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How I Became a Sexual Anthropologist


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The research career of Leanna Wolfe, PhD - A Presentation to the Institute for Advanced Study of Human Sexuality - January 27, 2017.

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How I Became a Sexual Anthropologist

  1. 1. Leanna Wolfe, PhD Institute for Advanced Study of Human Sexuality January 27, 2017
  2. 2. Decision to Become an Anthropologist When I was in the 5th grade I read what anthropologists do in my classroom’s Purple SRA Reader. If I could spend my life visiting foreign cultures and explaining their beliefs and behaviors to others, I knew I’d be a very happy person. I never once deviated from this as my true calling!
  3. 3. First Culture Shock When I was 15 I lived as an exchange student in Navolato, a small Mexican village in the state of Sinaloa. I considered the family’s chickens to be pets and when one day they wrung the neck of one of them and began to prepare chicken stew, I burst out into tears. I couldn’t eat again for a solid week. The exchange program sent out a counselor to try to reason with me, but I was a hopeless wreck.
  4. 4. Early Fieldwork in Mani, Yucatan
  5. 5. First Down Under Sleep Arrangements Yucatan Hammock Mexican Petate
  6. 6. Graduate School in New York City Thesis: “Towards a Cross-Cultural Understanding of Female Sexuality”
  7. 7. First Teaching Assignments Brooklyn, NY 1980 Ramapo College Middlesex College Home, Park Slope, Brooklyn
  8. 8. First Book  Giving Birth in New York City: A Guide to Childbirth Options, NYPIRG, 1980 Book was reviewed in the New York Times, New York Magazine, featured TV segments and reprinted three times
  9. 9. First Public Lecture on Sexuality  Sex in the 90s: The Future of Intimacy,” Tikkun Singles Group, Los Angeles, March 1990
  10. 10. Intimate Matters – Radio Show
  11. 11. Intimate Matters Press While “Intimate Matters” was on the air for less than a year, the decision to shift from a mainstream dating and relationships show to interviewing members of alternative social and sexual lifestyles (as a non- judgmental anthropologist), garnered lots of press!
  12. 12. Women Who May Never Marry Donahue Show Guest 1995
  13. 13. Women Who May Never Marry Press Published in 1993, the book was reviewed in over 80 newspapers and Leanna was a featured guest on over 100 television and radio shows including Donahue, Jane Whitney and Good Day LA
  14. 14. Love Coupons… Even more money might have made, if there hadn’t been a copyright infringement lawsuit following the original title, Love Coupons.
  15. 15. Most Widely Read Publication “Adding a Co-Wife” was initially published in Loving More Magazine and Teaching Anthropology in 1998, in the California Anthropologist in 1999 and finally as a selection in the reader, Annual Editions Anthropology 2006/7.
  16. 16. Researching Polygyny in East Africa
  17. 17. Researching Polygyny in Papua New Guinea
  18. 18. Adding a Co-Wife Leanna Wolfe Society for Anthropology in Community Colleges, Santa Fe, NM April 17, 1998 Southwestern Anthropological Association, Fullerton, CA April 16, 1999
  19. 19. Social Conditions that Foster Polygyny • Demographic Gender Imbalance • early male death resulting from war, accidents, homicide and disease • Social Acceptability • 85% of the cultures of the world permit polygyny (e.g. Woodable, Luo, Masaai, Asante, Kapauku, U.S. Mormons) • Economics • wealthy, often older men can afford the brideprice and responsibility of multiple wives and their resultant offspring
  20. 20. Luo Compound -- Main Entrance
  21. 21. Maasai Compound
  22. 22. Huli Co-Wives House
  23. 23. Enga Women with their Pigs
  24. 24. Sweet Potato Garden
  25. 25. Young Luo Polygynous Family
  26. 26. Maasai Polygynous Triad
  27. 27. Jealousy and Polygyny • Occurs when resources can be divided unevenly • Can happen when visiting times are unequal • Can arise when favoritism is suspected • Can occur when it is not chosen by the wives • switching from monogamy to polygyny • co-wives that don’t get along
  28. 28. Family Issues That Challenge Africans • Husbands Who Cannot Afford Additional Wives (but take them anyway) • Widows Who Refuse to be Inherited by Brother-in-Laws (levirate) • Co-existence of several different marriage forms (customary polygyny, Muslim polygyny, Christian/ Hindu monogamy, and statutory monogamy) • First Wives who refuse to accept additional wives into their family and attempt to return to their natal families or live on their own • Co-Wife Competition • Men Who Don’t Actively Parent Their Children • Wives Who Expect Their Husbands to Provide All Financial Resources • AIDS --focus on reproductive sex speeds its transmission
