noun  –  a  naming  word  for  a  specific  example  of  a  common  noun  (often  are   names  of  places  or  specific  people),  e.g.  Bob,  Eiffel  Tower,  Burnley,  Wayne  Rooney.     Verb  –  a  word  that  represents  an  action  or  process:  in  simple  terms  a  ‘doing’  word.     Active  verb  –  a  word  that  represents  a  physical  action,  e.g.  jump,  run,  kill,  slap,  kiss,   make-­‐love,  wallop,  sleep.     Stative  verb  –  a  word  that  represents  a  process  that  is  often  only  mental,  e.g.  think,   love,  ponder,  believe,  (to)  fear.       Auxiliary  verb  –  a  verb  that  has  to  be  used  with  another  verb  in  order  to  create   present  participles  or  the  future  tense,  e.g.  “DID  you  go?”;  “I  AM  going”;  you  WILL   go”.     Modal  verb  –  an  auxiliary  verb  that  express  a  degree  of  either  possibility  or   necessity,  e.g.  might,  could,  must,  should,  may.       Adjective  –  a  describing  word  that  modifies  a  noun.       Adverb  –  a  describing  word  that  modifies  all  types  of  word,  excluding  nouns.     Superlative  –  an  adjective  that  displays  the  most  extreme  value  of  its  quality,  e.g.   most,  biggest,  smallest,  worst,  furthest,  farthest,  quietest,  zaniest.  Most  of  the  time   superlatives  end  with  ‘-­‐est’.     Comparative  –  an  adjective  that  relates  one  thing  in  some  way  to  another  and   usually  ends  in  ‘er’:  bigger,  smaller,  further,  farther,  quieter,  zanier.     Definite  article  –  the.     Indefinite  article  –  a  or  an.     Pronoun  –  a  word  that  takes  the  place  of  a  noun  in  a  sentence,  e.g.  him,  her,  it,  he,   she,  I,  you,  me  (self-­‐reflexive  pronoun),  they.     First  person  pronoun  –  I,  and  the  first  person  plural:  we,  our,  us.     Second  person  pronoun  –  you.  
  • 3. Third  person  pronoun  –  him,  her,  he,  she,  it,  and  the  third  person  plural:  them,   those.     Possessive  pronoun  (1st,  2nd  or  3rd  person  depending)  –  my,  mine,  our,  your,  his,   hers,  theirs.     Demonstrative  pronoun  –  this,  that,  those.     Monosyllabic  lexis  –  words  of  one  syllable.     Polysyllabic  lexis  –  words  of  two  or  more  syllable.     Imperative  sentence  mood  –  when  a  sentence  is  issuing  a  command.     Declarative  sentence  mood  –  when  a  sentence  is  making  a  statement.     Interrogative  sentence  mood  –  when  a  sentence  is  asking  a  question.     Exclamatory  sentence  mood  –  when  a  sentence  conveys  a  strong  sense  of  emotion,   sense  of  alarm  or  overly  strong  emphasis.     Register  –  the  level  of  formality  of  a  text.     Tenor  –  the  tone,  or  the  relationship  between  author  and  reader  and  how  it  is   created.     Attitudes  –  The  opinions  expressed  in  the  text.     Content  –  What  the  text  is  about.     Context  –  Things  outside  the  text  which  may  shape  its  meaning,  e.g.  when  it  was   written,  who  wrote  it.     Form  –  the  structure  and  shape  of  a  text.     Themes  –  the  recurring  ideas  and  images  in  a  text.     Colloquialism  –  Informal  language  usage,  e.g.  bloke,  fella,  lass,  bog  (toilet),  arse,   bum,  grub,  scram,       Exclamation  –  a  one  word  sentence  (always  a  minor  sentence)  with  an  exclamation   mark  at  the  end.     Ellipsis  –  when  parts  of  a  written  structure  are  missing.  In  texts,  sometimes  they  are   indicated  by  three  full  stops  in  a  row,  denoting  perhaps  a  significant  pause...  Do  you   see?    
