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Primary Sources 2007


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Primary Sources 2007

  1. 1. Primary Sources in the Social Studies Classroom Glenn Wiebe ESSDACK [email_address]
  2. 3. Sticky ideas
  3. 4. Big ideas <ul><li>Primary sources encourage high levels of learning </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Lots of resources & activities exist for teachers to use </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Using technology is important as part of instruction </li></ul>
  6. 7. Primary / secondary? <ul><li>Old history textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>New history textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>The Wild Blue </li></ul><ul><li>Photos </li></ul><ul><li>Artifact </li></ul><ul><li>World Book </li></ul><ul><li>Copy of a forwarded email </li></ul><ul><li>Diary </li></ul><ul><li>Live blog on a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Digital photo on laptop </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul>
  7. 8. What are the rules? <ul><li>Create a list of criteria </li></ul>
  8. 9. Criteria?
  9. 10. <ul><li>Direct traces of the event </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts created at the time it occurred , by firsthand observers and participants </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts created after the event occurred , by firsthand observers and participants </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Accounts created after the event occurred , by people who did not participate or witness the event, but who used interviews or evidence from the time of the event </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Do you need to change any of your dots? </li></ul>
  12. 13. Definitions? <ul><li>What are primary sources? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contemporary accounts of an event, created by someone who experienced or witnessed the event in question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“a first-hand account of an event, person, or place” (Kansas State Standards) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>What are secondary sources? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials that interpret, assign value to, conjecture upon, and draw conclusions about the events reported in primary sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“An account of an event, person, or place that is not first-hand” (Kansas State Standards) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Tertiary sources? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials that list, compile, digest, or index primary and / or secondary sources </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Where should you start?
  16. 17. <ul><li>Three stage media analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sims & Differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Three stage media analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boston Massacre </li></ul></ul>
  18. 25. <ul><li>Paul Revere </li></ul><ul><li>1770 </li></ul><ul><li>Alonzo Chappel </li></ul><ul><li>1868 </li></ul>
  19. 26. Training kids to analyze <ul><li>“ What really happened in Boston on March 5, 1770?” </li></ul>
  20. 27. <ul><li>Who </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st / 2nd / 3rd person? </li></ul></ul>5 W’s and credibility
  21. 28. <ul><li>What </li></ul><ul><ul><li>format? </li></ul></ul>
  22. 29. <ul><li>Why </li></ul><ul><ul><li>audience? </li></ul></ul>
  23. 30. <ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><ul><li>on-site? </li></ul></ul>
  24. 31. <ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><ul><li>written / created? </li></ul></ul>
  25. 32. <ul><li>Whatcha thinking? </li></ul>
  26. 33. Great place to start <ul><li>National Archives & Records Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  27. 34. <ul><li>Library of Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  28. 35. <ul><li>Our Documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  29. 36. <ul><li>Social Studies Central </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Links”  “Documents ” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 37. <ul><li>Browse through lesson plan archives </li></ul><ul><li>Select a lesson you can adapt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How might it look different? </li></ul></ul>
  31. 38. <ul><li>One side write </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What you see </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What you feel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bottom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do all pictures have in common? </li></ul></ul>
  32. 43. Masks off!
  33. 44. <ul><li>See </li></ul>
  34. 45. <ul><li>Feel </li></ul>
  35. 46. <ul><li>Have in common </li></ul>
  36. 47. <ul><li>Why don’t we hear much about it? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you slow down a pandemic in 2007? </li></ul>
  37. 48. Problems / Myths?
  38. 49. Problems? <ul><li>Time in planning </li></ul><ul><li>Time in class </li></ul><ul><li>Validity of source </li></ul><ul><li>Training of teacher and students </li></ul><ul><li>Reading level of students </li></ul>
  39. 50. Myths? <ul><li>Jigsaw: “Primary Sources in History: Breaking Through the Myths” </li></ul>
  40. 51. Myths? <ul><li>Primary sources are reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Primary sources are naturally fun and engaging for students </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence can be neatly packaged as primary or secondary </li></ul><ul><li>The more primary sources the better </li></ul>
  41. 52. Why primary sources?