  29. 29. PhD at the Institute
  30. 30. Burning Man 2003 Participant Observer 2013 photography
  31. 31. Negotiating Pair Bonding, Romantic Love and Jealousy in Polyamorous Relationships* Leanna Wolfe, Ph.D. * Based on 2003 PhD dissertation research
  32. 32. The Hallmark of Polyamory  Appetite for Disclosure  Open to Hear  Open to Share  Safety in Knowing  Compersion  Positive Regard for Partners’ Extra-Relationship Erotic/Emotional Connections
  33. 33. Polyamory and Jealousy Study*  229 questionnaires received  140 questionnaires evaluated  focused on those that engaged in poly style dating  swingers who just engage others as a couple at sex parties were not included  created an11-point compersion index drawing from six compersion measures. *Towards PhD Dissertation, “Jealousy and Transformation in Polyamorous Relationships” Wolfe, L. 2003
  34. 34. Survey Conclusions  Prior Social, Emotional and Sexual Independence did not preclude Successful Adaptation to Polyamory  Over 70% reported that polyamory had increased their self-esteem and their love for their home partner  Nearly 90% reported that being poly had afforded a better perspective both on themselves and on their partners.
  35. 35. Actualizing Compersion / Negotiating Jealousy  Developed Inner Life  masturbation, spirituality, meditation  Full Plate Life  busy with work, family, lovers  Extended Family of Choice  Believe in Poly Ideology  Celebrate “Starling” Relationships  There is not just one “one”  High Serotonin Uptake  Fears of Loss not actualized.  New loves did not displace/replace partners
  36. 36. The Polyamory Cultural Blur  Limit NRE elevating experiences  Reduces emotional spectrum  Embrace Compersive Thinking  Accept/Incorporate partners’ other loves  Serial Monogamy may be practiced in slow motion.  Averts Dramatic Breakups / Divorce  Engage in “Polyarmory”  Control Partners’ Activities  Avoid Non-Poly Romantic Engagements
  37. 37. The Real Poly Lessons  Boundaries  Respect partners’ needs to be connected to others  High intensity communication  Dark Night of the Soul Journey  Learning to be alone  Self-nurturing  Positive self identity independent from presence/absence of lovers/partners  Release the desire to control others
  38. 38. How the Bough Bends: The Creation of Family, Kinship and Community by Users of Donated Gametes Leanna Wolfe, Ph.D. Presentation to the American Anthropological Association November 15, 2006
  39. 39. Who Uses Donated Gametes?  Single Mothers by Choice (SMCs)  17% rise in babies born to 30-44 unmarried women between 1999-2003  Lesbian Couples  Families with Fertility Issues  donor sperm  donor eggs  donor embryos
  40. 40. Sperm Recipients vs Egg Recipients  Single Mothers by Choice  Body is Normal; Life is Abnormal  If Fertility Challenges; Life and Body both feel Abnormal  Mothers through Egg Donation  Life is Normal; Body is Abnormal and for some, Intensely Abnormal
  41. 41. Conclusions  Gamete seekers focus on intelligence, personality and phenotype  Seek “normal” gametes to create “normal” families  Family/Community Revolutionaries?  Donor Sibling Registry  DE support through conception process but little interest in social networking for parenting.  New Definitions of Family and Community
  42. 42. Studying Marriage Preferences in India
  43. 43. India’s Courtship with Love Marriage
  44. 44. A personal look at India’s Kumbha Mela A Personal Lookat the KumbhaMela Leanna Wolfe, Ph.D. Allahabad, India 2007
  45. 45. Prasad(Gifts)
  46. 46. Ritual Bathing
  47. 47. Leanna Wolfe, Ph.D Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality November 11, 2006
  48. 48.  Research for this project came from several modalities. First it came from teaching college level anthropology and sexuality classes in Los Angeles classrooms where ethnicity and religion emerged as major factors in why students behaved (or reported that they behaved) the ways that they do.  Beginning in the summer of 2006 students enrolled “Gender Sex and Culture” at LA Valley College and “Evolutionary Perspectives on Sex and Gender” at Cal State LA were invited to research their own ethnic/ religious communities. Students helped to design the survey, administered it to 10 respondents apiece, learned how to code their data and wrote short reports explaining their preliminary findings.  This presentation consolidates all the student-coded data as well as comments and interpretations offered by student researchers in their individual reports. Many of the researchers had never before stepped back to look at their own cultures as sexual scientists.
