Primary Sources 2007


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  • Primary Sources 2007

    1. 1. Primary Sources in the Social Studies Classroom Glenn Wiebe ESSDACK [email_address]
    2. 3. Sticky ideas
    3. 4. Big ideas <ul><li>Primary sources encourage high levels of learning </li></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><li>Lots of resources & activities exist for teachers to use </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>Using technology is important as part of instruction </li></ul>
    6. 7. Primary / secondary? <ul><li>Old history textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>New history textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Band of Brothers </li></ul><ul><li>Photos </li></ul><ul><li>Artifact </li></ul><ul><li>World Book </li></ul><ul><li>Copy of a forwarded email </li></ul><ul><li>Diary </li></ul><ul><li>Live blog on a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Digital photo on laptop </li></ul><ul><li>Video game </li></ul>
    7. 8. What are the rules? <ul><li>Create a list of criteria </li></ul>
    8. 9. Criteria?
    9. 10. <ul><li>Direct traces of the event </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts created at the time it occurred , by firsthand observers and participants </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts created after the event occurred , by firsthand observers and participants </li></ul>
    10. 11. <ul><li>Accounts created after the event occurred , by people who did not participate or witness the event, but who used interviews or evidence from the time of the event </li></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>Do you need to change any of your dots? </li></ul>
    12. 13. Definitions? <ul><li>What are primary sources? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contemporary accounts of an event, created by someone who experienced or witnessed the event in question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“a first-hand account of an event, person, or place” (Kansas State Standards) </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. <ul><li>What are secondary sources? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials that interpret, assign value to, conjecture upon, and draw conclusions about the events reported in primary sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“An account of an event, person, or place that is not first-hand” (Kansas State Standards) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>Tertiary sources? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials that list, compile, digest, or index primary and / or secondary sources </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. Where should you start?
    16. 17. <ul><li>Three stage media analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sims & Differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>Three stage media analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boston Massacre </li></ul></ul>
    18. 25. <ul><li>Paul Revere </li></ul><ul><li>1770 </li></ul><ul><li>Alonzo Chappel </li></ul><ul><li>1868 </li></ul>
    19. 26. Training kids to analyze <ul><li>“ What really happened in Boston on March 5, 1770?” </li></ul>
    20. 27. <ul><li>Who </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st / 2nd / 3rd person? </li></ul></ul>5 W’s and credibility
    21. 28. <ul><li>What </li></ul><ul><ul><li>format? </li></ul></ul>
    22. 29. <ul><li>Why </li></ul><ul><ul><li>audience? </li></ul></ul>
    23. 30. <ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><ul><li>on-site? </li></ul></ul>
    24. 31. <ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><ul><li>written / created? </li></ul></ul>
    25. 32. <ul><li>Whatcha thinking? </li></ul>
    26. 33. Great place to start <ul><li>National Archives & Records Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    27. 34. <ul><li>Library of Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    28. 35. <ul><li>Our Documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    29. 36. <ul><li>Social Studies Central </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Links”  “Documents ” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 37. <ul><li>Browse through lesson plan archives </li></ul><ul><li>Select a lesson you can adapt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How might it look different? </li></ul></ul>
    31. 38. <ul><li>One side write </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What you see </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What you feel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bottom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do all pictures have in common? </li></ul></ul>
    32. 43. Masks off!
    33. 44. <ul><li>See </li></ul>
    34. 45. <ul><li>Feel </li></ul>
    35. 46. <ul><li>Have in common </li></ul>
    36. 47. <ul><li>Why don’t we hear much about it? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you slow down a pandemic in 2007? </li></ul>
    37. 48. Problems / Myths?
    38. 49. Problems? <ul><li>Time in planning </li></ul><ul><li>Time in class </li></ul><ul><li>Validity of source </li></ul><ul><li>Training of teacher and students </li></ul><ul><li>Reading level of students </li></ul>
    39. 50. Myths? <ul><li>Jigsaw: “Primary Sources in History: Breaking Through the Myths” </li></ul>
    40. 51. Myths? <ul><li>Primary sources are reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Primary sources are naturally fun and engaging for students </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence can be neatly packaged as primary or secondary </li></ul><ul><li>The more primary sources the better </li></ul>
    41. 52. Why primary sources?
