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6 pornography

  1. 1. Pornography
  2. 2. Changing Standards <ul><li>Entertainment Analyst Dennis McAlpine </li></ul><ul><li>Auerbach, Pollak & Richardson </li></ul><ul><li>“ Most cable operators still don’t want to cross the threshold from ‘acceptable adult programming’ . . . penetration, anal sex, oral sex, group sex, and lesbian and gay sex, to ‘pornography.’” </li></ul><ul><li>(In Paul, 2005 p. 56) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Economics <ul><li>Hollywood annually </li></ul><ul><li>400 feature films </li></ul><ul><li>11,000 porn films </li></ul>
  4. 4. Economics <ul><li>4 billion a year from videos </li></ul><ul><li>(More revenues than NFL, MLB or NBA) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Economics <ul><li>Total Revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Films </li></ul><ul><li>5 to 10 billion </li></ul>
  6. 6. Popularity <ul><li>Porn sites visited </li></ul><ul><li>3 times more often </li></ul><ul><li>than Google, Yahoo, & MSN Search combined </li></ul><ul><li>(InternetWeek, June 4, 2004) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Porn on internet <ul><li>N = 15,246 </li></ul><ul><li>Downloaded or intentionally viewed </li></ul><ul><li>erotic films or photos </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men 75% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women 41% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(Lever, 2004) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Porn on Internet <ul><li>18 – 24 year old men </li></ul><ul><li>70% </li></ul><ul><li>Visit porn site </li></ul><ul><li>At least once a month </li></ul><ul><li>(ComScore, an Internet traffic measuring service in Paul, 2005) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Porn at Work <ul><li>Accidentally visited </li></ul><ul><li>at work 75% </li></ul><ul><li>More than 10 times 15% </li></ul><ul><li>Seen co-workers surfing 40% </li></ul><ul><li>(SonicWALL Web Usage Survey, 2004) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Porn at Work <ul><li>VA Department of Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>17 </li></ul><ul><li>Fired for watching porn at work </li></ul><ul><li>> than 2 hours daily </li></ul><ul><li>(Bacque, 2004) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Violent Content <ul><li>(Including torture & mutilation) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magazines 25% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Videos 27% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usernets 42% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Barron & Kimmel, 2000) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Bukkake <ul><li>Young Japanese women </li></ul><ul><li>Ejaculated on by multiple men </li></ul><ul><li>Crying </li></ul>
  13. 13. Teens & the Internet <ul><li>Ages 15 – 17 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gone online 95% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet access from home 83% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet access from bedroom 31% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Kaiser Family Foundation, 2001) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Teens & Online Pornography <ul><li>Seen online accidentally </li></ul><ul><li>Ages 15 – 17 </li></ul><ul><li>Total = 70% </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very often or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>somewhat often 23% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not too often 47% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(Kaiser Family Foundation, 2001) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Teens & Porn <ul><li>Friends who regularly </li></ul><ul><li>view internet porn & download 45% </li></ul><ul><li>(Columbia U, 2004, In Paul 2005) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Teens & Porn <ul><li>Regularly download porn </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age % </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12 33 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>17 67 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Columbia U, 2004, In Paul 2005) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Do the Parents Know? <ul><li> Ages 9 - 19 </li></ul><ul><li> Kids Parents </li></ul><ul><li>N = 1511 N = 906 </li></ul><ul><li>Contact w/ porn 57% 16% </li></ul><ul><li>Given out personal info 46% 5% </li></ul><ul><li>Unwanted sexual </li></ul><ul><li> comments 33% 5% </li></ul><ul><li>(Livingstone & Bober, 2005) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Allure of Porn <ul><li>Woman loves anything done to them </li></ul><ul><li>No relationship issues </li></ul><ul><li>No pregnancies </li></ul><ul><li>No rejections </li></ul><ul><li>No AIDS </li></ul>