  49. 49.  196 Respondents ◦ 113 female ◦ 83 male  Average Age – 21 ◦ Age range 15-29  Ethnicities ◦ 100 Hispanics ◦ 34 Asians ◦ 24 Armenians ◦ 16 Whites ◦ 12 Blacks ◦ 10 Others HISPANIC ARMENIAN ASIAN WHITE BLACK OTHER
  50. 50. How Culture is Used Parental expectations are offered as a publicly expressed cultural excuse for abstaining. For some young people this cultural excuse protects them from engaging in sexual exploration they fear or are uncomfortable with. For others the cultural excuse functions as a cover-up for clandestine behaviors. Still others are caught in the middle. They see limited value in engaging in arranged / endogamous marriages and yet felt stymied in regards to defying their parents and their communities. Ultimately, culture functions both as an excuse for maintaining distance from mainstream practices and values as well as a protection for those whose behaviors and activities belie their family’s expectations.
  51. 51. Culture As A Cover No one was every going to know about it because being Armenian having premarital sex is completely unacceptable. Once I decided to do it I went to a tanning salon and got a Brazilian wax for the big day. I think it’s the best thing that has ever happened to me. I had this wonderful secret I would run to whenever I was in need. No one knew. I was seen as this little good girl, yet had sex every week with no strings attached. The sex was amazing. He taught me a lot, sexually. He was the first to go down on me. I would experience a few orgasms every time I got with him. Because of this experience I am so comfortable with my body—a comfort that women in their 30s are just discovering…and I love it. 19 year old Armenian female
  52. 52.  All ethnicities seek to marry at age 27  Armenians most seek to marry one another (83%) while Hispanics are the least interested (20%)  Asians have the least interest in marrying a partner from the same religion (26%) while Armenians have the greatest interest (87%)  Following an unplanned pregnancy 20% would seek an abortion, while 41% of Armenians would do so.  Asians are most likely to be virgins (44%) and least likely to engage in oral sex (29%)  Hispanics are most likely to be sexually active (72%) and to engage in oral sex (69%)
  53. 53. WHO CHEATS AND WHY? Leanna Wolfe and Ava Cadell Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality April 10, 2010 - Palm Springs, CA
  54. 54. INTERNET SURVEY May 2008 – April 2009 (11 months) 12 Questions 1055 completed surveys (98% completion) Voluntary (No financial compensation provided) Insight into why people seek extra-relationship sex Responses revealed differences in age and gender
  55. 55. SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS  Males more likely to cheat  Females more likely to report being cheated on  < 35 most likely to cheat for attention  > 35 most likely to cheat in pursuit of sexual variety  Majority of cheaters contend cheating unacceptable  72% who cheat have also been cheated on  Males enjoy cheating more than females do  Females who have been cheated on are more troubled by an emotional connection  Excitement more important to cheating males than cheating females
  56. 56.  Males define cheating when there is genital contact  Males cheat for excitement  Males cheat to live out their sexual fantasies  Males believe they can get away with cheating Females consider emotional connection to be cheating Females cheat for attention Female secret lovers find less satisfaction Females more likely to consider cheating to be wrong MALE VS FEMALE CHEATING CONCLUSIONS
  57. 57. Exploring Morocco!