  42. 53. <ul><li>“ A morsel of genuine history is a thing so rare as to be always valuable.” </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson, 1817 </li></ul>
  43. 54. Why primary sources? <ul><li>It’s in the state standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yeah, but . . . </li></ul>
  44. 55. <ul><li>Students develop critical thinking skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary sources are 3rd story stuff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kids must make own conclusions </li></ul></ul>
  45. 56. “ I learned that to do history, you have to be objective and be able to look at a puzzle of historical events and put them together in order.” 10th grader
  46. 57. <ul><li>Students acquire empathy for the human condition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See history as events that happen to actual people </li></ul></ul>
  47. 58. “ When my students read the Whitman letters, I saw a sheen of tears in their eyes and noted an avid interest in the soldiers as people, not just historical figures.” HS teacher
  48. 59. <ul><li>Students consider different points of view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must move from making observations to making inferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realize that both creation & interpretation is biased </li></ul></ul>
  49. 60. “ Discovering that two students view a document differently creates a kind of dissonance that opens up meaning and creates new understanding in learners.” MS teacher
  50. 61. <ul><li>Students understand the continuum of history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See cause and effect / time / place / people relationships over time </li></ul></ul>
  51. 62. “ The Civil Rights Movement finally made sense to me when I looked at lynching postcards from the 1900s and some of the writings of Ida B. Wells.” HS student
  52. 63. Basic assumptions <ul><li>History is incomplete & open to interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Use raw evidence as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Activity should be “ill structured” </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t get too involved </li></ul>
  53. 64. <ul><li>Use provocative problems </li></ul><ul><li>Provide scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>The process is the key / not the “correct” answer </li></ul>
  54. 65. <ul><li>Give One to Get One </li></ul><ul><li>Your best lesson / resource? </li></ul>
  55. 66. <ul><li>What do you already do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Check off those things that you have done or are already doing </li></ul></ul>
  56. 67. <ul><li>What will you do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circle or highlight those things that you might want to try </li></ul></ul>
  57. 68. <ul><li>What can be changed? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Underline those things that would need to be adapted </li></ul></ul>
  58. 69. The basics <ul><li>Provide some “velcro” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History Frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict-o-Fact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List / Group / Label </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brown vs. Board of Education </li></ul></ul></ul>
  59. 70. <ul><li>Use analysis worksheets </li></ul><ul><li>Use NARA / LOC kits </li></ul><ul><li>NCSS lesson plans </li></ul>
  60. 71. <ul><li>Use analysis worksheets </li></ul>
  61. 72. Technology suggestions <ul><li>Use Google Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kids create tour of US import countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tours of explorer routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List of natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide placemarks / good area to settle? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City scavenger hunts </li></ul></ul>
  62. 73. <ul><li>Resources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< gearthplan> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul>
  63. 74. <ul><li>Compare </li></ul><ul><li>photos of a specific </li></ul><ul><li>event or place </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  64. 75. <ul><li>Use spreadsheet program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>slaves per colony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USSR vs. US casualties during WWII </li></ul></ul>
  65. 76. <ul><li>Play video games </li></ul>
  66. 77. <ul><li>Making History </li></ul>
  67. 78. <ul><li>Ancient Egypt </li></ul>
  68. 79. <ul><li>Discover </li></ul><ul><li>Babylon </li></ul>
  69. 80. <ul><li>Use online archives </li></ul>
  70. 81. <ul><li>Create blogs to discuss / share documents </li></ul>
  71. 82. <ul><li>Let kids use software to create multimedia presentations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MovieMaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iMovie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GarageBand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iTunes </li></ul></ul>
  72. 83. <ul><li>Online activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who Killed William Robinson? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You are the Historian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Studies Central Lesson Plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul></ul>
  73. 84. <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you do? </li></ul></ul>
  74. 85. <ul><li>Objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use old photos to trace the development of specific types of technology or inventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict what the technology might look like 50 or 100 years from now </li></ul></ul>
  75. 86. <ul><li>Objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a spreadsheet program to document deaths and births based on tombstone data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict use of unknown object / research and present findings </li></ul></ul>
  76. 88. <ul><li>Objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kiel Hileman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2004 Kansas teacher of the year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keil's room </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See handout </li></ul></ul></ul>
  77. 89. <ul><li>Objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you do? </li></ul></ul>
  78. 90. <ul><li>Images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select a historical photo / have kids predict what was happening one hour before or after it was taken </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have kids use fine art to reveal info about artist, time period, attitudes of the period </li></ul></ul>
  79. 91. <ul><li>Images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare Hollywood movies with actual events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use visual DEIs (Discrepant Event Inquiry) to engage kids </li></ul></ul>
  80. 96. New York City 1939
  81. 101. New Jersey 1938
  82. 102. <ul><li>“ Backwards” DEI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student stands facing class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project picture on wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student must ask the questions </li></ul></ul>
  83. 104. <ul><li>Images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you do? </li></ul></ul>
  84. 105. <ul><li>Audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record oral interviews with family or community members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study lyrics of popular music from WWI, WWII, the Vietnam War, and Iraq </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare with interviews with vets </li></ul></ul></ul>
  85. 106. <ul><li>Audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare transcripts or newspaper accounts of famous speeches to the actual speech </li></ul></ul>
  86. 107. <ul><li>Use music with images to create an emotional engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil War Photos </li></ul></ul>
  87. 108. <ul><li>Audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you do? </li></ul></ul>
  88. 109. <ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study historical maps of city or region / document evidence of change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use census data to predict future problems facing community </li></ul></ul>
  89. 110. <ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast present sports to past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who was better? Why? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baseball cards / Madden 2007? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research blueprints of public building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What changes have been made and why? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  90. 111. <ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you do? </li></ul></ul>
  91. 112. <ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use newspapers/magazines to analyze advertising of specific product over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select cookbooks from different periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read letters to analyze point of view </li></ul></ul>
  92. 113. <ul><ul><li>“ Famous” quotes </li></ul></ul>
  93. 114. <ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you do? </li></ul></ul>
  94. 115. Assessment?