  • 4. Syntax  –  the  way  words  form  sentences  (the  ordering  of  them  to  create  meaning).     Parenthesis  –  an  aside  within  a  text  created  by  sectioning  off  extra  information   between  brackets,  dashes  or  between  two  commas.     Parenthetic  commas,  dashes  or  brackets  –  see  above.     Rhetorical  question  –  a  question  designed  not  to  be  answered,  perhaps  to  pique   interest  or  make  a  point;  a  stylistic  choice.     Hypophora  –  when  a  rhetorical  question  is  immediately  followed  by  an  answer  in  a   text,  e.g.  “Is  this  the  best  film  ever?  You  bet  it  is!”     Hyperbole  –  deliberate  over-­‐exaggeration  of  things  for  effect.     Litotes  –  deliberate  downplaying  of  things  for  effect.     Parallelism/patterning  –  the  creation  of  patterns  in  a  text,  through  repetition  of   words  or  phrases  (phonological  parallelism)  or  by  balancing  meanings  (semantic   parallelism)  for  deliberate  effect.     Repetition  –  the  repetition  of  words  or  phrases  (see  parallelism)     Tricolon/tripling  –  grouping  in  threes,  either  through  repetition  or  through   structures  (either  within  a  sentence  or  paragraph).  This  can  be  for  emphasis  or  to   add  a  sense  of  gathering  momentum  to  a  point  being  made.     Imagery  –  a  descriptive  or  metaphorical  use  of  language  to  create  a  vivid  picture.     Pre-­‐modification  –  a  descriptive  technique  where  the  descriptive  words  come  before   the  thing  they  are  describing,  e.g.  the  big,  fat  wad  of  cash  spewed  from  his   inadequate  pocket.     Post-­‐modification  -­‐  a  descriptive  technique  where  the  descriptive  words  come  after   the  thing  they  are  describing,  e.g.  the  wad  of  cash,  big  and  fat,  spewed  from  his   pocket.     Metaphor  –  a  comparison  that  states  that  something  is  actually  something  else.   “Take  a  leaf  out  of  her  book”  or  “I’m  a  demon  driver”.     Simile  –  a  comparison  that  states  that  something  is  ‘like’  or  ‘as’  something  else.  “I   drive  like  a  demon”  or  “he’s  as  big  as  a  house”.       Synecdoche  –  a  metaphor  that  states  that  something  is  only  a  small  constituent  part   of  itself,  even  though  we  commonly  understand  otherwise,  e.g.  “a  new  set  of   wheels”  (car)  or  “he’s  behind  bars”  (prison)    
  • 5. Analogy  –  explaining  something  in  terms  of  something  else.       Allusion  –  to  refer  to  something  indirectly  or  metaphorically.     Pathetic  Fallacy  –  when  the  environment  or  weather  mirrors  emotions.     Personification  –  a  device  in  which  the  non-­‐human  is  given  personal  and  human   qualities,  e.g.  the  trees  danced  in  the  wind.     Extended  metaphor  –  when  a  metaphor  continues  throughout  a  text  with  recurring   references  to  the  compared  item.     Homeric/epic  simile  –  see  extended  metaphor  and  apply  to  simile.  The  ‘Homeric’   part  refers  to  Homer’s  Odyssey  to  connote  length  and  recurrence.         Symbolism  –  using  figurative  and  metaphoric  language,  items  or  incident  in  a  way   that  means  that  certain  things  represent  other  things,  e.g.  a  colour  could  represent   the  sadness  of  a  character  or  a  volcano  erupting  could  symbolise  the  political   infighting  of  the  townspeople  beneath  the  volcano.       Lexis  –  another  word  for  the  word  ‘word’!!!     Field  specific  lexis  –  the  language  of  a  certain  area  (be  it  vocation,  activity  or  subject   etc),  e.g.  field  specific  lexis  for  computing  would  include  mouse,  monitor,  RAM,   gigabyte  etc;  field  specific  lexis  for  English  Language  would  include  everything  in  this   glossary.     Lexical  set  –  the  selection  of  relative  lexemes  from  a  text.  One  can  take  a  lexical  set   of  field  specific  lexis,  modifiers,  proper  nouns…  or  whatever  would  support  a   statement  an  English  student  would  like  to  make  about  a  text.       Lexical  bundle  –  a  recurrent  sequence  of  words  or  a  collection  of  words  that,   through  repetition  of  use,  just  naturally  go  together,  e.g.  “I  don’t  think…”,  “would   you  mind…”,  “I  don’t  want  to.”       Semantics  –  the  meaning  of  words.     Acronym  –  words  created  by  the  initials  of  other  grouped  words,  e.g.  the  UN,  NATO,   RSPCA.     Synonym  –  an  alternative  word  choice  that  has  the  same  or  a  very  similar  meaning,   e.g.  a  synonym  of  horror  is  fright.     Homophone  –  different  words  that  sound  exactly  the  same  when  said  out  loud  (be   very  careful  of  these  with  regards  to  your  spelling),  e.g.  they’re,  their,  there;  new,   knew,  no,  know;  need,  knead,  kneed;  led,  lead.    