  58. 58. Peeking Into Morocco’s Veiled Society
  59. 59. Dr. Leanna Wolfe Iashs study tour, March 2013
  60. 60. With Professor Ma, the Dr. Ruth of China
  61. 61. Presenting my research paper, “Orgasm in America”
  62. 62. ORGASM IN AMERICA New Findings on a Perpetually Explosive Topic Leanna Wolfe, Ph.D. Sino-US Conference of Sexology March 7, 2013 Sponsored by Loveology University
  63. 63. Survey Overview  27- question Internet Survey  1,053 completed surveys (84% response rate)  January 10, 2010 – November 12, 2011  Sponsored by Loveology University  28.5% of respondents from Dr. Ava Cadell  17% of respondents from Loveology University  54.5% of respondents from Dr. Leanna Wolfe  Designed and Analyzed with Survey Monkey Software
  64. 64. Why do People Fake Orgasm?  Please a partner  Make the partner feel as if they are able to satisfy you  Cause a no longer satisfying sex act to end  To maintain an otherwise pleasing relationship  To get into a desired relationship  Issues of surrender, trust not (yet) resolved  Unskilled partner (not yet “trained”)
  65. 65. Middle Years – The Biggest Fakers Women (74.2%) in their middle years (30-35) may feel the most pressure (re: family making) to fake orgasm (4% higher than older females and 15% higher than younger females)
  66. 66. Discussion  Several Schools of Thought re: Women  Women Need Direct Clitoral Stimulation to Reach Orgasm  PV intercourse alone is often not sufficient  Men need to realize this  Vibrators can be incorporated into partner play  Not just for (private) female masturbation  Women Need to Strengthen their Pubococcygeus Muscles through Kegel Exercises and/or using a Pelvic Toner  Tantric Training (re: eye gazing, breathe work, self and partner awareness) can align couples  Sex without Orgasm can be both emotionally satisfying and loving  Males (and females) have very little information about how to enhance the Male Sexual Experience…
  67. 67. Leanna Wolfe, Ph.D. Institute for Advanced Study of Human Sexuality Research Sponsored by Ashley Madison Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, April 22, 2012
  68. 68.  Anal Intercourse  Finger insertion  Anilingus (tongue stimulation)  Insertion of a Butt/Anal Plug  Vibrator Insertion  Penetration with Dildo/Strap On  Fisting
  69. 69. The Greeks, 510 BC
  70. 70. The Romans Hadrian (penetrator) and Antinous (receiver)
  71. 71. The Japanese (16th c. Shunga Print)
  72. 72. Contemporary Heterosexuals
  73. 73.  Heterosexual Anal Play is on the Rise › 50% of those under 44 participate › Caucasians, Hispanics and Mixed Ethnicities most likely to engage  Finger Penetration & Anal Intercourse Most common  Exciting most picked reason › “Hot” and “Very Intimate” picked by Kinky people  Frequency › 50% do it several times/year or rarely › 65% of Kinky people do it at least monthly  Extra-pair reasons › Explore with new lover - 59% › Home partner not interested – 57%
  74. 74. Leanna Wolfe, PhD International Academic Polyamory Conference, Berkeley, February 2014 Southern California Poly Gathering, September 2012 Network for a New Culture, Seattle, November 2012 Open New York City, New York, June 2012 BIL Conference, Long Beach March 2012 California Community College Anthropology Teachers Association, Paso Robles, January 2012 Are Polyamory and Cheating All that Different?
  75. 75. Relationship Status
  76. 76. Sexual Activities
  77. 77. Frequency of Sex with Home Partner/Spouse
  78. 78. Happiness in Current Relationship
  79. 79. Other Couples More Oral Sex?