  19. 19. Allure of Porn <ul><li>“ Nobody fails to get an erection, the woman doesn’t have trouble achieving orgasm, nobody fears their gut looks too big or they’re sweating too much or they can’t catch their breath.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Paul, 2005, p. 41) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Impact of Porn <ul><li>“ I don’t see how any male who likes porn can think actual sex is better, at least if it involves all the crap that comes with having a real live female in your life.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Paul, 2005, p. 39) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Austin <ul><li>“ Walking down the street, he says, you see all these girls you want to have sex with. ‘And it makes you angry in a way. Not violently angry, but just pissed off. It pains us every time we see another woman we cant’ have sex with. You want to see all these women naked and you know you never will. It’s really frustrating.’” </li></ul><ul><li>(Paul, 2005, p. 40) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Austin <ul><li>“’ Sure you might get to see one woman, but the point is you can’t get every one. There’s always another woman who will walk by and torment you. It makes life seem incredibly unfair: all temptation, with little reward. First you’re single and you can’t get the women you really want; then you’re married and you’re tied to one woman for the rest of your life.”’ </li></ul><ul><li>(Paul, 2005, p. 40) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Austin <ul><li>Age 29 </li></ul><ul><li>Never had a serious girlfriend </li></ul>
  24. 24. Compulsive Use <ul><li>11 + hours a week </li></ul><ul><li>6 – 13% </li></ul>
  25. 25. Trouble Stopping <ul><li>Problem Controlling Use to Log On </li></ul><ul><li>17% </li></ul><ul><li>(Elle-MSNBC survey, 2004) </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Rush <ul><li>“ In pornographic perception, the addict experiences a type of vertigo, a fearful exhilaration, a moment when all the addict’s ties to the outside world do indeed seem to be cut or numbed. That sense of endless falling, that rush, is what the addict seeks again and again. . . He is helpless before it.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Mura, p. 125 in Kimmel, 1990) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Online Challenge <ul><li>N = 100 Online Users </li></ul><ul><li>Go without porn 2 weeks </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Failed within 1 week 52 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Failed within 3 days 24 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dropped out 6 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(www.pointlesswasteoftime.com/pornoff.html.) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Language of Addicts <ul><li>“ From the first hours on, lots of these guys were suddenly talking about ‘withdrawal’ and talking about how tomorrow was going to be a ‘tough day’ with time alone and high-speed access. They were using the language recovering addicts use, which I admit both surprised me and creeped me out a little.” </li></ul>
  29. 29. Impact on Relationships <ul><li>Spouses “Seriously” Involved </li></ul><ul><li>No longer interested </li></ul><ul><li>in wives 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Wives lost interest 33% </li></ul><ul><li>Separated or divorced 20% </li></ul><ul><li>(Schneider, 2000) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Compulsion <ul><li>2 friends </li></ul><ul><li>Both 20’s </li></ul><ul><li>Both overweight </li></ul><ul><li>Never had a girlfriend </li></ul><ul><li>Never had intercourse </li></ul><ul><li>No friends </li></ul><ul><li>Neither leaves home </li></ul><ul><li>Porn all free time </li></ul>
  31. 31. Compulsion <ul><li>Gabe </li></ul><ul><li>Not spending time with kids </li></ul><ul><li>Straight from work to internet </li></ul><ul><li>One week online 24/7 </li></ul><ul><li>Now 36 hour break every 2 or 3 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>5 years </li></ul>
  32. 32. Porn & Real Life <ul><li>“ Women who were otherwise good-looking but weren’t as overtly sexy as the women in porn don’t appeal to me as much anymore. I find that I look more for women who have the attributes I see in porn. I want bigger breasts, blonder hair, curvier bodies in general.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Harrison in Paul, 2005, p. 81) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Porn & Real Life <ul><li>“ It’s not easy to turn me on anymore. And that’s not a good thing. . . I thought about why it is that I don’t often look twice when a nearly nude 20-something walks by me in a restaurant. Or sometimes at night, when, on that rare occasion I have a woman in bed next to me waiting for me to make a move, I fall asleep.