    42. 53. <ul><li>“ A morsel of genuine history is a thing so rare as to be always valuable.” </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson, 1817 </li></ul>
    43. 54. Why primary sources? <ul><li>It’s in the state standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yeah, but . . . </li></ul>
    44. 55. <ul><li>Students develop critical thinking skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary sources are 3rd story stuff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kids must make own conclusions </li></ul></ul>
    45. 56. “ I learned that to do history, you have to be objective and be able to look at a puzzle of historical events and put them together in order.” 10th grader
    46. 57. <ul><li>Students acquire empathy for the human condition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See history as events that happen to actual people </li></ul></ul>
    47. 58. “ When my students read the Whitman letters, I saw a sheen of tears in their eyes and noted an avid interest in the soldiers as people, not just historical figures.” HS teacher
    48. 59. <ul><li>Students consider different points of view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must move from making observations to making inferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realize that both creation & interpretation is biased </li></ul></ul>
    49. 60. “ Discovering that two students view a document differently creates a kind of dissonance that opens up meaning and creates new understanding in learners.” MS teacher
    50. 61. <ul><li>Students understand the continuum of history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See cause and effect / time / place / people relationships over time </li></ul></ul>
    51. 62. “ The Civil Rights Movement finally made sense to me when I looked at lynching postcards from the 1900s and some of the writings of Ida B. Wells.” HS student
    52. 63. Basic assumptions <ul><li>History is incomplete & open to interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Use raw evidence as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Activity should be “ill structured” </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t get too involved </li></ul>
    53. 64. <ul><li>Use provocative problems </li></ul><ul><li>Provide scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>The process is the key / not the “correct” answer </li></ul>
    54. 65. <ul><li>Give One to Get One </li></ul><ul><li>Your best lesson / resource? </li></ul>
    55. 66. <ul><li>What do you already do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Check off those things that you have done or are already doing </li></ul></ul>
    56. 67. <ul><li>What will you do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circle or highlight those things that you might want to try </li></ul></ul>
    57. 68. <ul><li>What can be changed? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Underline those things that would need to be adapted </li></ul></ul>
    58. 69. The basics <ul><li>Provide some “velcro” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History Frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict-o-Fact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List / Group / Label </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brown vs. Board of Education </li></ul></ul></ul>
    59. 70. <ul><li>Use analysis worksheets </li></ul><ul><li>Use NARA / LOC kits </li></ul><ul><li>NCSS lesson plans </li></ul>
    60. 71. Technology suggestions <ul><li>Use Google Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kids create tour of US import countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tours of explorer routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List of natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide placemarks / good area to settle? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City scavenger hunts </li></ul></ul>
    61. 72. <ul><li>Resources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< gearthplan> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul>
    62. 73. <ul><li>Compare </li></ul><ul><li>photos of a specific </li></ul><ul><li>event or place </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    63. 74. <ul><li>Use spreadsheet program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>slaves per colony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USSR vs. US casualties during WWII </li></ul></ul>
    64. 75. <ul><li>Play video games </li></ul>
    65. 76. <ul><li>Making History </li></ul>
    66. 77. <ul><li>Ancient Egypt </li></ul>
    67. 78. <ul><li>Discover </li></ul><ul><li>Babylon </li></ul>
    68. 79. <ul><li>Use online archives </li></ul>
    69. 80. <ul><li>Create blogs to discuss / share documents </li></ul>
    70. 81. <ul><li>Let kids use software to create multimedia presentations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MovieMaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iMovie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GarageBand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iTunes </li></ul></ul>
    71. 82. <ul><li>Online activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who Killed William Robinson? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You are the Historian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Studies Central Lesson Plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul></ul>
    72. 83. <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you do? </li></ul></ul>
    73. 84. <ul><li>Objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use old photos to trace the development of specific types of technology or inventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict what the technology might look like 50 or 100 years from now </li></ul></ul>
    74. 85. <ul><li>Objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a spreadsheet program to document deaths and births based on tombstone data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict use of unknown object / research and present findings </li></ul></ul>
    75. 87. <ul><li>Objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kiel Hileman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2004 Kansas teacher of the year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keil's room </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See handout </li></ul></ul></ul>
    76. 88. <ul><li>Objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you do? </li></ul></ul>
    77. 89. <ul><li>Images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select a historical photo / have kids predict what was happening one hour before or after it was taken </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have kids use fine art to reveal info about artist, time period, attitudes of the period </li></ul></ul>
    78. 90. <ul><li>Images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare Hollywood movies with actual events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use visual DEIs (Discrepant Event Inquiry) to engage kids </li></ul></ul>
    79. 95. New York City 1939
    80. 100. New Jersey 1938
    81. 101. <ul><li>“ Backwards” DEI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student stands facing class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project picture on wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student must ask the questions </li></ul></ul>
    82. 103. <ul><li>Images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you do? </li></ul></ul>
    83. 104. <ul><li>Audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record oral interviews with family or community members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study lyrics of popular music from WWI, WWII, the Vietnam War, and Iraq </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare with interviews with vets </li></ul></ul></ul>
    84. 105. <ul><li>Audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare transcripts or newspaper accounts of famous speeches to the actual speech </li></ul></ul>
    85. 106. <ul><li>Use music with images to create an emotional engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil War Photos </li></ul></ul>
    86. 107. <ul><li>Audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you do? </li></ul></ul>
    87. 108. <ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study historical maps of city or region / document evidence of change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use census data to predict future problems facing community </li></ul></ul>
    88. 109. <ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast present sports to past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who was better? Why? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baseball cards / Madden 2007? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research blueprints of public building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What changes have been made and why? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    89. 110. <ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you do? </li></ul></ul>
    90. 111. <ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use newspapers/magazines to analyze advertising of specific product over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select cookbooks from different periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read letters to analyze point of view </li></ul></ul>
    91. 112. <ul><ul><li>“ Famous” quotes </li></ul></ul>
    92. 113. <ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you do? </li></ul></ul>
    93. 114. Assessment?