  80. 80. If Partner Refuses Oral Sex…
  81. 81. If Partner Refuses Anal Play…
  82. 82. The Global Impact of the Gender Flip on Partnering Patterns Leanna Wolfe, PhD International Conference on Monogamy and Non-Monogamy, February 14, 2015 Los Angeles Sexology Associates, June 10, 2015
  83. 83. Considerations: • Increasing numbers of women in Europe, the America’s and Asia are out-earning men • Marriage and partnering patterns have been and will continue to be affected • Male/Female Eroticism is up for grabs
  84. 84. Economics of the Gender Flip • 29% of American wives out-earn their husbands • By 2050 71% more Americancollege educated women than men • Similar patterns for South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Philippines, France, Chile, Ireland, Canada, Belgium and Norway • Hypergamy (women marrying up) is declining in the Western world • Marrying down more common in much of the Americas and Western Europe • 66% of births to single mothers in Iceland • 50% in Sweden • Not regarded as a social problem as in the U.S.
  85. 85. Asian Women • High incidence of early 30s women are single and unlikely to marry • 32% Japan • 37% Taiwan • 25% Hong Kong • Fertility rates at an all-time low • Taboo against unmarried childbearing • Asian women do want to marry, but… • Seek to marry men at their level or higher • High earning men prefer younger non-professional wives • Well-educated high earning women are out-migrating to Europe and the Americas
  86. 86. Globalization of Marriage • Mail Order Brides • South Korea • Importation of Thai and Vietnamese women • American men in Thailand • Sex Vacations • Marriage • Spain • Importation of rural Latin American women • Spanish women marrying N. European men
  87. 87. Women with Money… • Partnering Patterns Shifting • Monogamy Questioned • Heteronormative Marriage Optional • Polyamory • Poly Singles with Independent Lives • Queen Bees • Sex for Pleasure • Casual Sex • Sex parties, hook-ups • Sex Vacations • Caribbean Beach Boys • Yellow Cabs • Kink Sexualities • Lesbian and Bisexualities
  88. 88. Male Fall Out… • Independent Women No Longer Need Men for: • Provisioning • Insemination • Protection • No Need to Sort Out Cads from Lads • Peter Pans • Househusbands
  89. 89. Herpes: Folklore, Fear & Realities Leanna Wolfe, PhD The Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality November 19, 2016 – Phoenix, AZ
  90. 90. Herpes Basics • Two types of viruses : Herpes Simplex 1 and Herpes Simplex 2 • HSV1 is typically found on the face • HSV2 is typically found below the waist (genitals, anus, etc.) • Fluids in Herpes sores contain the virus • Contact with the sores can spread it to others • Herpes can also be spread asymptomatically • 80% of people who have herpes do not know that they have it • 90% of the US Population has been exposed to HSV1 • By adolescence 62% of Americans are infected • 85% of Americans over 60 are infected • 20-30% of the US Population has genital herpes • 50% of single US women aged 40-50 have genital herpes
  91. 91. What Does Herpes Look Like? Oral Lesion Genital Lesions
  92. 92. When Herpes is Serious • Childbirth • A baby passing through the birth canal of a symptomatic mother can be blinded, go into a coma and potentially die. • Lesions can be a portal for spreading HIV-AIDS
  93. 93. Herpes as a Social Problem Prior to the 1970s cold sores were not considered social problems. Drug companies manufacturing remedies needed to create a market for a condition that had never before been regarded as a stigmatized social disease.
  94. 94. Time Magazine: August 1982
  95. 95. Herpes Internet Survey • 534 Respondents • March 2009 – November 2014 • No Funding or Sponsorship • Voluntary Anonymous Participation • Those “with” and “without” Herpes Invited to Participate • Designed to Explore Fuzzy Beliefs and Practices • 28 Questions • Toggles for those with HSV1 and HSV2
  96. 96. Survey Demographics • 42.9% Male • 54.5% Female • 2.6% Transgender • 29% Single (US Census 27%) • 33.5% Married (US Census 48%) • 16.8% Living with a Lover • 20.7% Living Separately from Partner • 43.8% report being Herpes-free • 56.2% report having Herpes • 27% report having Oral Herpes (cold sores) • 28% report having Genital Herpes (representative of U.S. Population)
  97. 97. Under a microscope the two strains look almost identical. Evolutionarily they separated when humans started to have face-face sex. HSV1 typically remains dormant in the nerve cells at the base of the neck, while HSV2 lodges at the base of the spine. More than 30% of new genital infections are HSV1.