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Paul, 2005, p. 82) </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>“ I am immune to all of it . . . I have seen everything – things I did not know the human body could do or wanted to do. . . When all is said and done, I have built such a high immunity to sex that the whole idea of it is demystified. There are no secrets. There are no subtleties – the subtleties that can tease a person to arousal.” (Paul, 2005, p. 82) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Impact <ul><li>Raises expectations </li></ul><ul><li>how women look 51% </li></ul><ul><li>Changes expectations </li></ul><ul><li>how women behave 48% </li></ul><ul><li>(Paul, 2005) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Impact on Sex <ul><li>Online porn </li></ul><ul><li>5 + hrs/week </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex w/ women </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less arousing 35% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Real sex can’t </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare 20% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(Elle-MSNBC, 2004) </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>“ My heart would race less. . . Sex just seemed so ordinary; it was no longer thrilling or magical the way it had been before i-porn.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Rajiv in Paul, 2005, 0. 96) </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>“ I’ve broken up with women who wouldn’t perform certain things I’ve seen in films.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Paul, 2005, p. 93) </li></ul><ul><li>“ I plan to bring up pornography very early in my next relationship. That way, if it’s an issue, we just won’t go anywhere.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Paul, 2005, p. 100) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Impact of Porn <ul><li>N = 1209 </li></ul><ul><li>Ages 15 – 24 </li></ul><ul><li>Serious impact 67% </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages sex </li></ul><ul><li>before ready 59% </li></ul><ul><li>Become addicted 49% </li></ul><ul><li>Unprotected sex OK 49% </li></ul><ul><li>Bad attitudes to women 49% </li></ul><ul><li>(Kaiser Family Foundation, 2001) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Impact of Porn <ul><li>All adults 15-24 </li></ul><ul><li>Have sex earlier 25% 59% </li></ul><ul><li>(Paul, 2005) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Impact of Porn <ul><li>Ages Older Younger </li></ul><ul><li> 25- 40 18–24 </li></ul><ul><li>Harms Relationships 30% 40% </li></ul><ul><li>(Paul, 2005) </li></ul>
  42. 42. Regulate Porn <ul><ul><li>18-24 Parents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Warning labels & </li></ul><ul><ul><li>restricting use 20% 10% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Paul, 2005) </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Impact on Perceptions <ul><li>N = 80 college students </li></ul><ul><li>6 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure: </li></ul><ul><li>Massive 6 sexual films per session </li></ul><ul><li>48 minutes per week </li></ul><ul><li>4 hrs & 38 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate 3 erotic; 3 nonerotic </li></ul><ul><li>2 hrs & 24 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>None All nonerotic films </li></ul><ul><li>(Bryant & Zillmann, 1982) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Impact on Perception <ul><li>Newspaper Report </li></ul><ul><li>Rape of Hitchhiker </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended Sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Men Women </li></ul><ul><li>No films 95 mos 143 mos </li></ul><ul><li>Massive 50 mos 77 mos </li></ul><ul><li>(Bryant & Zillmann, 1982) </li></ul>
  45. 45. Impact <ul><li>Massive Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Less likely to want a daughter </li></ul><ul><li>(Bryant & Zillmann, 1982) </li></ul>
  46. 46. Impact <ul><li>Massive Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Less likely to support women’s causes </li></ul><ul><li>3 times less likely to favor women’s rights </li></ul><ul><li>(Bryant & Zillmann, 1982) </li></ul>
  47. 47. Child Pornography & the Internet
  48. 48. Size of Collections <ul><li>1998 San Diego case </li></ul><ul><li>40,000 photos </li></ul><ul><li>1,000 movies </li></ul><ul><li>Organized </li></ul><ul><li>“ li’l rape” </li></ul>
  49. 49. Size of Collections <ul><li>England, 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>100,000 hardcore pictures </li></ul><ul><li>22,000 pictures of boys and girls </li></ul><ul><li>Ages 2 - 13 </li></ul>
  50. 50. Child Pornography & the Internet <ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Advice </li></ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul>