  • 6. Homonym  –  when  one  word  has  multiple  meanings,  e.g.  great  can  mean  both  size   and  positivity;  cool  can  mean  both  coldness  and  a  ‘cool  dude’;  heavy  can  mean   physical  weight  or  the  seriousness  of  a  situation.     Archaism  –  a  word  that,  over  time,  has  fallen  out  of  common  usage.  Older  ones   include  zounds,  thus,  betwixt  etc,  however  slang  can  become  archaic  as  new   generations  opt  to  choose  new  terms  for  things:  dig  it,  bodacious  and  radical  are   perhaps  examples  of  this.     Juxtaposition  –  the  placing  together  of  elements  (whether  text,  image  etc)  for  some   conscious  effect,  whether  that  be  complimentary  or  contrasting.         Antithesis  –  when  ideas  contrast  or  oppose  one  another;  a  semantic  contrast  in  a   text.  Often  used  in  reasoned  arguments  or  to  create  emphasised  contrast.     Binary  opposites  –  elements  of  a  text  that  hold  opposite  ends  of  a  notional  scale  e.g.   hot/cold,  big/small,  loud/quiet.     Oxymoron  –  The  use  of  apparently  contradictory  words  in  a  phrase,  e.g.  peaceful   war,  hot  ice.     Collocations  –  words  that,  through  usage  just  naturally  go  together.  We  collectively   understand  they  are  inextricably  linked,  e.g.  Laurel  and  Hardy,  fish  and  chips,  salt   and  vinegar,  John,  Paul,  George  and  Ringo,  fire  and  ice,  broad  grin,  broad  backed.     Asyndetic  Listing  –  the  listing  of  elements  that  excludes  any  form  of  co-­‐ordinating   conjunction.  The  prefix  ‘a’  basically  means  ‘absence  of’.       Syndetic  listing  –  the  listing  of  elements  that  features  a  co-­‐ordinating  conjunction.     Phonological  features  –  any  devices  used  that  relate  to  sound,  e.g.  alliteration,   repetition.     Onomatopoeia  –  when  a  word  is  spelled  exactly  as  the  same  as  the  sound  it   describes…  kaboom,  drip,  plop,  quack,  miaow.       Consonance  –  the  repetition  of  double  consonants  in  the  middle  of  words,  e.g.  I’d   better  buy  more  butter  before  I  go  out  and  post  these  letters.       Assonance  –  the  repetition  of  vowel  sounds,  e.g.  you  should  wear  a  hood  while  you   chop  the  wood  good.  Assonance  can  create  rhyme.       Alliteration  (guttural,  lateral,  sibilant,  bilabial/plosive,  dental,  aspirant,  fricative)  –   the  repetition  of  consonant  sounds  in  a  text,  often  at  the  beginning  of  words.  You   must  always  correctly  label  the  exact  type  of  alliteration  as  listed  above.      
