Definition: Assessment for Learning is the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners and their teachers to decide where the learners are in their learning, where they need to go and how best to get there.
“… And if one of the requirements … is that you develop a sufficiently objective scoring system [for portfolios] so you can fairly compare people with one another, will your scoring system end up objectifying what's in the portfolio to the point where the portfolio will be nothing but a very, very cumbersome multiple choice test?" (p. 35)
Shulman, Lee (1998) "Teacher Portfolios: A Theoretical Activity" in N. Lyons (ed.) With Portfolio in Hand . (pp. 23-37) New York: Teachers College Press.
The e-portfolio is the central and common point for the student experience… It is a reflection of the student as a person undergoing continuous personal development, not just a store of evidence. -Geoff Rebbeck, e-Learning Coordinator, Thanet College, quoted in JISC, 2008, Effective Practice with e-Portfolios
" A portfolio tells a story. It is the story of knowing. Knowing about things... Knowing oneself... Knowing an audience... Portfolios are students' own stories of what they know, why they believe they know it, and why others should be of the same opinion.” (Paulson & Paulson, 1991, p.2)
“ The word assess comes from the Latin word assidere, which means to sit beside . Literally then, to assess means to sit beside the learner .”
Stefanakis, E. (2002) Multiple Intelligences and Portfolios . Heinemann, p.9
Overlap of Assessment Types Electronic Portfolios: that support Assessment FOR Learning Assessment Management Systems: that support Assessment OF Learning Institution-centered Learner-centered “ Checklist of Competencies” • Balance • “Students’ Story of Learning” Positivist Constructivist
Do you need an all-in-one system or multiple tools?
Categories of E-Portfolio Software Created as part of my study of different online tools: http://electronicportfolios.org/categories. html Not tools for telling but tools for talking! - Julie Hughes, University of Wolverhampton
Learners’ Digital Archives and presentation portfolios Class portfolios Guidance portfolios Employment portfolios Institution’s server or online service Limited Time Frame Institutional data Blogs Faculty-generated evaluation data Academic focus Social networks
Learners maintain collection across the lifespan, institutions maintain evaluation data & links
All you need is an <EMBED> Code! (Hall Davidson)
Learners’ Digital Archive & Blog Learner-owned Lifelong Web Space Class portfolio Guidance portfolio Employment portfolio Institution’s Server or Service & Purposes Limited Time Frame hyperlinks Institutional data Meta-tags Faculty-generated evaluation data Life-wide focus Social networks
“ Because portfolios get students into a rich and deep knowledge base focused on their own learning experiences, portfolios are highly motivating. Collaboration with others deepens these individual experiences by allowing probing questions, socially constructed knowledge, and alternative viewpoints.
Zubizarreta, J. (2009) Learning Portfolios. Jossey-Bass , p. xx
How can you leverage the technologies learners own? Accessibility from “net books” and home computers Connectivity with cell phones Audio (podcasts) and Video (digital stories)
What are the engagement factors that drive the use of social networks and how can we incorporate those factors into ePortfolios?
Interview with Founders of My Space on Charlie Rose Show, Feb 3, 2009
CR: why is it [MySpace] so compelling for so many people?
Chris DeWolfe: A lot of it is about the ability to express yourself. So if you look at your MySpace Profile, you have your music that you're listening to, you have the colors, you have the background, you have the videos. So, I look at your Profile, if you have one, and I can get to know you pretty quickly … So, I think it's an online representation of who you are, which is really fascinating, and it's a great way to stay in touch with people, and it's a great discovery mechanism.
(Me): Engagement just won't be a factor until we can incorporate those elements of personal expression in ePortfolios . (http://electronicportfolios.org/blog/2009/02/myspace-founders-on-charlie-rose.html)
Reflection … is the “Heart and Soul” of a Portfolio… A Reminder…
"Why don't students spend time to reflect on the things they are learning? Our initial research suggests that Net Generation students dislike using written text, but their engagement increases when they use digital storytelling. Digital storytelling is an innovative approach to reflective learning in which pictures and sound are collected and assembled to form a multimedia story. “
“ The combination of multimedia and technology motivates students to creatively produce digital stories that stimulate reflective learning. Digital stories present a personal and reflective narrative using a range of media, especially photographs and video. In addition, students can feel empowered and develop multiple literacies that are essential for lifelong learning.”
Christopher Murray and Dr. John Sandars, Medical Education Unit, University of Leeds- http://www.medev.ac.uk/newsletter/01.18.html
What’s Your Story? Richness not possible in print
Wordle.com This following Word Cloud was created collaboratively by educators around the world, who contributed keywords that came to their mind when thinking about Digital Storytelling. Words that appear larger were used by more contributors. http://langwitches.org/blog/2008/07/27/digital-storytelling-part-ix-wordle/
Two “Paradigms” of Assessment (Ewell, 2008) Ewell, P. (2008) Assessment and Accountability in America Today: Background and Content. P.170 Assessment for Continuous Improvement Assessment for Accountability Strategic Dimensions: Purpose Stance Predominant Ethos Application Choices: Instrumentation Nature of Evidence Reference Points Communication of Results Uses of Results Formative (Improvement) Internal Engagement Multiple/Triangulation Quantitative and Qualitative Over Time, Comparative, Established Goal Multiple Internal Channels and Media Multiple Feedback Loops Summative (Judgment) External Compliance Standardized Quantitative Comparative or Fixed Standard Public Communication Reporting
The alternative you give up when you make a decision…
The cost of an alternative that must be forgone in order to pursue a certain action
What is the opportunity cost of emphasizing accountability in portfolios over reflection and deep learning?
Opportunity Cost – a conversation with a high school teacher:
"It took all the thinking out of it. They gave me the standards and told me which artifacts to put into each one! It wasn't as effective as what my students did!” http://electronicportfolios.org/blog/2008/07/necc-2008-update.html
What learning opportunities are we missing when we completely structure the learner’s portfolio?
Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios Accountability (Institution-Centered) Improvement (Student-Centered) (Or Course-Centered) Opportunity Cost ?? ?? Purpose Along a Continuum
Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios Accountability Highly Structured Uniformity and Standardization Required Assignments Faculty Evaluation Complexity Checklist Data! Improvement Opportunity Cost Engagement Deep Learning Personalization Choice and Voice Lifelong Skills Ease of Use Ownership Time Purpose
Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios Accountability Opportunity Cost Faculty Time Involvement Ease of Scoring for… Collection of Data for… Accountability Institutional Support & Funding? Improvement Flexible Structure Self-Assessment & Feedback Lifelong Learning Skills More Social Learning Personalization Choice and Voice Engagement Story Purpose
Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios Accountability Faculty Feedback Uniformity Flexible Requirements Data Program Improvement Improvement Self-Assessment Personalization Choice and Voice Student Engagement Increased Achievement Opportunity Cost Social Learning Faculty Time Involvement Complexity Purpose