  98. 98. Conclusions • Suppression drug therapy and stress reduction are the most common approaches for outbreak prevention. • While pharmaceutical therapies are used by more than half the respondents, close to 30% do nothing to treat their lesions. • Top safer sex practices include using barrier methods (condoms, dental dams) and avoiding sexual contact during outbreaks. Other popular practices include taking suppression therapy pharmaceuticals. • So much hysteria has been created that nearly 80% of respondents would absolutely seek to be vaccinated against herpes if it were possible.
  99. 99. Considerations… • Doctors do not typically test for herpes as part of STI panels due to its high concentration in the population; many people carry it without expression of lesions. • Pharmaceutical companies created herpes as a condition that required treatment in the early 1980s. • HSV1 and HSV2 are nearly identical, sharing a common evolutionary history. HSV2 has been stigmatized due to America’s prudish attitudes towards sexuality. • Dating challenges for midlife/older widows and divorcees who are new to the world of herpes. • One theory contends that herpes is in fact dormant in most of us and first onsets are not caused by having contact with an infected partner, but rather by other factors such as stress.
  100. 100. The Culture of Cybersex and Internet Chat Leanna Wolfe Ph.D. The Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, November 18, 2016 International Conference on Monogamy and Non-Monogamy, February 13, 2016 California Community College Anthropology Teaching Association, January 16, 2016
  101. 101. Deception • Females Lie to Males About…. • What They’re Doing • What They’re Wearing • To Keep Their Partner Happy • To Keep the Relationship Alive Drouin, et al (2014) Love the Way You Lie: Sexting Deception in Romantic Relationships
  102. 102. Online Disinhibition Effect • The Online World is not Real • People Do Not Present as Their Real Selves • Alterations Can Include • Age • Gender • Appearance • Sexual Proclivities • Suler, “Online Disinhibition Effect,” (Cyber Psychology and Behavior, 2004)
  103. 103. Asynchronous • Textual Conversations Can Take Place over Extended Periods of Time • Possible to Sound Highly Interested and Available • Chatterers May In Fact Be Participating in Multiple Simultaneous Conversations • May Engender a “Popcorn Brain” • Reduced Attention Span
  104. 104. Age Role Play • Co-Create a Fantasy • Play as if a “Boy” or a “Girl” • Implications Might Include • Parental Restrictions • Homework • Search for Guidance from a Savvy Daddy • Real Boys and Girls Are • Under 18 • Would NEVER REVEAL their Real Age
  105. 105. De-Masking • Effort to Uncover Who is in Fact Behind the Screen • Request Photographs • Attempt Phone Conversation • Arrange an In-Person Meeting
  106. 106. Blocking vs Offers • “Offers” Encourage Conversation • Blocking Kills the “Scene” • The Ultimate Block Ends All Contact • Accepting an “Offer” Enlarges the Scene • Falling Offline is de riguer for Internet Chat Amongst Uncommitted Strangers
  107. 107. Online Dating • Matching becomes so efficient and the process so enjoyable that marriage could become uninteresting • Threaten Dreams of Monogamy by offering up endless possible others to choose from • Perusing more interesting than settling with one • Easy to land a first date…and ever so difficult to get to a second one
  108. 108.
  109. 109. OK Cupid…Offers More Dates One “Might Like”
  110. 110. What Dating Apps Provide • Immediate Gratification Hookups • For “this moment” • Quick Connection • No Waiting • GPS Enabled • Immediate Proximity
  111. 111. A Brief History of Sexting
  112. 112. Erotic Cave Paintings
  113. 113. Ancient Hindu Erotica
  114. 114. Calculator Spells “BOOBS”
  115. 115. Polaroid Cameras (No more censorship of personal photos)
  116. 116. Picture Phones!!
