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Iupui Oct09keynote


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Balancing the Two Faces of ePortfolios - Track Keynote at IUPUI Assessment Institute

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Iupui Oct09keynote

  1. 1. Balancing the 2 Faces of e-Portfolios Dr. Helen Barrett Slideshare: eportfolios
  2. 2. Key Themes of My Presentation <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Product </li></ul>
  3. 3. Confusion of Terminology <ul><li>Electronic portfolios </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student-centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifelong and Life Wide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About individual learning and growth over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on personalization, reflection, deep learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formative or summative? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accountability systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institution-centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited Time Frame </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About comparability and sorting into normed groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on standardization, validity, reliability </li></ul></ul>In many ways, our technology-based tools have defined the process… and exacerbated the confusion.
  4. 4. Are we experiencing the equivalent of Red States/Blue States in Assessment/Accountability?
  5. 5. Multiple Purposes from Hidden Assumptions What are yours?
  6. 6. “ Purpose” Drives the Process <ul><li>This presentation will balance </li></ul><ul><li>Student-Centered Purposes </li></ul><ul><li>(Learning, Reflection, Showcase) </li></ul><ul><li>with </li></ul><ul><li>Institution-Centered Purposes </li></ul><ul><li>(Evaluation, Accountability) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Student-Centered Purpose <ul><li>The overarching purpose of portfolios is to create a sense of personal ownership over one’s accomplishments, because ownership engenders feelings of pride, responsibility, and dedication. (p.10) </li></ul><ul><li>Paris, S & Ayres, L. (1994) Becoming Reflective Students and Teachers . American Psychological Association </li></ul>
  8. 8. Multiple Purposes of E-Portfolios in Education <ul><ul><li>Learning/ Process/ Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing/ Showcase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment/ Accountability </li></ul></ul>&quot;The Blind Men and the Elephant” by John Godfrey Saxe
  9. 9. ePortfolio designs/strategies for different purposes <ul><li>Learning Portfolios (Formative assessment) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized chronologically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus of Reflection: Learning Activities & Artifacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools: Reflective Journal (blog) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty/peer role: Feedback on artifacts and reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessment/Accountability Portfolios (Summative assessment) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized thematically (outcomes, goals or standards) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus of Reflection: Achievement of Standards (rationale) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools: Assessment system with data from scoring rubrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty role: Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Showcase Portfolios (Employment, Self-marketing) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized thematically (position requirements) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus of Reflection: Suitability for position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools: Choice of portfolio owner – personalized web pages </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. A few thoughts about Assessment -- What Type? <ul><li>Assessment OF Learning? or </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment FOR Learning? or </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment AS Learning </li></ul>
  11. 11. Purposes for Assessment <ul><li>Assessment OF Learning = Summative Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Institution-centered </li></ul><ul><li>Past-to-Present </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment FOR Learning = Formative (Classroom-based) Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher/student-centered </li></ul><ul><li>Present-to-Future </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment AS Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Student-centered </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the Present </li></ul>
  12. 12. ages3-14
  13. 13. Principles of Assessment FOR Learning <ul><li>Definition: Assessment for Learning is the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners and their teachers to decide where the learners are in their learning, where they need to go and how best to get there. </li></ul>
  14. 14. What Type of Portfolio? <ul><li>Presentation Portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>Gives student ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible structure </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment Portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>Provides rigid structure </li></ul><ul><li>Provides school with evaluation data </li></ul>Presentation Portfolio submitted to an Assessment Portfolio Give the students the benefit of the presentation portfolio while the organization gets the benefits of the assessment portfolio.
  15. 15. Lee Shulman’s 5 dangers of portfolios <ul><li>&quot;lamination&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;heavy lifting&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;trivialization&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;perversion&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;misrepresentation&quot; </li></ul>Shulman, Lee (1998) &quot;Teacher Portfolios: A Theoretical Activity&quot; in N. Lyons (ed.) With Portfolio in Hand . (pp. 23-37) New York: Teachers College Press.
