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  • This is the presentation that I gave at the CIC CAO Conference in November 2009, were I focused on Balancing the two faces of e-portfolios. Janus is the Roman god of gates and doors, beginnings and endings, and hence represented with a double-faced head, each looking in opposite directions. He was worshipped at the beginning of the harvest time, planting, marriage, birth, and other types of beginnings, especially the beginnings of important events in a person's life. Janus also represents the transition between primitive life and civilization, between the countryside and the city, peace and war, and the growing-up of young people.
  • There are many similarities between these two processes; the major differences are often in extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation Dan Pink describes the essential elements of true (intrinsic) motivation in his new book, Drive, the concepts of autonomy, mastery, and purpose.
  • The boundaries are blurring between eportfolios and social networks. As we consider the potential of lifelong e-portfolios, will they resemble the structured accountability systems that are currently being implemented in many educational institutions? Or are we beginning to see lifelong interactive portfolios emerging as… mash-ups in the Web 2.0 cloud, using Blogs or wikis or Twitter,Facebook or Ning,Flickr or Picasa or YouTube, etc.?
  • Essentially, industries, companies and people go through the 5 stages of: 1) heh, this is cool, 2) yeah, we all think this cool, 3) woah, we were sold down the river, 4) no, come to think of it, used in the right way, this can be good and finally 5) this has become part of what we do."
  • She started her students with a blog, but many of them went far beyond the blog and created their own presentation portfolios using one of the Web 2.0 tools. She herself had to use one of the commercial e-portfolio/assessment management systems in her graduate program, and she said,
  • Wake Forest0410

    1. 1. Balancing the 2 Faces of E-Portfolios<br />Dr. Helen Barrett http://slideshare.net/eportfolios<br />
    2. 2. Key Themes of My Presentation<br />Purpose<br />Process<br />Product<br />
    3. 3. Raise your hands if you are…<br />Implementing an ePortfolio System with your students<br />Thinking about it<br />Using e-portfolios to support student learning<br />Using e-portfolio evaluation data for accreditation or institutional assessment<br />
    4. 4. Personal Learning Environment (PLE) Supports Self-Directed Learningwith a Personal Learning Network (PLN)<br />
    5. 5. “Purpose” Drives the Process<br />This presentation will balance <br />Student-Centered Purposes<br />(Learning, Reflection, Showcase)<br />with<br />Institution-Centered Purposes<br />(Evaluation, Accountability)<br />
    6. 6. Four key pillars of Lifelong Learning(Barbara Stäuble, Curtin University of Technology, Australia)<br />http://lsn.curtin.edu.au/tlf/tlf2005/refereed/stauble.html<br />
    7. 7. Knowing the learner (Self-awareness)<br />Understanding prior knowledge<br />Motivation for and attitudes toward learning<br />Help learners understand themselves<br />See their growth over time<br />
    8. 8. Planning for learning (Self management)<br />Setting goals<br />Develop a plan to achieve these goals<br />
    9. 9. Understanding how to learn (Meta-learning)<br />Awareness of learners to different approaches to learning<br />Deep vs. Surface Learning, Rote vs. Meaningful Learning<br />Different Learning Styles<br />Help learners recognize success<br />Accommodate approaches that are not successful<br />
    10. 10. Evaluating learning (Self monitoring)<br />Systematic analysis of learners’ performance<br />Responsibility to construct meaning<br />Be reflective & think critically<br />Learners construct meaning, monitor learning,evaluate own outcomes<br />
    11. 11. Deep Learning<br />involves reflection,<br />is developmental,<br />is integrative,<br />is self-directive, and<br />is lifelong<br />Cambridge (2004)<br />
    12. 12. Confusion of Terminology<br />Electronic portfolios<br />Student-centered<br />Lifelong and Life Wide<br />Assessment<br />About individual learning and growth over time<br />Focus on personalization, reflection, deep learning<br />Formative or summative?<br />Accountability systems<br />Institution-centered<br />Limited Time Frame<br />Evaluation<br />About comparability and sorting into normed groups<br />Focus on standardization, validity, reliability <br />In many ways, our technology-based tools have defined the process… and exacerbated the confusion.<br />
    13. 13. Overlap of Assessment Types<br />Positivist<br />Constructivist<br />Assessment Management Systems: <br />that support<br />Assessment<br />OF<br />Learning<br />Electronic Portfolios: <br />that support<br />Assessment<br />FOR<br />Learning<br />Institution-centered<br />Learner-centered<br />“Checklist of Competencies” • Balance • “Students’ Story of Learning”<br />
    14. 14. What is a Portfolio?<br />Dictionary definition: a flat, portable case for carrying loose papers, drawings, etc.<br />Financial portfolio: document accumulation of fiscalcapital<br />Educational portfolio: document development of humancapital<br />
    15. 15. What is a Portfolio in Education?<br />A portfolio is a purposeful collection of student work that exhibits the student's efforts, progress and achievements in one or more areas[over time].<br /> (Northwest Evaluation Association, 1990)<br />
    16. 16. What is an Electronic Portfolio?<br />Digital Documents<br />Organized and presented with some type of "authoring" software<br />Stored in an electronic container <br />CD-Recordable disc<br />DVD-Recordable disc <br />WWW – Changing the genre!<br />
    17. 17. Most of these documents began as digital documents!Today, we are moving from this container to the WWW<br />
    18. 18. E-Portfolio Components <br /><ul><li>Multiple Portfolios for Multiple Purposes-Celebrating Learning-Personal Planning-Transition/entry to courses-Employment applications-Accountability/Assessment
    19. 19. Multiple Tools to Support Processes-Capturing & storing evidence-Reflecting-Giving & receiving feedback-Planning & setting goals-Collaborating-Presenting to an audience
    20. 20. Digital Repository</li></ul>(Becta, 2007; JISC, 2008)<br />
    21. 21. Questions to Ponder<br />What happens to electronic portfolios once learners leave an institution? <br />Can learners continue to maintain their own “digital documentation of development” throughout their lifetime? (Do they even want to?) <br />Has the process of reflective practice become a habit of mind that will support lifelong learning? <br />Cognitive Dissonance<br />
    22. 22. Multiple Purposes from Hidden Assumptions<br />What are yours?<br />http://www.rsc-northwest.ac.uk/acl/eMagArchive/RSCeMag2008/choosing%20an%20eportfolio/cool-cartoon-346082.png<br />
    23. 23. Multiple Purposes of E-Portfolios in Education<br />Learning/ Process/ Planning<br />Marketing/ Showcase <br />Assessment/ Accountability<br />"The Blind Men and the Elephant” by John Godfrey Saxe<br />
    24. 24. ePortfolio designs/strategies for different purposes <br />Learning Portfolios (Formative assessment)<br />Organized chronologically<br />Focus of Reflection: Learning Activities & Artifacts<br />Tools: Reflective Journal (blog)<br />Faculty/peer role: Feedback on artifacts and reflection<br />
    25. 25. ePortfolio designs/strategies for different purposes <br />Showcase Portfolios (Employment, Self-marketing)<br />Organized thematically (position requirements)<br />Focus of Reflection: Suitability for position<br />Tools: Choice of portfolio owner – personalized web pages – digital footprint<br />Personal online branding<br />
    26. 26. ePortfolio designs/strategies for different purposes <br />Assessment/Accountability Portfolios (Summative assessment)<br />Organized thematically (outcomes, goals or standards)<br />Focus of Reflection: Achievement of Standards (rationale)<br />Tools: Assessment system with data from scoring rubrics<br />Faculty role: Evaluation<br />
    27. 27. Limitations of Portfolios<br />Shavelson, Klein & Benjamin, Inside Higher Ed, October 16, 2009http://www.insidehighered.com/views/2009/10/16/shavelson<br />Main Points<br />Lack of Standardization<br />Not Feasible for Large Scale Learning Assessment<br />Bias<br />Enlightening responses to article– titles of some entries:<br />Vision that is too narrow <br />What's in it for the students? <br />Why standardized tests still have not changed <br />Maybe this approach to assessment is the real problem <br />Accountability does not equal comparability and standardization <br />The easy way out. . . <br />Assessment for What? <br />Viewpoint or ad? <br />
    28. 28. A few thoughts about Assessment -- What Type?<br />Assessment OF Learning? or<br />Assessment FOR Learning? or <br />Assessment AS Learning<br />
    29. 29. Purposes for Assessment<br />AssessmentOFLearning = Summative Assessment<br />Institution-centered <br />Past-to-Present<br />Assessment FOR Learning = Formative Assessment<br />Teacher/student-centered<br />Present-to-Future<br /><ul><li>Assessment AS Learning
    30. 30. Student-centered – embedded in learning
    31. 31. Focus on the Present</li></li></ul><li>Principles of Assessment FOR Learning<br />Definition:Assessment for Learning is the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners and their teachers to decide where the learners are in their learning, where they need to go and how best to get there.<br />
    32. 32. Types of E-Portfolio Implementation<br />Working Portfolio<br />The Collection<br />The Digital Archive<br />Repository of Artifacts <br />Reflective Journal(eDOL)<br />Collaboration Space<br />Portfolio as Process-- Workspace (PLE)“shoebox”<br />Presentation Portfolio(s)<br />The “Story” or Narrative<br />Multiple Views (public/private)<br />Varied Audiences(varied permissions)<br />Varied Purposes<br /> Portfolio as Product-- Showcase<br />
    33. 33.
    34. 34. Structure of E-Portfolio Types<br />Portfolio as Process/ Workspace<br />Organization: Chronological – eDOL(Electronic Documentation of Learning – U. of Calgary) Documenting growth over time for both internal and external audiences<br />Primary Purpose: Learning or Reflection<br />Reflection: immediate focus on artifact or learning experience<br />Portfolio as Product/ Showcase<br />Organization: Thematic – Documenting achievement of Standards, Goals or Learning Outcomes for primarily external audiences<br />Primary Purpose: Accountability or Employment<br />Reflection: retrospective focus on Standards, Goals or Learning Outcomes (Themes)<br />
    35. 35. QUOTE<br />The e-portfolio is the central and common point for the student experience… It is a reflection of the student as a person undergoing continuous personal development, not just a store of evidence.-Geoff Rebbeck, e-Learning Coordinator, Thanet College, quoted in JISC, 2008, Effective Practice with e-Portfolios<br />
    36. 36. Student-Centered Philosophy<br /> "A portfolio tells a story. It is the story of knowing. Knowing about things... Knowing oneself... Knowing an audience... Portfolios are students' own stories of what they know, why they believe they know it, and why others should be of the same opinion.” (Paulson & Paulson, 1991, p.2)<br />
    37. 37. Constructed Meaning<br />"The portfolio is a laboratorywhere students construct meaningfrom theiraccumulated experience."(Paulson & Paulson, 1991, p.5)<br />
    38. 38. What is the best tool?<br /> Do you need an all-in-one system or multiple tools?<br />
    39. 39. Categories of E-Portfolio Software<br />Created as part of my study of different online tools:<br />http://electronicportfolios.org/categories.html<br />“Not just tools for telling<br />[presentation]<br />but more tools for talking![conversation]”<br />- Julie Hughes, University of Wolverhampton<br />Conversation transforms!<br />
    40. 40. http://electronicportfolios.org/categories.html<br />Web 2.0<br />
    41. 41. Major Categories of ePortfolio Tools<br />Higher<br />Individual & Institutional<br />Authoring Tools<br />Static Web Services<br />Interactive Web Services <br />Institutional<br />Software - Server required<br />Hosted Services<br />Assessment Systems - Hosted Services<br />Lower<br />Level of interactivity<br />Higher<br />Level of personalization & creativity<br />Lower<br />
    42. 42. Web 2.0 tag cloud<br />
    43. 43. Recent changes in technology<br />
    44. 44. Architectureof InteractionArchitecture of Participation (Web 2.0) <br />allows a<br />Pedagogyof Interaction<br />(ePortfolio 2.0)<br />
    45. 45. Web 2.0 is becoming the Personal Learning Environment of the “Net Generation”<br />Learning that is… <br /><ul><li>Social and Participatory
    46. 46. Lifelong and Life Wide
    47. 47. Increasingly Self-Directed
    48. 48. Motivating and Engaging
    49. 49. … and Online!</li></li></ul><li>Social Learning<br />How can we integrate ePortfolios with what we know about social learning and interactivity?<br />
    50. 50. Some Basic Concepts<br />“ePortfoliois both process and product”<br />Process: A series of events (time and effort) to produce a result- From Old French proces(“‘journey’”)<br />Product: the outcome/results or “thinginess” of an activity/process- Destination<br />Wiktionary<br />
    51. 51. Think!<br />What are the engagement factors that drive the use of social networks and how can we incorporate those factors into ePortfolios?<br />
    52. 52. Processes<br />Portfolio<br />Collecting<br />Selecting<br />Reflecting<br />Directing<br />Presenting<br />Feedback<br />Technology <br />Archiving<br /> Linking/Thinking<br />Digital Storytelling<br /> Collaborating<br /> Publishing<br />Social Networks<br />Connecting(“Friending”)<br />Listening(Reading)<br />Responding(Commenting)<br />Sharing(linking/tagging)<br />
    53. 53. Similarities in Process<br />Major differences:<br />extrinsic vs. <br />intrinsic motivation <br />Elements of True (Intrinsic) Motivation:<br />Autonomy<br />Mastery<br />Purpose<br />
    54. 54. Boundaries Blurring (between e-portfolios & social networks)<br />Structured Accountability Systems? or…<br />Lifelong interactive portfolios<br />Picasa<br />Mash-ups<br />Facebook<br />Flickr<br />blogs<br />YouTube<br />Ning<br />wikis<br />Twitter<br />
    55. 55. Digital Archive (for Life) Supports Lifelong & Life-wide Learning<br />
    56. 56. Premises of Deep Learning<br />Motivation<br />Active Learning<br />Interaction with others<br />A deep foundational knowledge<br /> “Because portfolios get students into a rich and deep knowledge base focused on their own learning experiences, portfolios are highly motivating. Collaboration with others deepens these individual experiences by allowing probing questions, socially constructed knowledge, and alternative viewpoints.<br />Zubizarreta, J. (2009) Learning Portfolios. Jossey-Bass , p. xx<br />
    57. 57. How can you leverage the technologies learners own?<br />Accessibility from “net books” and home computers<br />Connectivity with cell phones<br />Audio (podcasts) and Video (digital stories)<br />
    58. 58. “every day-ness”<br />How can we make ePortfolio development<br />a natural process integrated into <br />everyday life?<br />Lifelongand Life Wide Learning<br />
    59. 59. Making ePortfolios Stick<br />Will your students want to use the e-portfolio process after they graduate? <br />Will ePortfoliotools be available to them after graduation?<br />Gartner Group “Hype Cycle for Education” has ePortfolios "Sliding Into the Trough"<br />
    60. 60.
    61. 61. Two “Paradigms” of Assessment (Ewell, 2008)<br />Ewell, P. (2008) Assessment and Accountability in America Today: Background and Content<br />
    62. 62. Opportunity Cost<br />The alternative you give up when you make a decision…<br />The cost of an alternative that must be forgone in order to pursue a certain action<br /> What is the opportunity cost of emphasizing accountability/compliance in e-portfolios over improvement/reflection and deep learning? <br />
    63. 63. Opportunity Cost – a conversation with a high school teacher:<br />"It took all the thinking out of it. They gave me the standards and told me which artifacts to put into each one! It wasn't as effective as what my students did!” http://electronicportfolios.org/blog/2008/07/necc-2008-update.html<br />What learning opportunities are we missing when we completely structure the learner’s portfolio?<br />
    64. 64. Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios<br />Purpose<br />Accountability/<br />Compliance<br />(Institution-Centered)<br />Improvement<br />(Student-Centered)<br />(Or Course-Centered)<br />Along a Continuum<br />??<br />??<br />Opportunity Cost<br />
    65. 65. Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios<br />Purpose<br />Improvement<br />Accountability<br />Highly Structured<br />Uniformity and Standardization<br />Required Assignments<br />Faculty Evaluation <br />Complexity<br />Checklist<br />Data!<br />Engagement<br />Deep Learning<br />Personalization<br />Choice and Voice<br />Lifelong Skills<br />Ease of Use<br />Ownership<br />Time<br />Opportunity Cost<br />
    66. 66. Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios<br />Purpose<br />Accountability<br />Improvement<br />Flexible Structure<br />Self-Assessment & Feedback<br />Lifelong Learning Skills<br />More Social Learning<br />Personalization<br />Choice and Voice<br />Engagement<br />Story<br />Faculty Time Involvement<br />Ease of Scoring for…<br />Collection of Data for… Accountability<br />Institutional Support<br />& Funding?<br />Opportunity Cost<br />
    67. 67. Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios<br />Purpose<br />Accountability <br />Faculty Feedback <br />Uniformity<br />Flexible Requirements<br />Data<br />Program Improvement<br />Improvement<br />Self-Assessment<br />Personalization<br />Choice and Voice<br />Student Engagement<br />Increased Achievement <br />Social Learning<br />Faculty Time Involvement<br />Complexity<br />Opportunity Cost<br />
    68. 68. Finding Balance in E-Portfolio Implementation<br />Tools<br />Use separate tools for assessment management and student e-portfolios?<br />Ball State’s rGrade & WSU’s Harvesting Gradebook<br />Incorporate blogging and social networking tools for interactivity and engagement<br />Open Source Tools: WordPress, Movable Type, Mahara<br />Allow embedding student Web 2.0 links, including video, into their e-portfolios<br />Enable exporting e-portfolio to students’ lifetime personal webspace<br />
    69. 69. Finding Balance in E-Portfolio Implementation<br />Strategies<br />Acknowledge the importance of both portfolio as workspace (process) & showcase (product)<br />Support student choice and voice in e-portfolios<br />Facilitate reflection for deep learning<br />Provide timely and effective feedback for improvement<br />Encourage student use of multimedia in portfolios for visual communication and literacy<br />Digital Storytelling & Podcasting<br />Picasa/Flickr slideshows<br />Acknowledge/Encourage students’ Web 2.0 digital identity<br />
    70. 70. Move beyond text-only artifacts<br />Encourage development of multimedia artifacts<br />Introduce alternative strategies for reflection<br />Blogging<br />Digital storytelling<br />
    71. 71. Why Digital Stories in ePortfolios?<br />Reflection is the “heart and soul” of portfolios<br />Digital Stories can humanize any model of ePortfolio<br />Digital Stories add VOICE<br />
    72. 72. Do Your e-Portfolios have VOICE?<br />Individual Identity<br />Reflection <br />Meaning Making<br />New Literacy<br />“When words are infused by the human voice, they come alive.”<br />- Maya Angelou<br />
    73. 73. Convergence<br />
    74. 74. Ongoing dialogue about e-portfolios<br />My Google Group: Researching Web 2.0 Portfolioshttp://groups.google.com/group/web2eportfolios<br />EPAC: http://epac.pbworks.com/ Electronic Portfolio Action Committee<br />Association for Authentic, Experiential and Evidence-Based Learning (AAEEBL) – a professional organization for e-portfolios in education http://www.aaeebl.org<br />AAEEBL’s first National E-Portfolio Conference planned:Boston (co-located with Campus Technology Conference) July 19-22, 2010<br />IUPUI Assessment Conference in October – e-portfolio track<br />
    75. 75. My Final Wish…<br />May all yourelectronic portfolios become dynamic celebrationsandstories of deep learningacross the lifespan.<br />
    76. 76. Dr. Helen Barrett<br />Researcher & Consultant<br />Electronic Portfolios & Digital Storytelling forLifelong and Life Wide Learning<br />Center for Advanced Technology in EducationUniversity of Oregon College of Education<br />eportfolios@gmail.com<br />http://electronicportfolios.org/<br />http://slideshare.net/eportfolios<br />