PBL for Social Studies & Language Arts


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  • PBL for Social Studies & Language Arts

    1. 1. The Problem is the Solution PBL in the Social Studies & Language Arts Glenn Wiebe ESSDACK [email_address] ©2007
    2. 2. Sticky ideas?
    3. 3. <ul><li>Solving problems is engaging </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Research tells us that Problem Based Learning is good for kids </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>It’s not a silver bullet, it’s a hammer </li></ul>
    6. 6. Driving question <ul><li>Why were American citizens placed in “relocation camps” against their will during World War II? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it ever okay to violate the Bill of Rights? </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>How can we develop an valid argument so that Congressmen do the right thing concerning the compensation of Japanese Americans interned during World War II? </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Using evidence from the WWII Japanese American experience, contemporary documents and contact with mentoring politicians / experts, focus on the following statement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Descendants of those interned during WWII should be entitled to financial compensation from the federal government.” </li></ul></ul>Your task
    9. 9. GRASPS <ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuade the US Congress to support your position concerning financial compensation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese American Citizens League or Reagan White House </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate Judiciary Committee (Principal / BOE president / Chamber of Commerce president) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You have been asked to present arguments during committee hearings on a bill that would compensate Japanese Americans interned during WWII and/or their descendants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You need to prepare an oral argument for or against the proposed bill </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your presentation should be both textual and visual and include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate data concerning the internment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possible consequences of compensation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amount / Type of compensation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possible funding sources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutional arguments </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Based on these two examples and “What Does Problem-Based Learning Look Like in the Classroom,” </li></ul><ul><li>PBL is: </li></ul><ul><li>And has these characteristics: </li></ul>
    13. 13. What is PBL? <ul><li>“A way to organize learning around ill-structured problems so that students simultaneously acquire new knowledge and experience in wrestling with problems” </li></ul>
    14. 14. Characteristics? <ul><li>An actual or simulated situation </li></ul><ul><li>Problem is ill-structured and “messy” </li></ul><ul><li>Student centered </li></ul><ul><li>More work than one person can do in time allowed </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>No clear solution </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a product or action </li></ul><ul><li>Students must have a “stakeholder” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Authentic” assessment </li></ul>
    16. 16. Why PBL?
    17. 17. <ul><li>The top 10 jobs predicted for 2010 didn’t exist in 2004 </li></ul>There over 100 million registered MySpace users
    18. 18. <ul><li>The 25% of the population in China with the highest IQs is greater than the total population of North America </li></ul>Last year a seven year-old signed a six figure endorsement deal to play professional video games
    19. 19. <ul><li>So what? </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>Great communications skills </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to define problems, gather data, create solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Play nice in the sandbox </li></ul>Real world?
    21. 21. <ul><li>“ True learning is based on discovery . . . rather than the transmission of knowledge.” </li></ul><ul><li>John Dewey </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Brains search for patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrete data doesn’t make sense </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>So? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We each have a personalized mental model of reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing schema are huge for new learning </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. What do you know? In the early 1860s, A______________ issued the Emancipation _____________. This order freed millions of s___________. The C____________ had the authority to enforce this order. Emancipation alone did not give the former s___________ a new life. Decades of economic hardship and unequal rights continued. A____________ plan was supported by many.
    25. 25. In the early 1860s, Alexander II issued the Emancipation Edict . This order freed millions of serfs . The Czar had the authority to enforce this order. Emancipation alone did not give the former serfs a new life. Decades of economic hardship and unequal rights continued. Alexander’s plan was supported by many.
    26. 26. <ul><li>What do you see? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>viscog.beckman.uiuc.edu/djs_lab/demos.html </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><li>Emotion & thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional chemicals increase cognitive activity </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><li>Brains are social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Want to work with others </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>PBLs provide structured patterns </li></ul><ul><li>PBLs create emotional connections </li></ul><ul><li>PBLs encourage collaborative learning </li></ul>Simple?
    30. 30. Even simpler?