  • 7. Plot  –  the  structured  cause  and  effect  of  incidents  experienced  by  a  protagonist  that   makes  a  story  interesting:  the  exposition,  the  complication  and  the  resolution.       Exposition  –  the  parts  of  a  story  (usually  early  on)  where  the  writer  gets  across  all   the  information  about  the  situation  of  a  character,  who  they  are,  where  they  are  and   what  the  ‘status  quo’  is  before  the  plot  begins  in  earnest.  It  should  always  be  as   subtle  as  possible,  which  usually  means  avoiding  expressing  exposition  through   dialogue.         Narrator  –  the  ‘voice’  that  tells  a  fictional  story.  Can  be  a  first,  second  or  third  person   narrator  (see  personal  pronouns  to  find  out  more).     Protagonist  –  the  character  the  reader  is  meant  to  identify  with  the  most  and  follow   through  the  story.  The  hero  (or  anti-­‐hero).     Anti-­‐hero  –  a  protagonist  who  isn’t  always  morally  virtuous  but  has  enough  qualities   to  endear  themselves  to  a  reader.       Antagonist  –  the  character  who  opposes  the  goals  of  the  protagonist.       Dialogue  –  the  presentation  of  character’s  speech.       Monologue  -­‐  a  type  of  poem  or  a  prolonged  piece  of  drama  where  one  ‘character’   delivers  a  speech  that  reveals  their  innermost  feelings.  Dramatic  monologues  can   infer  an  addressee  or  audience  who  the  speaking  character  is  relating  to.     Soliloquy  –  see  monologue.     Dramatic  irony  –  When  the  audience  is  aware  of  more  than  one  of  the  characters  in   either  a  play  or  a  piece  of  fiction  to  create  a  dramatic  effect.     Ambiguity  –  when  there  can  be  more  than  one  possible  meanings  or  outcomes  in  a   story,  creating  a  sense  of  intrigue.     Anthropomorphism  –  when  an  animal  takes  on  the  characteristics  of  a  human  being,   e.g.  wearing  clothes,  buying  cakes  and  talking.       Suspension  of  disbelief  –  the  reader’s  ability  to  take  for  granted  fantastical  aspects   of  fiction  in  order  to  enjoy  the  story.     Genre  –  category  of  fiction  or  type  of  text,  e.g.  romance,  horror,  thriller,  magazines,   etc.       Audience  –  who  the  text  is  aimed  at.     Purpose  –  the  reason  the  text  has  been  produced,  e.g.  to  entertain,  inform  etc.    
  • 8. Foreshadowing  –  the  hinting  at  things  to  come  through  early  elements  of  a  story.     Mimesis  –  mimicry.  A  story,  for  example,  may  mimic  the  gasping  breath  of  a  pursued   protagonist  by  using  short,  sharp,  sentences  and  lots  of  aspirant  alliteration.     Pastiche  –  a  piece  of  art  or  writing  that  imitates  a  form  or  genre  to  generate   humour.     Satire  –  a  piece  of  writing  or  art  that  pokes  fun  at  the  societal  establishment.       Neologism  –  a  newly  invented  word.     Portmanteau  –  a  newly  invented  word,  created  by  merging  two  words  together,  for   example  snozcumber  (from  schnoz  and  cucumber)  or  chillax  (from  ‘chill  out’  and   ‘relax’).       Compound  words  –  a  word  created  by  utilising  two  existing  words  separated  by  a   hyphen,  e.g.  global-­‐village,  bone-­‐headed,  to  go-­‐straight.  There  are  compound   versions  of  nouns,  adjective,  adverbs,  verbs.     Clipping  –  colloquial  omission  of  parts  of  words  to  create  a  more  casual  alternative,   e.g.  ‘cause,  bra,  pram.       Rhetoric  –  an  example  of  persuasive  language,  arguably  including  advertising.     Stereotype  –  a  label  for  a  social  group,  utilising  certain  characteristics  of  group   members  and  applying  it  to  everyone  within  the  grouping.     Taboo  language  –  words  that  are  considered  socially  unacceptable  to  say  in  polite,   civilised  society,  e.g.  swear  words  or  words  that  are  politically  incorrect.       Connotation  –  the  associations  that  can  be  gleaned  from  words.     Denotation  –  the  literal  meaning  of  the  words.     Irony  –  language  that  conveys  a  meaning  other  to  than  that  literally  expressed  by  the   words,  usually  for  humorous  effect.       Sarcasm  –  the  use  of  language  in  an  ironic  way  with  the  express  purpose  of   offending  or  wounding  the  recipient  in  some  way.     Euphemism  –  the  polite  way  to  say  something  not  normally  considered  socially   appropriate,  usually  to  refer  to  going  to  the  toilet,  death  etc.  I  need  a  tinkle,  I  need   the  little  boys’  room,  he’s  pushing  up  daisies,  she’s  gone  to  meet  her  maker.     Dysphemism  –  an  unnecessarily  extreme  way  of  saying  something,  not  normally   socially  appropriate.  It  could  incorporate  taboo  language  or  contain  too  much  