  95. 116. <ul><li>Document Based Questions (DBQs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A series of short answers or an essay based on prior knowledge and a select set of documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to enable students to work like historians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For all levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formative or summative </li></ul></ul>
  96. 117. <ul><li>Was Christopher Columbus good or bad? </li></ul>
  97. 118. <ul><li>Assess whether or not imperialism helped or harmed colonial societies. </li></ul>
  98. 119. When? Where? What?
  99. 123. Perhaps more important . . . So what?
  100. 125. What cost security? <ul><li>Guiding question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Is it ever okay for the government to violate the Bill of Rights?” </li></ul></ul>
  101. 126. <ul><li>Documents & white gloves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Conference with General De Witt&quot; at Office of Commanding General, Headquarters Western Defense Command and Fourth Army; January 4, 1942 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Order 9066 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusion Order and exclusion area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographs of internment process / camps </li></ul></ul>
  102. 127. <ul><li>Complete student response sheet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use photo & document analysis sheets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complete History Frame graphic organizer to summarize your work </li></ul>
  103. 128. <ul><li>Using evidence from the WWII Japanese American experience and contemporary documents, defend or refute the following statement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Descendants of those interned during WWII should be entitled to financial compensation from the federal government.” </li></ul></ul>
  104. 129. <ul><li>Or . . . using evidence from the WWII Japanese American experience and contemporary documents, complete the following task: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Make a scale drawing of an 8´ x 20´ room. Put furnishings drawn to scale for your own family (beds, closets, chests, etc.) in the drawing” </li></ul></ul>
  105. 130. <ul><li>Or . . . using evidence from the WWII Japanese American experience and contemporary documents, complete the following task: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Pretend your best friend had to go to the internment camp. Write a letter to that friend” </li></ul></ul>
  106. 131. What would you change?
  107. 132. Create your own <ul><li>Using the Library of Congress framework, begin developing your own primary sources activity </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to use the Three Story Intellect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start with the end in mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop an assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create the activity </li></ul></ul>
  108. 133. Where should you end?
  109. 134. Sticky ideas?
  110. 135. <ul><li>Encourage high levels of learning </li></ul>Lots of resources & activities exist Using technology is important
  111. 136. Web resources <ul><li>Social Studies Central </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click “Links” then “Documents” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NARA Digital Classroom </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Library of Congress American Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul>
  112. 137. <ul><li>Our Documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>America’s Library </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authentic History Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li><authentic> </li></ul></ul>
  113. 138. <ul><li>Reading Quest: Making Sense in Social Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Council for the Social Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marco Polo </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul>
  114. 139. <ul><li>Edsitement </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>History Matters! </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kansas Educational Resource Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul>
  115. 140. <ul><li>Language Strategies for Social Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< LanguageSite/History_Strategies.html> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital History </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smithsonian Institute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< educators> </li></ul></ul>
  116. 141. <ul><li>Internet History Sourcebook Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Park Service / Links to the Past </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Using Primary Sources with Teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul>
  117. 142. <ul><li>Center for History and the New Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teaching History with Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Best of History Web Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul>
  118. 143. Print resources <ul><li>Kobrin, David. (1996) Beyond the Textbook: Teaching History Using Documents & Primary Sources . Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann. </li></ul><ul><li>Lewin, Larry; Betty Jean Shoemaker. (1998) Great Performances: Creating Classroom-Based Assessment Tasks . Alexandria, Virginia: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development. </li></ul>
  119. 144. <ul><li>Lindquist, Tarry. (1997) Ways That Work: Putting Social Studies Standards into Practice . Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann. </li></ul><ul><li>Steffey, Stephanie; Wendy Hood. (1994) If This is Social Studies, Why isn’t it Boring? York, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers. </li></ul>
  120. 145. <ul><li>Zemelman, Steven, et al. (1998) Best Practice: New Standards for Teaching & Learning in America’s Schools . Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann. </li></ul><ul><li>Zull, James. (2002) The Art of Changing the Brain. Sterling, VA. Stylus Publishing. </li></ul>
  121. 146. <ul><li>Fischer, Max W. (1993) American History Simulations . Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Levstick, Linda, Barton, Keith. (2001) Doing History: Investigating with Children in Elementary & Middle Schools . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. </li></ul>
  122. 147. <ul><li>Irvin, Judith (2002) Reading Strategies for the Social Studies Classroom. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. </li></ul>
  123. 148. Citation of resources <ul><li>Citing Electronic Information in History Papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Columbia Guide to Online Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul>
  124. 149. <ul><li>Research and Documentation Online </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources: Their Use and Acknowledgement </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Easy Bib </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Notestar </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul>