Adding a Co-Wife Leanna Wolfe
Variations in Polysexuality <ul><li>Denial / Avoidance / Fantasy </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Polygamy (polygyny/polyandr...
More Variations in Polysexuality <ul><li>Polyfidelity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V and  triads  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inti...
Why Is There So Much Monogamy? <ul><li>The Roman Catholic Church in the 4th century AD banned a variety of marital practic...
Male Reproductive Strategies <ul><li>Human males like other ground dwelling primates are by nature polygynous </li></ul><u...
Female Reproductive Strategies <ul><li>Ally with a powerful, protective, and wealthy male </li></ul><ul><li>Give all males...
Social Conditions that  Foster Polygyny <ul><li>Demographic Gender Imbalance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>early male death result...
With My Luo Hosts With My Luo Hosts in Western Kenya
With my Huli Hosts
Reasons African Men Marry Additional Wives <ul><li>Additional Progeny Desired </li></ul><ul><li>Wives Inherited from Decea...
Luo Polygynous Triad
Luo  Extended Family
Benefits to Being Polygynous   Men  Women <ul><li>Greater Prestige </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Female Labor Power </li></u...
Residence Patterns <ul><li>Luo Circular Hut Compound </li></ul><ul><li>Masaai Hut Compound </li></ul><ul><li>Papua New Gui...
 
Luo Compound -- Main Entrance
Luo Compound--Private Entrance
Masaai Compound
Huli Co-Wives House
Huli Men’s House
Huli Men
Huli Polygynist
Enga Women with their Pigs
Sweet Potato Garden
African First Wives’ Reactions to the Arrival of a Second Wife <ul><li>Concern About the Division of Food and Material Res...
Luo Sister Co-Wives
Young Luo Polygynous Family
Masaai Polygynous Triad
Jealousy and Polygyny <ul><li>Occurs when resources can be divided unevenly </li></ul><ul><li>Can happen when visiting tim...
American Wives Reaction to the Discovery of a Husband’s Infidelity <ul><li>Self Esteem, Reputation, and Ego Threatened </l...
Favoritism is Irrelevant When Resources are Shared Equally <ul><li>Husbands Endeavor to Treat Their Wives Equally </li></u...
Family Issues That  Challenge Africans <ul><li>Husbands Who Cannot Afford Additional Wives (but take them anyway) </li></u...
Family Issues That Challenge Africans, con’t <ul><li>First Wives who refuse to accept additional wives into their family a...
Family Issues That Challenge Americans <ul><li>The Nuclear Family is Expected to Meet Family Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>h...
Family Issues That Challenge Americans, con’t <ul><li>Inadequate Childcare Services & Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Children...
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Adding A Co Wife

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  • Divided (60%) or United (40%)polygyny
  • Adding A Co Wife

    1. 1. Adding a Co-Wife Leanna Wolfe
    2. 2. Variations in Polysexuality <ul><li>Denial / Avoidance / Fantasy </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Polygamy (polygyny/polyandry) </li></ul><ul><li>Clandestine Affair </li></ul><ul><li>Single and Dating </li></ul><ul><li>Prostitution / Concubine / Mistress </li></ul><ul><li>Serial Monogamy </li></ul><ul><li>Swinging / Open Marriage </li></ul>
    3. 3. More Variations in Polysexuality <ul><li>Polyfidelity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V and triads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intimate networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polyamory </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Monogamy </li></ul><ul><li>Sex Cults </li></ul><ul><li>Group Marriage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>residential / separate households </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Why Is There So Much Monogamy? <ul><li>The Roman Catholic Church in the 4th century AD banned a variety of marital practices that would have enabled families without sons to generate male heirs. These included polygyny, concubinage, divorce, and remarriage. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately, many families’ wealth transferred to the church. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Male Reproductive Strategies <ul><li>Human males like other ground dwelling primates are by nature polygynous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The alpha male in a primate troop will usually fertilize upwards of 50% of the females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Selection favors males who become the polygynous alpha males </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being that species survival is enhanced by genetic variation, males with strong polygynous proclivities would be favored. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Female Reproductive Strategies <ul><li>Ally with a powerful, protective, and wealthy male </li></ul><ul><li>Give all males the impression that they could be the baby’s father </li></ul><ul><li>Sneak off with genetically valuable strangers while maintaining alliance with alpha male (sexy son hypothesis) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Social Conditions that Foster Polygyny <ul><li>Demographic Gender Imbalance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>early male death resulting from war, accidents, homicide and disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Acceptability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>85% of the cultures of the world permit polygyny (e.g. Woodable, Luo, Masaai, Asante,, Kapauku, U.S. Mormons) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wealthy, often older men can afford the brideprice and responsibility of multiple wives and their resultant offspring </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. With My Luo Hosts With My Luo Hosts in Western Kenya
    9. 9. With my Huli Hosts
    10. 10. Reasons African Men Marry Additional Wives <ul><li>Additional Progeny Desired </li></ul><ul><li>Wives Inherited from Deceased Brothers (Levirate) </li></ul><ul><li>Expression of Responsibility for Men with Prestige, Power, and Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Status Marker </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Labor Power Required </li></ul><ul><li>Mothering Insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Passion, Love, and Romance </li></ul>
    11. 11. Luo Polygynous Triad
    12. 12. Luo Extended Family
    13. 13. Benefits to Being Polygynous Men Women <ul><li>Greater Prestige </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Female Labor Power </li></ul><ul><li>More Heirs </li></ul><ul><li>Mothering Insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Larger Family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less social isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>often greater economic security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assistance with childcare and domestic tasks from co-wives </li></ul>
    14. 14. Residence Patterns <ul><li>Luo Circular Hut Compound </li></ul><ul><li>Masaai Hut Compound </li></ul><ul><li>Papua New Guinea (co-wives share residence, husband sleeps in men’s house) </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Mormons (separate households, or main house with adjacent trailers) </li></ul>
    15. 16. Luo Compound -- Main Entrance
    16. 17. Luo Compound--Private Entrance
    17. 18. Masaai Compound
    18. 19. Huli Co-Wives House
    19. 20. Huli Men’s House
    20. 21. Huli Men
    21. 22. Huli Polygynist
    22. 23. Enga Women with their Pigs
    23. 24. Sweet Potato Garden
    24. 25. African First Wives’ Reactions to the Arrival of a Second Wife <ul><li>Concern About the Division of Food and Material Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Considered a Normal Event </li></ul><ul><li>Intensified Focus on her Children’s Well-Being (re: resources for them) </li></ul><ul><li>Little Concern Over Not Being Husband’s Favorite Wife </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustment Expected </li></ul>
    25. 26. Luo Sister Co-Wives
    26. 27. Young Luo Polygynous Family
    27. 28. Masaai Polygynous Triad
    28. 29. Jealousy and Polygyny <ul><li>Occurs when resources can be divided unevenly </li></ul><ul><li>Can happen when visiting times are unequal </li></ul><ul><li>Can arise when favoritism is suspected </li></ul><ul><li>Can occur when it is not chosen by the wives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>switching from monogamy to polygyny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>co-wives that don’t get along </li></ul></ul>
    29. 30. American Wives Reaction to the Discovery of a Husband’s Infidelity <ul><li>Self Esteem, Reputation, and Ego Threatened </li></ul><ul><li>Attractiveness Questioned </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage Counseling Sought to Remedy this “Abnormal” Event </li></ul><ul><li>Reframing of Marriage Expected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. end the affair, trial separation, divorce </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. Favoritism is Irrelevant When Resources are Shared Equally <ul><li>Husbands Endeavor to Treat Their Wives Equally </li></ul><ul><li>Second Wives Not Displace First Wives, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Newest Wives are “Favorites” Until A Subsequent One is Added </li></ul><ul><li>Wives Who Are Not “Favorites” Typically Shrug it off </li></ul>
    31. 32. Family Issues That Challenge Africans <ul><li>Husbands Who Cannot Afford Additional Wives (but take them anyway) </li></ul><ul><li>Co-existence of several different marriage forms (customary polygyny, Muslim polygyny, Christian/ Hindu monogamy, and statutory monogamy) </li></ul><ul><li>Widows Who Refuse to be Inherited by Brother-in-Laws (levirate) </li></ul>
    32. 33. Family Issues That Challenge Africans, con’t <ul><li>First Wives who refuse to accept additional wives into their family and attempt to return to their natal families or live on their own </li></ul><ul><li>Co-Wife Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Men Who Don’t Actively Parent Their Children </li></ul><ul><li>Wives Who Expect Their Husbands to Provide All Financial Resources </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS --focus on reproductive sex speeds its transmission </li></ul>
    33. 34. Family Issues That Challenge Americans <ul><li>The Nuclear Family is Expected to Meet Family Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high expectations for multiple levels of Male/Female compatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affairs and Divorce Break up Families </li></ul><ul><ul><li>divorce often separates fathers from their children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fear of Interdependence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>institutions expected to provide for what was once the realm of the extended family </li></ul></ul>
    34. 35. Family Issues That Challenge Americans, con’t <ul><li>Inadequate Childcare Services & Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Children Seen as a Financial and Time Liability (rather than an asset) </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient Resources available to Single Mothers </li></ul><ul><li>Children Feel Little Obligation to Assist their Parents in their Old Age </li></ul>
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