  • 9. information  than  necessary.  You’re  husband  had  his  head  blown  off  and  there  was   blood  everywhere.       Headline  –  the  large  text/title  of  a  newspaper  article.  Often  these  can  incorporate   word  play  and  alliteration.       Tagline  –  beneath  the  headline,  there  may  be  a  slightly  smaller  sentence,  designed   to  clarify  the  gist  of  the  story.       Subheading  –  usually  a  one  or  two  word,  emboldened  phrase  that  breaks  up  the   main  article,  often  foreshadowing  what  is  to  come  later  in  the  story.       Caption  –  part  of  a  multi-­‐modal  text,  these  will  be  juxtaposed  with  an  image.  Often   they  are  used  to  say  something  witty  or  humorous,  maybe  punning  or  taking  out  of   context  the  image  in  question.       Grab  quote  –  an  enlarged  example  taken  from  the  text,  usually  a  sensationalised   piece.  It  attempts  to  draw  the  reader’s  eye,  engender  curiosity,  and  thus  make  the   reader  read  the  story.       Slogan  –  a  catchy  line,  often  a  minor  sentence,  that  sums  up  an  advert,  sticks  in  the   mind,  and  makes  the  product,  ultimately,  seem  more  appealing.       Pun  –  a  play  on  words:  “SupercallygoballisticCelticareatrocious”  Caledonian  Thistle   beat  Celtic  5-­‐0;  “Celebrity  Big  Blubber”  Wally  the  Whale  dies  in  the  Thames,  right  by   the  Celebrity  Big  Brother  house.     Journalese  –  the  sensationalised  language  that  is  particular  to  tabloid  newspapers,   e.g.  slam,  probe,  spat  (as  in  fight),  shocker.     Multiple  modifiers  –  doubling  and  trebling  up  of  adjectives  is  used  frequently  in   tabloid  newspapers  and  also  other  genres  of  text.       Cliché  –  when  language  is  used  over  and  over  until  it  becomes  so  well  known  that  it   loses  its  original  potency,  e.g.  at  the  end  of  the  day,  I’m  over  the  moon,  he  was  as   quiet  as  a  mouse.       Idiom  –  a  saying,  often  a  cliché  where  the  words  that  make  up  the  saying  do  not   have  the  same  meaning  as  the  overall  semantic  effect,  e.g.  I’m  over  the  moon;  you’re   taking  the  Mickey;  he’s  pushing  up  daisies;  you’re  having  a  laugh.       Malapropism  –  when  a  speaker  accidentally  uses  the  wrong  word  that  sounds  the   same,  or  like  it  should  belong  in  their  sentence/utterance:  The  world’s  my  lobster;  I   will  illiterate  you  from  my  memory.     Text  speak  –  the  phonetic  spelling  of  text  too  long  to  type  out  in  full  on  a  mobile   phone.    
  • 10.             Orthography  –  the  method  of  spelling/correct  spelling  –  we  would  refer  to  the  ‘non-­‐ standard  orthography’  of  words  from  the  past  in  comparison  to  how  we  write  them   today.     Etymology  –  the  origin  of  a  word  or  the  history  of  how  it  came  to  be.       Ampersand  –  the  symbol  “&”,  arguably  more  prominent  in  the  past.     Non  standard  capitalisation  –  you  may  see  in  very  old  texts,  capital  letters  being   allocated  mid-­‐sentence  to  words  other  than  proper  nouns,  perhaps  for  emphasis,  or   perhaps  arbitrarily.  Look  at  the  specific  text  in  question  and  put  forward  your  own   reasoning  for  it.     Archaism/archaic  language  –  a  word  that  has  fallen  out  of  common  usage  or  is  old   fashioned.  These  can  also  include  slang  words  that  have  fallen  out  of  the  youth   lexicon.       Anachronistic  language  –  language  that  seems  ‘out  of  time’.  For  example,  something   may  be  written  in  a  very  old  fashioned  way  for  stylistic  reasons,  say  a  fantasy  style   novel,  yet  it  may  contain  dialogue  that  would  appeal  to  a  modern  young  audience,   using  slang  etc.  It’s  like  when  you  spot  an  extra  wearing  a  digital  watch  in  a  historical   movie.       Semantic  shift  –  the  shift  in  a  word’s  meaning  over  time,  e.g.  ‘sick’  evolves  to   become  something  other  than  illness  but  a  slang  reference  to  something  positive..       Inverted  syntax  –  when  the  ordering  of  words  is  rearranged  to  create  an  alternative   weighting  to  a  sentence.  Think  of  Yoda  on  Star  Wars  –  “Good  with  the  force,  he  is.”     Slang  –  colloquial  language,  often  coined  by  the  younger  generations  to  imprint  their   own  social  identity  on  the  language  and  differentiate  themselves  from  the  perceived   establishment.     Globalised  vocabulary  –  in  the  20th  Century,  in  the  advent  of  mass-­‐media,  social   mobilization  and  international  travel,  there  have  been  an  influx  of  new  words  and   phrases  that  we  now  take  for  granted,  e.g.  kebab,  cab,  sushi,  karaoke,  knish,  talk  to   the  hand,  zombie,  savoir-­‐faire.                