    31. 31. <ul><li>“ You don’t learn because you’re engaged. You’re engaged because you’re learning” Nick deKanter </li></ul><ul><li>Muzzy Lane Software </li></ul>
    32. 32. Basic PBL structure <ul><li>What are some basic assumptions we should make concerning PBLs? </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>History / literature is incomplete & open to interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facts as “evidence” rather than “truth” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urge use of raw evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different “levels” of PBL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick activity up to several weeks </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>Students must make or do something </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not just a research paper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subject matter experts provide feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Need a hook </li></ul>
    35. 35. <ul><li>Activity should be “ill structured” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Struggle is good for kids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide access to the same tools & tech </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t get too involved </li></ul>
    36. 36. <ul><li>Provide scaffolding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process / team building / thinking / reading </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incorporate collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A balance of individual / group / outside expert work is important </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus on the process / not the “correct” answer </li></ul>
    37. 37. <ul><li>Let’s look at some more </li></ul><ul><li>Aha-aha’s </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul>
    38. 38. Step one <ul><li>Select knowledge & skills that students will demonstrate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on local & state standards </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Step two <ul><li>Develop a driving question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizes and provides focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought provoking and invites inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have no simple answers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kid friendly </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. <ul><li>Why do we ban books? </li></ul><ul><li>Can the use of nuclear weapons ever be justified? </li></ul><ul><li>How has reading changed for teenagers over the last 30 years? </li></ul><ul><li>Was FDR the best president ever? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is Shakespeare still popular? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the best form of government? </li></ul>
    41. 41. Problem template <ul><li>How can we (central issue) . . . so that (conditions for acceptable solution) </li></ul><ul><li>How can we develop an appropriate book purchasing policy so that both right-wing and left-wing library patrons are happy? </li></ul>
    42. 42. <ul><li>What might be the content and skills in your next unit? </li></ul><ul><li>Driving question ideas? </li></ul><ul><li>Problem ideas? </li></ul>
    43. 43. Step three <ul><li>Develop possible product or performance task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use GRASPS as a starting point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. GRASPS <ul><li>What is the G oal? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the R ole? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is the A udience? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the S ituation? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the P roduct / P erformance? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the S tandards for evaluation? </li></ul>
    45. 45. Step four <ul><li>Determine availability of resources & tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Books, articles, web sites, computers, fax machines, people </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Step five <ul><li>Map and manage the process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create unit “storyboard” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiated instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step by step work plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be willing to “improvise” along the way </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. <ul><li>Students select a possible hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather data to prove their hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share their hypothesis and research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students revise hypothesis based on research and feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct additional research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students create final product or performance </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Step six <ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Self-reflection </li></ul>
    49. 49. Is it any good? <ul><li>The Six A’s & rubric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authenticity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic Rigor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult Connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment Practices </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Teacher role?
    51. 51. <ul><li>Create safe environment </li></ul><ul><li>Content specialist </li></ul><ul><li>Provide focus & resources </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Manage group dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain timeline </li></ul><ul><li>Assess learning </li></ul>
    52. 52. Other examples? <ul><li>WebQuests </li></ul><ul><li>Language Arts </li></ul><ul><li>Archeology unit </li></ul><ul><li>Who Killed William Robinson? </li></ul><ul><li>What Really Happened at Thanksgiving? </li></ul><ul><li>Video games </li></ul>
    53. 53. WebQuests <ul><li>“An inquiry-oriented activity in which some or all of the information that the learner interacts with comes from resources on the Internet” Bernie Dodge 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Information leads to a challenging, engaging, and satisfying task </li></ul>
    54. 54. WebQuests <ul><li>Lots of WebQuests online </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< webquest.org > </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do some searching at the WebQuest matrix for your content and grade level </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Try Google </li></ul></ul>
    55. 55. LA examples? <ul><li>Students write & submit proposals to potential sponsors to fund a field trip </li></ul><ul><li>Students develop a booklet of American idioms / slang for school’s ELL students </li></ul>
    56. 56. LA examples? <ul><li>American Passages: A Literary Survey </li></ul><ul><ul><li><www.learner.org/amerpass/index.html> </li></ul></ul>
    57. 57. Archeology unit <ul><li>This person has taught us more about pre-history than any other person even though the person probably didn’t know the meaning of the word history. </li></ul><ul><li>How did he die? </li></ul>