  16. 16. Lee Shulman’s 5 dangers of portfolios <ul><li>1. &quot;lamination&quot; - a portfolio becomes a mere exhibition, a self-advertisement, to show off </li></ul>Shulman, Lee (1998) &quot;Teacher Portfolios: A Theoretical Activity&quot; in N. Lyons (ed.) With Portfolio in Hand . (pp. 23-37) New York: Teachers College Press.
  17. 17. Lee Shulman’s 5 dangers of portfolios <ul><li>2. &quot;heavy lifting&quot; - a portfolio done well is hard work. Is it worth the extra effort? </li></ul>Shulman, Lee (1998) &quot;Teacher Portfolios: A Theoretical Activity&quot; in N. Lyons (ed.) With Portfolio in Hand . (pp. 23-37) New York: Teachers College Press.
  18. 18. Lee Shulman’s 5 dangers of portfolios <ul><li>3. &quot;trivialization&quot; - documenting stuff that isn't worth reflecting upon </li></ul>Shulman, Lee (1998) &quot;Teacher Portfolios: A Theoretical Activity&quot; in N. Lyons (ed.) With Portfolio in Hand . (pp. 23-37) New York: Teachers College Press.
  19. 19. Lee Shulman’s 5 dangers of portfolios <ul><li>4. &quot;perversion&quot; - when used as a form of high stakes assessment “why will portfolios be more resistant to perversion than all other forms of assessment have been?” </li></ul>Shulman, Lee (1998) &quot;Teacher Portfolios: A Theoretical Activity&quot; in N. Lyons (ed.) With Portfolio in Hand . (pp. 23-37) New York: Teachers College Press.
  20. 20. Lee Shulman’s 5 dangers of portfolios <ul><li>“… And if one of the requirements … is that you develop a sufficiently objective scoring system [for portfolios] so you can fairly compare people with one another, will your scoring system end up objectifying what's in the portfolio to the point where the portfolio will be nothing but a very, very cumbersome multiple choice test?&quot; (p. 35) </li></ul>Shulman, Lee (1998) &quot;Teacher Portfolios: A Theoretical Activity&quot; in N. Lyons (ed.) With Portfolio in Hand . (pp. 23-37) New York: Teachers College Press.
  21. 21. Lee Shulman’s 5 dangers of portfolios <ul><li>5. &quot;misrepresentation&quot; - does &quot;best work&quot; misrepresent &quot;typical work&quot; -- not a true picture of competency </li></ul>Shulman, Lee (1998) &quot;Teacher Portfolios: A Theoretical Activity&quot; in N. Lyons (ed.) With Portfolio in Hand . (pp. 23-37) New York: Teachers College Press.
  22. 22. Lee Shulman’s 5 benefits of portfolios <ul><li>document longer episodes of teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>encourage the reconnection between process and product. - very best teaching portfolios contain excerpts of student portfolios & highlight the results of teaching that lead to student learning. </li></ul><ul><li>institutionalize norms of collaboration, reflection, and discussion </li></ul><ul><li>a portable residency... introduces structure to the field experience </li></ul><ul><li>(most important) shifts the agency from an observer back to the teacher interns... </li></ul>Shulman, Lee (1998) &quot;Teacher Portfolios: A Theoretical Activity&quot; in N. Lyons (ed.) With Portfolio in Hand . (pp. 23-37) New York: Teachers College Press.
  23. 23. Limitations of Portfolios <ul><li>Shavelson, Klein & Benjamin, Inside Higher Ed, October 16, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Main Points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of Standardization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not Feasible for Large Scale Learning Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bias </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enlightening responses to article– titles of some entries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision that is too narrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What's in it for the students? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why standardized tests still have not changed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe this approach to assessment is the real problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability does not equal comparability and standardization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The easy way out. . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment for What? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewpoint or ad? </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Portfolio Processes <ul><li>Traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting </li></ul><ul><li>Reflecting </li></ul><ul><li>Directing </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting </li></ul><ul><li>+ Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Archiving </li></ul><ul><li>Linking/Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborating </li></ul><ul><li>Publishing </li></ul>
  25. 25. Types of ePortfolio Implementation <ul><li>Working Portfolio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Digital Archive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repository of Artifacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflective Journal (eDOL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration Space </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Portfolio as Process -- Workspace (PLE) “shoebox” </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation Portfolio(s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “Story” or Narrative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Views (public/private) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varied Audiences (varied permissions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varied Purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Portfolio as Product -- Showcase </li></ul>
  26. 27. Structure of E-Portfolio Types <ul><li>Portfolio as Process / Workspace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization: Chronological – eDOL (Electronic Documentation of Learning – U. of Calgary) Documenting growth over time for both internal and external audiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Purpose: Learning or Reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection: immediate focus on artifact or learning experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Portfolio as Product / Showcase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization: Thematic – Documenting achievement of Standards, Goals or Learning Outcomes for primarily external audiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Purpose: Accountability or Employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection: retrospective focus on Standards, Goals or Learning Outcomes (Themes) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. QUOTE <ul><li>The e-portfolio is the central and common point for the student experience… It is a reflection of the student as a person undergoing continuous personal development, not just a store of evidence. -Geoff Rebbeck, e-Learning Coordinator, Thanet College, quoted in JISC, 2008, Effective Practice with e-Portfolios </li></ul>
  28. 29. Student-Centered Philosophy <ul><li>&quot; A portfolio tells a story. It is the story of knowing. Knowing about things... Knowing oneself... Knowing an audience... Portfolios are students' own stories of what they know, why they believe they know it, and why others should be of the same opinion.” (Paulson & Paulson, 1991, p.2) </li></ul>
  29. 30. Constructed Meaning <ul><li>&quot;The portfolio is a laboratory where students construct meaning from their accumulated experience.&quot; (Paulson & Paulson, 1991, p.5) </li></ul>
  30. 31. Some Basic Concepts <ul><li>“ ePortfolio is both process and product ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process : A series of events (time and effort) to produce a result - From Old French proces (“‘journey’”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product : the outcome/results or “thinginess” of an activity/process - Destination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wiktionary </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Insights from Assessment <ul><li>Formative Assessments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides insights for the teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessment FOR Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides insights for the learner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summative Assessments (Assessment OF Learning or Evaluation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides insights (and data) for the institution </li></ul></ul>Nick Rate (2008) Assessment for Learning & ePortfolios NZ Ministry of Ed
  32. 33. To assess = To sit beside the learner <ul><li>“ The word assess comes from the Latin word assidere, which means to sit beside . Literally then, to assess means to sit beside the learner .” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stefanakis, E. (2002) Multiple Intelligences and Portfolios . Heinemann, p.9 </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Overlap of Assessment Types Electronic Portfolios: that support Assessment FOR Learning Assessment Management Systems: that support Assessment OF Learning Institution-centered Learner-centered “ Checklist of Competencies” • Balance • “Students’ Story of Learning” Positivist Constructivist
  34. 35. What is the best tool? <ul><li>Do you need an all-in-one system or multiple tools? </li></ul>
  35. 36. Categories of E-Portfolio Software Created as part of my study of different online tools: html Not tools for telling but tools for talking! - Julie Hughes, University of Wolverhampton
  36. 37. Recent changes in technology
  37. 38. Architecture of Interaction Architecture of Participation (Web 2.0) <ul><li>allows a </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy of Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>(ePortfolio 2.0) </li></ul>
  38. 39. Web 2.0 tag cloud
  39. 40. Web 2.0 is becoming the Personal Learning Environment of the “Net Generation” <ul><li>Learning that is… </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Participatory </li></ul><ul><li>Lifelong and Life Wide </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly Self-Directed </li></ul><ul><li>Motivating and Engaging </li></ul><ul><li>… and Online! </li></ul>
  40. 41. Web 2.0
  41. 42. Major Categories of ePortfolio Tools <ul><li>Individual & Institutional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoring Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Static Web Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive Web Services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software - Server required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hosted Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment Systems - Hosted Services </li></ul></ul>Higher Lower Level of personalization & creativity Higher Lower Level of interactivity
  42. 43. Institutional Portfolios <ul><li>What happens when a learner leaves or transfers? </li></ul>Learners’ Digital Archives and presentation portfolios Class portfolios Guidance portfolios Employment portfolios Institution’s server or online service Limited Time Frame Institutional data Blogs Faculty-generated evaluation data Academic focus Social networks
  43. 44. Separate Systems - Learner-Centered <ul><li>Learners maintain collection across the lifespan, institutions maintain evaluation data & links </li></ul><ul><li>All you need is an <EMBED> Code! (Hall Davidson) </li></ul>Learners’ Digital Archive & Blog Learner-owned Lifelong Web Space Class portfolio Guidance portfolio Employment portfolio Institution’s Server or Service & Purposes Limited Time Frame hyperlinks Institutional data Meta-tags Faculty-generated evaluation data Life-wide focus Social networks
  44. 45. Using a Blog Handout
  45. 46. Questions to Ponder <ul><li>What happens to electronic portfolios once learners leave an institution? </li></ul><ul><li>Can learners continue to maintain their own “digital documentation of development” throughout their lifetime? (Do they even want to?) </li></ul><ul><li>Has the process of reflective practice become a habit of mind that will support lifelong learning? </li></ul>Cognitive Dissonance
  46. 47. Social Learning How can we integrate ePortfolios with what we know about social learning and interactivity?
  47. 48. Premises of Deep Learning <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Active Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction with others </li></ul><ul><li>A deep foundational knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>“ Because portfolios get students into a rich and deep knowledge base focused on their own learning experiences, portfolios are highly motivating. Collaboration with others deepens these individual experiences by allowing probing questions, socially constructed knowledge, and alternative viewpoints. </li></ul><ul><li>Zubizarreta, J. (2009) Learning Portfolios. Jossey-Bass , p. xx </li></ul>
  48. 49. How can you leverage the technologies learners own? Accessibility from “net books” and home computers Connectivity with cell phones Audio (podcasts) and Video (digital stories)
  49. 50. “ every day-ness” <ul><li>How can we make ePortfolio development </li></ul><ul><li>a natural process integrated into </li></ul><ul><li>everyday life? </li></ul><ul><li>Lifelong and Life Wide Learning </li></ul>
  50. 51. Making ePortfolios Stick <ul><li>Will your students want to use the ePortfolio process after they graduate? </li></ul><ul><li>Will ePortfolio tools be available to them after graduation? </li></ul>
  51. 52. Key Qualities of an idea that is made to stick: <ul><li>Simplicity </li></ul><ul><li>Unexpectedness </li></ul><ul><li>Concreteness </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Stories </li></ul>
  52. 53. <ul><li>Simplicity : &quot;How do you strip an idea to its core without turning it into a silly sound bite?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Unexpectedness : &quot;How do you capture people's attention... and hold it?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Concreteness : &quot;How do you help people understand your idea and remember it much later?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility : &quot;How do you get people to believe your idea?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional : &quot;How do you get people to care about your idea?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Stories : &quot;How do you get people to act on your idea?&quot; </li></ul>Qualities
  53. 54. Think! <ul><li>What are the engagement factors that drive the use of social networks and how can we incorporate those factors into ePortfolios? </li></ul>
  54. 55. Interview with Founders of My Space on Charlie Rose Show, Feb 3, 2009 <ul><li>CR: why is it [MySpace] so compelling for so many people? </li></ul><ul><li>Chris DeWolfe: A lot of it is about the ability to express yourself. So if you look at your MySpace Profile, you have your music that you're listening to, you have the colors, you have the background, you have the videos. So, I look at your Profile, if you have one, and I can get to know you pretty quickly … So, I think it's an online representation of who you are, which is really fascinating, and it's a great way to stay in touch with people, and it's a great discovery mechanism. </li></ul><ul><li>(Me): Engagement just won't be a factor until we can incorporate those elements of personal expression in ePortfolios . ( </li></ul>
  55. 56. Reflection … is the “Heart and Soul” of a Portfolio… A Reminder…
  56. 57. Move beyond text-only artifacts <ul><li>Encourage development of multimedia artifacts </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce alternative strategies for reflection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital storytelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogging </li></ul></ul>
  57. 58. Reflective Learning for the Net Generation <ul><li>&quot;Why don't students spend time to reflect on the things they are learning? Our initial research suggests that Net Generation students dislike using written text, but their engagement increases when they use digital storytelling. Digital storytelling is an innovative approach to reflective learning in which pictures and sound are collected and assembled to form a multimedia story. “ </li></ul><ul><li>“ The combination of multimedia and technology motivates students to creatively produce digital stories that stimulate reflective learning. Digital stories present a personal and reflective narrative using a range of media, especially photographs and video. In addition, students can feel empowered and develop multiple literacies that are essential for lifelong learning.” </li></ul><ul><li>Christopher Murray and Dr. John Sandars, Medical Education Unit, University of Leeds- </li></ul>
  58. 59. Why Digital Stories in ePortfolios? <ul><li>Reflection is the “heart and soul” of portfolios </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Stories can humanize any model of ePortfolio </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Stories add VOICE </li></ul>
  59. 60. A Whole New Mind <ul><li>Daniel Pink </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing Right-Brain skills for the “Conceptual Age” with Left-Brain skills from the “Information Age” </li></ul>
  60. 61. 6 Essential High-Concept, High Touch Aptitudes Dan Pink, A Whole New Mind <ul><li>Design (not just function) - create objects beautiful, whimsical, emotionally engaging </li></ul><ul><li>Story (not just argument) - the ability to fashion a compelling narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Symphony (not just focus) - synthesis--seeing the big picture </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy (not just logic) - forge relationships - care for others </li></ul><ul><li>Play (not just seriousness) - laughter, lightheartedness, games, humor </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning (not just accumulation) - purpose, transcendence, and spiritual fulfillment. </li></ul>
  61. 62. Storytelling as a Theory of Learning <ul><li>Two educators from New Zealand - staff developer and health educator </li></ul><ul><li>Relates storytelling to literature on learning and reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Provides stages of storytelling related to reflection </li></ul>
  62. 63. The Learning Cycle David Kolb from Dewey, Piaget, Lewin, adapted by Zull
  63. 64. Experiential Learning Model Lewin/Kolb with adaptations by Moon and Zull Try out what you have learned Learn from the experience Reflect on the experience Have an experience Practice Metacognition
  64. 65. A Dozen Purposes for Digital Storytelling <ul><li>Introduction of Self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice & Personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memoir </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision & Direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benchmarking Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change over Time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rich Multimedia Artifacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of Collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record of Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral Language Development </li></ul></ul>
  65. 66. Voice & Personality <ul><li>Voice is often missing from electronic portfolios, both literally and rhetorically. </li></ul><ul><li>A digital story provides that voice: listening to the author, we hear a real person, getting a sense of their unique personality. </li></ul>
  66. 67. Do Your e-Portfolios have VOICE? <ul><li>Individual Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning Making </li></ul><ul><li>New Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>“ When words are infused by the human voice, they come alive.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Maya Angelou </li></ul>
  67. 68. Voice = Authenticity <ul><li>multimedia expands the &quot;voice&quot; in an electronic portfolio (both literally and rhetorically) </li></ul><ul><li>personality of the author is evident </li></ul><ul><li>gives the reflections a uniqueness </li></ul>
  68. 69. Helping Students Tell Their Stories <ul><li>COLLECT more than text documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus on REFLECTION over time </li></ul><ul><li>Help students make CONNECTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Support multimedia presentation formats </li></ul>
  69. 70. Convergence
  70. 71. What’s Your Story? Richness not possible in print
  71. 72. This following Word Cloud was created collaboratively by educators around the world, who contributed keywords that came to their mind when thinking about Digital Storytelling. Words that appear larger were used by more contributors.