  • 11.     Discourse  –  the  study  of  spoken  language.     Mode  –  the  mode  of  the  text  is  how  it  is  presented.  Is  it  in  the  written  or  spoken   mode?  Whichever  mode  it  is,  it  will  be  governed  by  differing  rules  and  structures.       Vocabulary  –  the  amount  of  words  available  to  an  individual.     Paralinguistic  features  –  literally  ‘beyond  language’.  The  things  that  aid   communication  but  don’t  literally  constitute  language,  e.g.  body  language,  facial   expressions,  laughter,  sighs,  whispering.     Prosodic  features  –  the  ‘sound  effects’  of  spoken  language.  Things  like  stress,   intonation  and  pitch.       Stress  –  the  emphasis  placed  on  certain  words,  through  volume,  significant  pauses   beforehand,  or  inflexion.       Intonation  –  the  rise  and  fall  of  an  individual’s  natural  speaking  voice  or  the  variation   or  ‘tune’  to  keep  listeners  interested.  These  naturally  differ  from  nation  to  nation  as   different  languages  have  different  intonation  qualities.       Pitch  –  the  rise  or  fall  of  the  voice.  High  pitch  is  squeaky  and  low  pitch  is  deep.     Turn  taking  –  co-­‐ordinated  and  rule  governed  co-­‐operation  between  two  or  more   participants  of  a  conversation.     Adjacency  pair  –  a  moment  in  turn  taking  where  one  utterance  constrains  the   response  in  some  way,  e.g.  a  question  leads  to  an  answer;  a  suggestion  leads  to  an   acceptance  or  declination.     Back  channelling  –  the  process  of  giving  feedback  through  encouraging  noises  and   positive  comments  when  a  speaker  is  talking  to  encourage  them.       Running  repair  –  the  process  of  socially  organising  a  conversation  if  two  people  find   that  they  have  been  talking  simultaneously.       Topic  marker  –  an  utterance  that  establishes  the  topic  of  a  conversation.     Topic  shifter  –  an  utterance  that  moves  a  conversation  on  to  another  topic,  e.g.   “Anyway...  “     Interrupted  construction  –  the  breakdown  of  an  utterance  where  half  way  through   the  speaker  will  completely  change  tact,  focus  or  even  topic  and  move  onto   something  else,  sometimes  abandoning  the  original  utterance  mid  word.  Explain  in   detail  how  these  have  occurred.    
