Evolutionary Psychology May Explain Sexual Selection

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Evolutionary Psychology May Explain Sexual Selection

  1. 1. Evolutionary Psychology may explain sexual selection Darwinism and roots of Machismo
  2. 2. Animal studies and cross cultural studies <ul><li>Such work forms evolutionary biology /psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Selection (sexual): consists of non random differences in mating success. </li></ul><ul><li>IN HUMANS, MALES/FEMALES VARY IN CHARCTERISTICS WHICH SHAPE MATING STYLE </li></ul>
  3. 3. COMPARE <ul><li>Female rearing 9 months </li></ul><ul><li>No genetic polygamy benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminate for “valuable”traits </li></ul><ul><li>Not as sexually driven </li></ul><ul><li>Male not </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Any port will do! </li></ul><ul><li>Sex driven </li></ul>
  4. 4. Variation in monogamy vs. polygamy <ul><li>Elephant seals--------------------foxes </li></ul><ul><li>Size differences same size </li></ul><ul><li>1 parent shared </li></ul>
  5. 5. Polygamy between species Crude index is ratio of variability in reproductive success among males, divided by same # for females
  6. 6. Monogamous species <ul><li>= 1 </li></ul><ul><li>If success of females> males, ratio =<1 </li></ul><ul><li>If success >1………males mate with multiple females </li></ul>
  7. 7. Features of polygamy Aggression, senescence Shorter life spans Reach sexual maturity later Males bigger with weapons Risk takers
  8. 8. man <ul><li>More violent </li></ul><ul><li>More risks </li></ul><ul><li>More DNA thus </li></ul><ul><li>High status vs. </li></ul><ul><li>Low status male behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Low = violence </li></ul><ul><li>High= power </li></ul>
  9. 9. Males have short initial advantage--------  <ul><li>Big </li></ul><ul><li>Strong </li></ul><ul><li>Horny </li></ul><ul><li>Power hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Polygamy </li></ul><ul><li>Initial mating success </li></ul><ul><li>Later senescence </li></ul><ul><li>Early death </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Increased CVD </li></ul><ul><li>Prostate cancer </li></ul><ul><li>stress </li></ul>
  10. 10. Now a days, this Testosterone advantage may be a disadvantage! <ul><li>In countries with large wealth gaps, low status males exhibit risk ( smoking, fighting, violence, drugs) </li></ul><ul><li>May be a “vestige” </li></ul><ul><li>Of “caveman” days </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive male now les mobile upwardly </li></ul><ul><li>Less flexible socially </li></ul><ul><li>Less committed in behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Too competitive </li></ul><ul><li>Poor networker </li></ul>
  11. 11. Masculinity changes More individuality  less conformity ( less clan ) Waning initiation rites = scarification, circumcision,fraternities, proving male “worth” Less male bonding institutions Physical prowess and courage less important
  12. 12. Male attributes & Female choice <ul><li>Vigor </li></ul><ul><li>Dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><li>These may really be chosen by the female of the group </li></ul><ul><li>Selection may be a female dominated characteristic! </li></ul>
  13. 13. Feminism, a working definition <ul><li>An alternative view of sexual selection </li></ul><ul><li>Female chooses “the sperm donor” </li></ul><ul><li>Gender matters </li></ul><ul><li>Female experience devalued ( especially sexuality) </li></ul><ul><li>Males quantify/females qualify </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic diversity important </li></ul><ul><li>Male power central to heterosexual relations </li></ul>
  14. 14. Feminism <ul><li>Examines ways in which socially constructed categories of sex and gender roles shape relations between sexes in politics, education and religion. </li></ul><ul><li>Feminists are male or female, believe an equal rights at all levels and endorse changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Shortcomings: old girls network with very minimal quantification and ethnic representation! </li></ul>

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