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    Thermo#1 Thermo#1 Presentation Transcript

    • Energy
      Kinetic energy (EK)
      Potential energy (EP)
      Energy due to motion
      Energy due to position (stored energy)
      What is Energy?
    • Total Energy = Kinetic Energy + Potential Energy
      E = EK + EP
      Kinetic energy & potential energy are interchangeable
      Ball thrown upwards slows & loses kinetic energy but gains potential energy
      The reverse happens as it falls back to the ground
    • Law of Conservation of Energy: the total energy of the universe is constant and can neither be created nor destroyed; it can only be transformed.
      The internal energy, U, of a sample is the sum of all the kinetic and potential energies of all the atoms and molecules in a sample
      i.e. it is the total energy of all the atoms and molecules in a sample
    • State Functions
      A property of a system that changes independently of its pathway
      Energy changes this way
    • Temperature vs. Heat
      Temperature (T) is a measure of the kinetic energy of particles’ random motion
      (°C, °F or K)
      Heat (q) is a measure of the total amount of energy transferred from an object of high temperature to one of low temperature
      (J or cal)
    • How do we relate change in temp. to the energy transferred?
      Heat capacity (J/oC) = heat supplied (J)
      temperature (oC)
      Heat Capacity = heat required to raise temp. of an object by 1oC
      • more heat is required to raise the temp. of a large sample of a substance by 1oC than is needed for a smaller sample
    • Specific Heat
      In order to relate heat and temperature we use the specific heat capacity.
      Cp- it is a physical property
      units are J/g°C
      Water’s Cp = 4.18 J/g °C
    • The Ultimate Formula (not really)
      The heat energy needed to raise a substance to a certain temperature is related to the mass of the substance and the temperature change (ΔT)
      q = mass x specific heat x temperature change
      q = m CpΔT