  • 12.   False  starts  –  The  speaker  realises  the  beginning  of  an  utterance  isn’t  working  and  so   effectively  re-­‐starts  by  rephrasing.     Hesitation  indicators  –  moments  in  discourse  that  indicate  that  the  speaker  is  in   some  way  playing  for  time.  This  can  be  seen  in  certain  forms  of  stuttering  and  in   fillers  such  as  um,  err  and  ahh  when  the  speaker  is  thinking  of  the  next  thing  to  say.     Fillers  –  the  insertion  of  words,  phrases  or  noises  into  a  speaker’s  discourse,  e.g.  like,   y’know,  sort  of,  right.  These  can  be  due  to  the  individual’s  own  idiolect  or  convey   some  subliminal  conversational  purpose,  depending  on  the  context.         Latch-­‐ons  –  when  a  speaker  takes  their  turn  immediately  after  the  preceding  speaker   has  finished  speaking  leaving  no,  or  little,  pause.  This  can  be  due  to  an  attempt  for   conversational  dominance  or  a  degree  of  familiarity  between  the  speakers,  among   other  reasons.     Overlaps  –  when  one  speaker  speaks  over  another.     Glottal  stops  –  the  omission  of  (usually)  dental  sounds  in  the  middle  of  words  like   butter,  letter,  better  etc,  in  pronunciation.  Occasionally  these  can  occur  at  the  ends   of  words  like  ‘what’.         Non-­‐fluency  features  –  any  feature  which  would  indicate  that  the  speaker  is  not   speaking  with  fluency  for  whatever  reason,  e.g.  someone  might  stammer  if  they  are   under  severe  pressure,  or  a  foreign  speaker  may  invert  syntax  or  elide  certain  words   from  their  utterances.       Tag  question  –  a  question  tagged  onto  the  end  of  an  statement,  e.g  ‘It’s  cold,  isn’t   it?’     Vocative  –  a  direct  reference  to  another  speaker  in  discourse,  e.g.  “Bob,  can  you...”     Elision  –  the  omission  of  a  vowel  or  syllable  in  the  pronunciation  of  a  word…  OR  the   omission  of  a  vowel  at  the  end  of  a  word  when  the  subsequent  word  begins  with  a   vowel  (as  apparent  in  northern  pronunciation),  e.g.  “it’s  either  one  or  t’other.”     Code  switching  –  the  ability  of  a  speaker  to  alter  the  register  or  clarity  of  their   speech  to  suit  a  different  social  situation.       Received  Pronunciation  –  the  typical  pronunciation  associated  with  the  social  elite   of  Britain.  The  Queen’s  English  etc.       Accent  –  The  manner  of  pronunciation  particular  to  a  certain  geographical  region.     Regional  Dialect  –  the  actual  words  used  and  the  spoken  grammar  which  is   particular  to  a  certain  geographical  region.    
  • 13.   Sociolect  –  the  vocabulary  and  spoken  grammar  which  is  particular  to  a  certain  social   group.       Idiolect  –  the  speech  patterns  of  an  individual.         Alternate  rhyme   Lines  of  poetry  where  the  rhyme  is  on  every  other  line   (abab)   Caesura   A  mid-­‐line  pause   Couplet   A  two  line  verse  (often  rhyming)   End-­‐focus   A  change  in  the  structure  of  the  sentence  to  place  emphasis   on  a  closing  sentence  element.   Enjambment   Run-­‐on  lines   Eye  rhyme   Where  the  rhyme  looks  like  it  should  rhyme  but  the  sound   is  not  exactly  the  same.   foregrounding   A  change  in  the  structure  of  the  sentence  to  place  emphasis   on  an  opening  sentence  element   Form   The  structure  and  shape  of  the  text   Iambic   A  unit  of  poetic  meter  containing  one  unstressed  syllable   followed  by  one  stressed  syllable  -­‐/   Internal  rhyme   Where  the  rhyming  sound  occurs  within  a  line  of  verse   Octet   An  eight  line  verse   Pentameter   A  unit  of  poetic  meter  containing  five  feet  (10  syllables  in   total)   Petrarchan  or  Italian   A  poem  of  14  lines,  divided  into  an  octet  and  a  sestet,   sonnet   written  in  iambic  pentameter,  rhyming  abbaabbba  cdecde   (sestet  may  vary)   Quatrain   A  four-­‐line  verse   Rhythm   The  pattern  of  syllables  and  stresses  within  poetry   Sestet   A  six-­‐line  verse   Shakespearean  or   A  poem  of  14  lines,  divided  into  three  quatrains  and  a   English  sonnet   couplet,  written  in  iambic  pentameter,  rhyming  abab  cdcd   efef  gg   Stanza   The  division  of  lines  in  a  poem,  also  called  a  verse   Verse  Type   The  type  of  poem  e.g.  sonnet,  lyric,  ballad,  ode,  narrative   poem  etc.   Volta   The  turning  point  in  a  sonnet  