    94. 115. <ul><li>Document Based Questions (DBQs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A series of short answers or an essay based on prior knowledge and a select set of documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to enable students to work like historians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For all levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formative or summative </li></ul></ul>
    95. 116. <ul><li>Was Christopher Columbus good or bad? </li></ul>
    96. 117. <ul><li>Assess whether or not imperialism helped or harmed colonial societies. </li></ul>
    97. 118. When? Where? What?
    98. 122. Perhaps more important . . . So what?
    99. 124. What cost security? <ul><li>Guiding question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Is it ever okay for the government to violate the Bill of Rights?” </li></ul></ul>
    100. 125. <ul><li>Documents & white gloves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Conference with General De Witt&quot; at Office of Commanding General, Headquarters Western Defense Command and Fourth Army; January 4, 1942 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Order 9066 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusion Order and exclusion area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographs of internment process / camps </li></ul></ul>
    101. 126. <ul><li>Complete student response sheet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use photo & document analysis sheets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complete History Frame graphic organizer to summarize your work </li></ul>
    102. 127. <ul><li>Using evidence from the WWII Japanese American experience and contemporary documents, defend or refute the following statement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Descendants of those interned during WWII should be entitled to financial compensation from the federal government.” </li></ul></ul>
    103. 128. <ul><li>Or . . . using evidence from the WWII Japanese American experience and contemporary documents, complete the following task: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Make a scale drawing of an 8´ x 20´ room. Put furnishings drawn to scale for your own family (beds, closets, chests, etc.) in the drawing” </li></ul></ul>
    104. 129. <ul><li>Or . . . using evidence from the WWII Japanese American experience and contemporary documents, complete the following task: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Pretend your best friend had to go to the internment camp. Write a letter to that friend” </li></ul></ul>
    105. 130. What would you change?
    106. 131. Create your own <ul><li>Using the Library of Congress framework, begin developing your own primary sources activity </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to use the Three Story Intellect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start with the end in mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop an assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create the activity </li></ul></ul>
    107. 132. Where should you end?
    108. 133. Sticky ideas?
    109. 134. <ul><li>Encourage high levels of learning </li></ul>Lots of resources & activities exist Using technology is important
    110. 135. Web resources <ul><li>Social Studies Central </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click “Links” then “Documents” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NARA Digital Classroom </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Library of Congress American Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul>
    111. 136. <ul><li>Our Documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>America’s Library </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authentic History Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li><authentic> </li></ul></ul>
    112. 137. <ul><li>Reading Quest: Making Sense in Social Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Council for the Social Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marco Polo </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul>
    113. 138. <ul><li>Edsitement </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>History Matters! </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kansas Educational Resource Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul>
    114. 139. <ul><li>Language Strategies for Social Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< LanguageSite/History_Strategies.html> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital History </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smithsonian Institute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< educators> </li></ul></ul>
    115. 140. <ul><li>Internet History Sourcebook Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Park Service / Links to the Past </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Using Primary Sources with Teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul>
    116. 141. <ul><li>Center for History and the New Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teaching History with Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Best of History Web Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul>
    117. 142. Print resources <ul><li>Kobrin, David. (1996) Beyond the Textbook: Teaching History Using Documents & Primary Sources . Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann. </li></ul><ul><li>Lewin, Larry; Betty Jean Shoemaker. (1998) Great Performances: Creating Classroom-Based Assessment Tasks . Alexandria, Virginia: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development. </li></ul>
    118. 143. <ul><li>Lindquist, Tarry. (1997) Ways That Work: Putting Social Studies Standards into Practice . Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann. </li></ul><ul><li>Steffey, Stephanie; Wendy Hood. (1994) If This is Social Studies, Why isn’t it Boring? York, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers. </li></ul>
    119. 144. <ul><li>Zemelman, Steven, et al. (1998) Best Practice: New Standards for Teaching & Learning in America’s Schools . Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann. </li></ul><ul><li>Zull, James. (2002) The Art of Changing the Brain. Sterling, VA. Stylus Publishing. </li></ul>
    120. 145. <ul><li>Fischer, Max W. (1993) American History Simulations . Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Levstick, Linda, Barton, Keith. (2001) Doing History: Investigating with Children in Elementary & Middle Schools . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. </li></ul>
    121. 146. <ul><li>Irvin, Judith (2002) Reading Strategies for the Social Studies Classroom. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. </li></ul>
    122. 147. Citation of resources <ul><li>Citing Electronic Information in History Papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Columbia Guide to Online Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul>
    123. 148. <ul><li>Research and Documentation Online </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources: Their Use and Acknowledgement </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Easy Bib </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Notestar </li></ul><ul><ul><li><> </li></ul></ul>