    58. 58. <ul><li>Gather data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What can you infer from the evidence? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Task group / Share group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible solutions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select best & one question you still have </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send a rover to “dare & share” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revise your original hypothesis </li></ul>
    59. 59. <ul><li>“ A friend of yours found the following objects on his farm. He believes you as a amateur archeologist might be able to figure out what they mean.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several decorated shards of pottery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small blue beads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charred wood in a pit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obsidian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projectile point about one inch long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large flat bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal tooth with small hole </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. Your problem <ul><li>“Who left these behind? How do you know?” </li></ul>
    61. 61. Online PBLs <ul><li>Who Killed William Robinson? </li></ul><ul><ul><li><web.uvic.ca/history-robinson> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What Really Happened at Thanksgiving? </li></ul><ul><ul><li><www.plimoth.org/education/olc/ index_js2.html> </li></ul></ul>
    62. 62. <ul><li>“There are many ways of going forward, but only one way of standing still.” </li></ul><ul><li>Franklin D. Roosevelt </li></ul>
    63. 63. Resources <ul><li>Kansas Educational Resource Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li><www.kerc-ks.org> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NARA Digital Classroom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< www.archives.gov/education/index.html > </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Library of Congress American Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< memory.loc.gov > </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Our Documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li><www.ourdocuments.gov> </li></ul></ul>
    64. 64. Resources <ul><li>Social Studies Central </li></ul><ul><ul><li><www.socialstudiescentral.com> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>America’s Library </li></ul><ul><ul><li><www.americaslibrary.org> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>University of Kansas links </li></ul><ul><ul><li><www.ku.edu/carrie/docs> </li></ul></ul>
    65. 65. Resources <ul><li>Reading Quest: Making Sense in Social Studies <www.readingquest.org> </li></ul><ul><li>National Council for the Social Studies <www.socialstudies.org> </li></ul><ul><li>Marco Polo <marcopolo-education.org> </li></ul>
    66. 66. Resources <ul><li>Edsitement <edsitement.neh.gov> </li></ul><ul><li>History Matters! <historymatters.gmu.edu> </li></ul>
    67. 67. Web resources <ul><li>History and Politics Outloud </li></ul><ul><ul><li><www.hpol.org> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wayback Machine </li></ul><ul><ul><li><www.archive.org> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smithsonian Institute </li></ul><ul><ul><li><www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators> </li></ul></ul>
    68. 68. Web resources <ul><li>Internet History Sourcebook Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li><www.fordham.edu/halsall> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Park Service / Links to the Past </li></ul><ul><ul><li><www.cr.nps.gov> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teaching & Learning with Historical Documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li><www.kn.pacbell.com/wired/fil/pages/ listsocailsca.html> </li></ul></ul>
    69. 69. Resources <ul><li>Caine, Geoffery. (2001) The Brain, Education, and the Competitive Edge . Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Education. </li></ul><ul><li>Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning. (1999) How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School . Washington, DC: National Academy Press. </li></ul>
    70. 70. Resources <ul><li>Kobrin, David. (1996) Beyond the Textbook: Teaching History Using Documents & Primary Sources . Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann. </li></ul><ul><li>Lewin, Larry; Betty Jean Shoemaker. (1998) Great Performances: Creating Classroom-Based Assessment Tasks . Alexandria, Virginia: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development. </li></ul>
    71. 71. Resources <ul><li>Lindquist, Tarry. (1997) Ways That Work: Putting Social Studies Standards into Practice . Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann. </li></ul><ul><li>Steffey, Stephanie; Wendy Hood. (1994) If This is Social Studies, Why isn’t it Boring? York, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers. </li></ul>
    72. 72. Resources <ul><li>Zemelman, Steven, et al. (1998) Best Practice: New Standards for Teaching & Learning in America’s Schools . Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann. </li></ul><ul><li>Zull, James. (2002) The Art of Changing the Brain. Sterling, VA. Stylus Publishing. </li></ul>
    73. 73. Resources <ul><li>Fischer, Max W. (1993) American History Simulations . Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Levstick, Linda, Barton, Keith. (2001) Doing History: Investigating with Children in Elementary & Middle Schools . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. </li></ul><ul><li>Irvin, Judith (2002) Reading Strategies for the Social Studies Classroom. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. </li></ul>
    74. 74. Resources <ul><li>Beck, John. (2004) Got Game: How the Gamer Generation is Reshaping Business Forever . Harvard Business School Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Gee, James. (2003) What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning & Literacy . Palgrave / MacMillan. </li></ul>
    75. 75. Resources <ul><li>Johnson, Steven. (2004) Mind Wide Open:Your Brain and the Neuroscience of Everyday Life . Scribner. </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson, Steven. (2005) Everything bad is Good for You: How Today’s Popular Culture is Actually Making Us Smarter . Riverhead Books. </li></ul>
    76. 76. <ul><li>“ Everything Bad is Good for You” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steven Johnson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Got Game?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John C. Beck, Mitchell Wade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Don’t Bother Me, Mom - I’m Learning!” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marc Prensky </li></ul></ul>
    77. 78. <ul><li>www.making-history.com </li></ul>
    78. 80. <ul><li>www.discoverbabylon.org </li></ul>
    79. 82. <ul><li>www.knowledgematters.com </li></ul>
    80. 84. <ul><li>www.educationalsimulations.com </li></ul>
    81. 86. <ul><li>www.peacemakergame.com </li></ul>