  • 14. When analysing a text, the worst thing you could possibly do is dive straight in and start analysing. There are things you need to consider before you start writing in order for you to successfully structure your work and analyse in sufficient depth to succeed on this course to the required level. First, you must GASP at the text, whatever it may be. You’ve probably guessed that GASP is one of those horrible acronyms, but it should help you remember the process of initial consideration. G – Genre – what type of text is it? Is it a leaflet, advertisement, piece of rhetoric, transcript of somebody singing in the bath, shopping list, or maybe a piece of high literature… what is it? Once, you’ve answered this question, you should begin thinking about the general linguistic conventions of such a text. A – Audience – who is it written for (specifically)? So, it’s an advert for chocolate, for example, but who is the target audience? Is the text trying to appeal to men and women, old or young, rich or poor? S – Subject – what is the text about? If it is an article, what is the subject and will that have an effect on the language used? P– Purpose – what is it trying to do overall? So imagine if you were confronted with, say, an introduction to a Jamie Oliver cook book - you may be able to make the following statement: (G) The text is the introduction to a cookbook by Jamie Oliver where he directly addresses the reader and welcomes them in a friendly tone. (A) It is written for people with a direct interest in cooking and, because of his informal and approachable manner on television, it could be assumed that a lot of people would read this who might be initially intimidated by the notion of cooking. (S) The text details the contents of the book and what the reader can expect from the overall publication. (P) Overall it is attempting to entice perhaps browsers in bookshops to make a purchase, or for people who have bought the book to take a chance on some of the more difficult recipes within.
  • 15. After thinking about the GASP you need to write your analytical essay. To do this you will need to apply the CLIPO framework. CLIPO is not a hard and fast rule that must be applied; however you must include all its elements in some form within your analytical work. C – CONTEXT – you need to begin your essay with a rundown of the contextual factors that will shape the thrust of your discussion. Who has written the text, when was it written etc? In essence, you can make this opening to the essay something resembling the GASP paragraph. L – LEXIS – or the ‘language’ used. Make analytical comments on grammar, syntax, imagery, lexical choices etc. I – INTERACTIONAL FEATURES - how does the text interact with the audience. Look at the graphology. Are there any typographical features. Does it address the audience directly using first person pronouns? Does it utilise images? Are modal elements juxtaposed for effect? P – PHONOLOGICAL FEATURES – are there any sound effects utilised by the text? Is there alliteration, assonance, consonance, onomatopoeia, phonetic spelling etc? O – OVERVIEW – sum up your findings and perhaps evaluate the effectiveness of all the features that you have analysed in relation to the points you made in the CONTEXT section, referring once again to GASP. In theory, now you have the makings of a decent essay. However, there is one last framework that you have to now apply to this ‘skeleton’ in order to flesh it out and proclaim ‘I’m a top notch essay!’
  • 16. At school, you will probably have been told to use POINT, EVIDENCE & EVALUATION when analysing texts. We’re going to be a little bit more grown up here at College (well, a bit anyway) so from now on we’ll use CQA. Once, you’ve GASP(ed) and planned your analytical essay with CLIPO, every single point you make must follow thusly: C – COMMENT – okay, so you’ve spotted a feature of language so now you need to mention it. Go on – write a declarative sentence. That’s all you need to do. Just come out and say it! Q – QUOTE – oh? Does the text really utilise synecdoche to create a parallel image to the central notion that the concept of robots symbolise a whole totalitarian society of emotionless drudgery. What an excellent comment. Although an examiner will always want proof that you know what you’re talking about and that you aren’t trying to merely create a good impression with waffled terms. Prove it! Follow up your comment with a direct quote from the text to support your astute claims. A – ANALYSIS – Going good so far. You’ve commented well and proved it with a quote. Now analyse the quote in depth. Discuss the effect of the notion you’ve outlaid in the comment and relate it to GASP. For example, why is it using metaphor? How does the metaphor work? Why will the intended audience appreciate this particular metaphor? Is it a cliché? If it is a rather commonly understood metaphor, used in wider circles, then what effect does this have on the audience? Is it usual for this type of text to utilise imagery like this? This is how you write a good essay. This is how you get the top grades. This booklet is just about the best thing ever …remember …love it, hug it …and it’ll just hug you right back.