  72. 73. Two “Paradigms” of Assessment (Ewell, 2008) Ewell, P. (2008) Assessment and Accountability in America Today: Background and Content. P.170 Assessment for Continuous Improvement Assessment for Accountability Strategic Dimensions: Purpose Stance Predominant Ethos Application Choices: Instrumentation Nature of Evidence Reference Points Communication of Results Uses of Results Formative (Improvement) Internal Engagement Multiple/Triangulation Quantitative and Qualitative Over Time, Comparative, Established Goal Multiple Internal Channels and Media Multiple Feedback Loops Summative (Judgment) External Compliance Standardized Quantitative Comparative or Fixed Standard Public Communication Reporting
  73. 74. Opportunity Cost <ul><li>The alternative you give up when you make a decision… </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of an alternative that must be forgone in order to pursue a certain action </li></ul><ul><li>What is the opportunity cost of emphasizing accountability in portfolios over reflection and deep learning? </li></ul>
  74. 75. Opportunity Cost – a conversation with a high school teacher: <ul><li>&quot;It took all the thinking out of it. They gave me the standards and told me which artifacts to put into each one! It wasn't as effective as what my students did!” </li></ul><ul><li>What learning opportunities are we missing when we completely structure the learner’s portfolio? </li></ul>
  75. 76. Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios Accountability (Institution-Centered) Improvement (Student-Centered) (Or Course-Centered) Opportunity Cost ?? ?? Purpose Along a Continuum
  76. 77. Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios Accountability Highly Structured Uniformity and Standardization Required Assignments Faculty Evaluation Complexity Checklist Data! Improvement Opportunity Cost Engagement Deep Learning Personalization Choice and Voice Lifelong Skills Ease of Use Ownership Time Purpose
  77. 78. Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios Accountability Opportunity Cost Faculty Time Involvement Ease of Scoring for… Collection of Data for… Accountability Institutional Support & Funding? Improvement Flexible Structure Self-Assessment & Feedback Lifelong Learning Skills More Social Learning Personalization Choice and Voice Engagement Story Purpose
  78. 79. Goal: Balance in Electronic Portfolios Accountability Faculty Feedback Uniformity Flexible Requirements Data Program Improvement Improvement Self-Assessment Personalization Choice and Voice Student Engagement Increased Achievement Opportunity Cost Social Learning Faculty Time Involvement Complexity Purpose
  79. 80. Finding Balance in E-Portfolio Implementation <ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Use separate tools for assessment management and student e-portfolios? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ball State’s rGrade & WSU’s Harvesting Gradebook </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incorporate blogging and social networking tools for interactivity and engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source Tools: WordPress, Movable Type, Mahara </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allow embedding student Web 2.0 links, including video, into their e-portfolios </li></ul><ul><li>Enable exporting e-portfolio to students’ lifetime personal webspace </li></ul>
  80. 81. Finding Balance in E-Portfolio Implementation <ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge the importance of both portfolio as workspace ( process ) & showcase ( product ) </li></ul><ul><li>Support student choice and voice in e-portfolios </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate reflection for deep learning </li></ul><ul><li>Provide timely and effective feedback for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage student use of multimedia in portfolios for visual communication and literacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Storytelling & Podcasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Picasa/Flickr slideshows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge/Encourage students’ Web 2.0 digital identity </li></ul>
  81. 82. My Final Wish… <ul><li>May all your electronic portfolios become dynamic celebrations and stories of deep learning across the lifespan. </li></ul>
  82. 83. Dr. Helen Barrett <ul><li>Researcher & Consultant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Portfolios & Digital Storytelling for Lifelong and Life Wide Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Center for Advanced Technology in Education University of Oregon College of Education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Slideshare: eportfolios </li></ul>