  51. 51. Support from the Internet <ul><li>Man Molesting 10-Year-Old Daughter </li></ul><ul><li>“ I am so happy to find this site . . . I thought having a sexual attraction to my daughter was bad. I now do not feel guilty or conflicted.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Eichenwald, 8/21/06) </li></ul>
  52. 52. Advice the Internet <ul><li>Wants to be foster parent </li></ul><ul><li>“ You better have a darned good excuse why you never married, such as your fiancée died in a car wreck . . I highly recommend you date women for several years and keep at least a couple of those relationships going for at least a couple of months. Around the women, make a point of being nice to children.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Eichenwald, 8/21/2006) </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>“ It has been stated a million times already, you should NEVER store anything illegal on your hd, just too damn risky. . . Better to save all your precious files on encrypted CD’s. . . You can store up to 650 MG on a single CD and they’re easy to hide or destroy if the worst were to happen. Also, when you encrypt your CD’s with PCPdisk or similar, you can rest assured that no one will ever know just what you have on them. And you can sleep a little better knowing just that.” (Jenkins, 2001, p. 101) </li></ul>
  54. 54. Support <ul><li>“ Does anyone know how many pedophiles there are in this world? Sometimes I feel like I’m the only one. . . I don’t think noone know me interest but I am just 24 and I feel very lonely in my age, do you think there are more in my age who are pedo?” </li></ul>
  55. 55. Support <ul><li>“ No, you are not alone. We all share your emotions. We are into kids, that’s why we are here, you know. There are no stupid questions, only answers.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Jenkins, 2001, p. 106) </li></ul>
  56. 56. Selling Their Philosophy <ul><li>Podcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Radio Station </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising Charities </li></ul>
  57. 57. Selling the Philosophy <ul><li>Podcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of Age Difference in Sexual Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Child’s Sexual Autonomy, Practices & Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Failure of Sex Offender Registries </li></ul><ul><li>The Misrepresentation of Pedophilia in the News Media </li></ul><ul><li>(Eichenwald, 8/21/2006) </li></ul>
  58. 58. Online Can Mislead Pedophiles <ul><li>Discussion with Minors on Game Site </li></ul><ul><li>Raised Dutch Pedophilic party </li></ul><ul><li>Why Angry? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Your post is a typical example of what happens when you spend too much time in the online BL community . . Believe it or not, most young children are NOT anxious to have sex with adult men.” (Eichenwald, 8/21/2006) </li></ul>
  59. 59. 9-year-old Sexually Abused by Neighbor <ul><li>“ Marion obviously enjoyed her time with the poster, look at what she did for him, all that posing, and for a beautiful girl like that ti miss out on it , how long you think til she wants another guy, no amount of abuse counseling is gonna convince her that the pleasure she received was really abusive and painful, oh, what a fucking mad world.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Jenkins, 2001, p. 133) </li></ul>
  60. 60. Child Porn & Pedophilia <ul><li>N = 685 Sex Offenders </li></ul><ul><li>Child pornography charges 100 </li></ul><ul><li>(Seto et al., 2006) </li></ul>
  61. 61. Child Porn Offenders <ul><li>Also Hands-on Child Offenses </li></ul><ul><li>Age 14 or Younger </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yes 43 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No 57 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(Seto et al., 2006) </li></ul>
  62. 62. Child Porn & Pedophilia Pedophilic Index >.25 (Seto et al., 2006)
  63. 63. Child Porn & Pedophilia Pedophilic Index (Seto et al., 2006)
  64. 64. Child Porn & Pedophilia (Seto et al., 2006) <ul><li>Both child porn groups </li></ul><ul><li>(with & w/out hands-on victims) </li></ul><ul><li>Had same pedophilic arousal </li></ul>
  65. 65. Child Porn & Pedophilia (Seto et al., 2006) <ul><li>“ Child pornography offenders, regardless of whether they had a history of sexual offenses against child victims, were more likely to show a pedophilic pattern of sexual arousal than were a combined group of offenders against children.” </li></ul><ul><li>(p. 613) </li></ul>
  66. 66. Child Porn & Pedophilia (Seto et al., 2006)
  67. 67. Child Pornography & Contact Offenses <ul><li>N = 201 </li></ul><ul><li>Child Pornography Offenders </li></ul><ul><li>Possession, distribution or production </li></ul><ul><li>Prior criminal offense 56% </li></ul><ul><li>Prior violent offenses 30% </li></ul><ul><li>Prior contact sex offenses 24% </li></ul><ul><li>(Seto & Eck, 2005) </li></ul>