  117. 117. Tiger Woods’ 2009 Sexting Scandal
  118. 118. Anthony Weiner’s Politics of Sexting
  119. 119. Why Text/Sext is So Interesting • Personal • Kicks up dopamine levels • Can co-create a personal pornography • Conveys Immediacy and Importance • Email has become largely impersonal spam • Transmits information efficiently • Locations, Times, Particulars • Easy to include photos • Especially fun and suggestive one • Last bastion for originality • Assistants can be hired to tweet and post to Facebook, but for most of us texting is our own business
  120. 120. When a Text is More Interesting…
  121. 121. Texting in Bed
  122. 122. Sext Fantasy Role Play • Discuss activities that could happen • Some never will…just shared fantasy • Safe arena to explore and tantalize • Share suggestive photos • Co-create possible moments and scenes • Discover common interests • Uncover new possibilities
  123. 123. The Downsides • Loss of in-person social skills • Less need to be articulate, focused or even interested • “Sup” and “Hey” don’t require much interest or initiative • Pressure to respond quickly to texts • Little space to contemplate and sincerely reflect and share
  124. 124. Conclusions • Social Media Enables Easy Access to Potential Partners • Texting/Sexting Popular Medium for Erotic Negotiation • Fantasy Role Play • Age Play by Consenting Adults (over 18) • Assess Common Interests • Co-Created Personal Pornography • Can Exit/Block Easily • Mutual Interest/Pleasure Required to Continue
  125. 125. Teaching and researching sexual assault Dr. Leanna Wolfe California Community College Anthropology Teaching Association January 14, 2017
  126. 126. Overview • Anthropological Perspectives on Gender and Violence • Yanomamo • Inuit • Sexual Violence in India and Pakistan Today • Rape in India • Turbulent Protests and Conversations • US Media Conversations • Brock Turner, Stanford student convicted for rape • Donald Trump’s Groping Exposed • The Hunting Ground • Uncovering my Family Story of Sexual Violence • Deciding to Join a Conversation I’d spent my Professional Life Avoiding • Sexual Assault Research • Preliminary Findings
  127. 127. Traditional Inuit women would live in a quiet and sleepy way with little self- direction. Only when their hunting husbands returned home to the family igloo, would they spring into action to make tea and cook full meals.
  128. 128. Yanomami women live in a patriarchal and violent Amazonian jungle culture. If they attempt to run away from their home villages they typically are raped when seeking refuge in neighboring villages.
  129. 129. Winner of 2016 Oscar for best documentary short follows the survivor of a Pakistani Honor Killing. The subject ultimately forgives her father and his brothers for attempting to murder her.
  130. 130. Protestors in India seek justice following the internationally publicized rape of a young woman on a bus.
  131. 131. 2015 Documentary Film exposes frequency of rape on US college campuses
  132. 132. Brock Turner, a Stanford student and athlete, is given a very short jail sentence for raping an intoxicated unconscious woman at a frat party in Jan. 2015. During the Spring 2016 trial, the victim’s statement goes viral while Turner’s father refers to the rape as “20 minutes of action.” Turner serves just 3 months in jail.
  133. 133. Sexual Assault becomes part of the national conversation in Fall 2016 when Presidential Candidate Donald Trump is shown in a 2005 news clip bragging about groping attractive women.
  134. 134. International Women’s march
  135. 135. My family story My Mother at 11 Perpetrator, her older brother
  136. 136. My mother at 14 with her two sisters (who were not molested) and her mother.
  137. 137. My Mother ultimately emerged as a beautiful woman who did all she could to stuff away her childhood abuse.
  138. 138. Survey: What is sexual assault? • Voluntary Internet Survey • In Progress – Launched October 2016 • 167 Respondents • 71% female; 29% male
  139. 139. Activities Considered Sexual harassment
  140. 140. Incidence of Sexual Harassment
  141. 141. Incidence of sexual assault
  142. 142. Incidence of rape
  143. 143. Rape definitions
  144. 144. Changing views on consent • Seduction requires converting a “No” into a “Maybe” and then into a “Yes” (150+ moves, Warren Farrell, Why Men are the Way They Are (1986) • Rape Myths • Women who Dress Provocatively • Leave a Party with a Guy • False Accusations Are Common • Consent Training • “No Means No” shifts to “Yes Means Yes” • Presumes Immediate Interest in full on sex… • Must all consent be verbal?
  145. 145. What “no means no” means
  146. 146. What “yes means yes” implies
  147. 147. TAKE THE SURVEY!
  148. 148. DR. LEANNA WOLFE • • • (323) 717-6167