  68. 68. Child Porn & Contact Offenses <ul><li>Recidivism </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up – 2.5 years </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New crime 17% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New child porn crime 6% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New contact sex crime 4 % </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(Seto & Eck, 2005) </li></ul>
  69. 69. Content of Child Porn <ul><ul><ul><li>Prepubescent children 80% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Penetration 80% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual violence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(bondage, rape & torture) 21% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Video 33% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(Wolak et al., 2005) </li></ul>
  70. 70. Ages of Children <ul><ul><ul><li>Ages 6 – 12 83% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 – 5 39% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toddlers & infants 19% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Wolak et al., 2005) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Bourke & Hernandez 2009 <ul><li>N = 155 </li></ul><ul><li>All were Child Porn Possessor </li></ul><ul><li>No producers of child porn </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive sex offender treatment program </li></ul>
  72. 72. Criteria for Contact Offenses <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conviction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Admission </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substantiation by Child Protection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  73. 73. Child Porn & Contact Offenses (Hernandez, 2000)
  74. 74. Child Porn & Hands On Victims (Bourke & Hernandez, 2009)
  75. 75. Child Porn and Hands On Offenses <ul><li>At After </li></ul><ul><li> Sentencing Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Hands On Victims 40 (26%) 131 (85%) </li></ul><ul><li>No Hands On Victims 115 (74%) 24 (15%) </li></ul><ul><li>(Bourke & Hernandez, 2009) </li></ul>
  76. 76. Total Number of Victims
  77. 77. Child Porn and Hands On Offenses Total Number of Victims <ul><li>At After </li></ul><ul><li> Sentencing Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Hands On Victims 75 1,777 </li></ul><ul><li>(Bourke & Hernandez, 2009) </li></ul>
  78. 78. Average Number of Victims
  79. 79. Child Porn and Hands On Offenses Average Number of Victims <ul><li>At After </li></ul><ul><li> Sentencing Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Hands On Victims 1.88 13.56 </li></ul><ul><li>(Bourke & Hernandez, 2009) </li></ul>
  80. 80. Child Porn Group No Known Offenses at Sentencing <ul><li>Victims of Both Genders 24% </li></ul><ul><li>Pre & Post pubescent 48% </li></ul><ul><li>(Bourke & Hernandez, 2009) </li></ul>
  81. 81. Are Child Porn Possessors at Risk to Molest Children? <ul><li>“ Our findings show that the Internet offenders in our sample were significantly more likely than not to have sexually abused a child via a hands-on act.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Bourke & Hernandez, 2009, p. 183) </li></ul>
  82. 82. Are Child Porn Possessors at Risk to Molest Children? <ul><li>“ They also indicate that the offenders who abused children were likely to have offended against multiple victims, and that the incidence of ‘crossover’ by gender and age is high.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Bourke & Hernandez, 2009, p. 183) </li></ul>
  83. 83. Are Child Porn Possessors Pedophiles? <ul><li>“ In our work with hundreds of Internet child pornography offenders in treatment, the vast majority of those who initially denied paraphilic interest subsequently acknowledged their pre-existing and longstanding sexual interest in minors.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Bourke & Hernandez, 2009, p. 185) </li></ul>
  84. 84. Average Number of Victims Child Porn Group No Known Offenses at Sentencing <ul><li>8.7 Victims per Offender </li></ul><ul><li>(Bourke & Hernandez, 2009) </li></ul>
  85. 85. Review of 15 Studies Child Pornography <ul><li>N = 3536 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Official Self-Report </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Records </li></ul><ul><li>Hands On Offenses 18% 59% </li></ul><ul><li>(Hanson & Babchishin, 2009) </li></ul>
  86. 86. Differences in Internet and Other Sex Offenders <ul><li>More education </li></ul><ul><li>Higher rates of pedophilia </li></ul><ul><li>Higher rates of sexual preoccupation </li></ul><ul><li>Lower rates of antisocial/psychopathy </li></ul>