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7. flood and its manage dks 7

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  • 1. af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷1
  • 2. k|sf]k–1fgdfnf–& af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷2
  • 3. s[lt M af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg n]vs M /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs M jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfn (ECO-Nepal) ;jf{lwsf/ M k|sfzsdf ;'/lIft ;+:s/0f M k|yd, c;f/ @)^$ ;ªVof M @,))) k|lt cfj/0f l8hfOg M /d]z bfxfn d'b|s M lszf]/ ckm;]6 k|; -k|f=_ ln=, kmf]g M $#%!)$$ ] d"No M ?= %)÷– ISBN : 978-99946-927-7-4 k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ ;fd'bflos Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu ;r]tg cleofgcGtu{t k|sf]k–1fgdfnf k|sfzgdf cf+lzs ¿kdf cfly{s ;xof]u ug]{ lgDg ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx¿k|lt Osf]–g]kfn xflb{s cfef/ JoQm ub{5 M PS;gP8 g]kfn cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfn kf]= a= g+= ^@%&, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kf]= a= g+= @%)), sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kmf]gM $$#^$&& kmf]gM %%@)%*^ kmofS;M (&&–!–$$!(&!* kmofS;M (&&–!–%%@#!(& j]e;fO6M www.actionaid.org/nepal j]e;fO6M www.oxfam.org.uk af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷3
  • 4. n]vssf] egfO hnpTkGg k|sf]kdWo] af9L ;a}eGbf ljgfzsf/L dflgG5 . af9Laf6 kg]{ k|ToIf / ck|ToIf k|efjn] dfgj ;dfhdf lgs} 7"nf] ljrng k}bf ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . hgwgsf] Iflt, e"lds6fg, k6fg, 8'afg af9Lsf k|ToIf ?kdf b]lvg] k|efj x'g . To;sf cltl/Qm k|sf]kl;lh{t k|sf]ksf ?kdf pTkGg x'g] dxfdf/L / bL3{sfnLg hLljsf]kfh{gsf] ;d:of af9Lsf] ck|ToIf k|efj dfGg ;lsG5 . ljZjsf b'O{ ;o d'nsdWo] hnpTkGg k|sf]ksf] hf]lvddf g]kfn #! ' cf}F :yfgdf /x]sf] 5 . g]kfn e"kl/j]li7t d'ns eP klg aªufnsf] ' vf8Laf6 pTkGg x'g] dg;'gL jfo'sf] k|efjsf sf/0f t/fO{ / dWo kxf8L If]qdf 3gf jiff{ x'g] ePsfn] oxfF af9Lsf] w]/} 7"nf] ;d:of b]vf kb}{ cfPsf] 5 . dg;'gL ofdsf] 3gf jiff{ To;df klg sdnf] / Hofb} le/fnf] ef}uf]lns agf]6sf sf/0f cTolws e"Ifo x'g] ePsfn] klg g]kfndf af9Lsf] ?k ljgfzsf/L aGg] u/]sf] 5 . To;}n] k|sf]k 1ffgdfnfsf] o; v08df xfdLn] af9L / o;sf] Joj:yfkgsf af/]df ;fdfGo rrf{kl/rrf{ u/]sf 5f}F . jgljgfz, cj} 1 fflgs e" p kof] u , gbLlsgf/sf] cltqmd0fh:tf sf/0fn] ljgfzsf/L aGb} cfPsf] af9Laf6 ;'/lIft /xg o; k'l:tsfn] ;xof]u ug]5 eGg] ck]Iff ug'{ c;fGble{s x'bg . af9Lsf] d"n sf/0faf/] xfdL { F } ;r]t x'g ;Sof}F eg] To;af6 x'g ;Sg] Iflt Go"g ug{ k"jtof/Lsf { ljleGg r/0fsf sfd ug{ ;d'bfo ;Ifd / zts{ x'G5 . To;f] ePdf af9Lsf] zlQm / Ifltsf] dfqf lgZro g} sd ug{ ;lsG5 . To;sf nflu ;a}n] k|lta4tf hgfpg / af9LhGo k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug{ ;Sg' k5{ . To;}n] o; z[ªvnfdf af9Lsf ljljw kIfdf 5f]6s/L ljj]rgf ul/Psf] 5 . k|sf]k 1ffgdfnf k|sflzt ug{ k|/0ff k|bfg ug]{ PS;gP8 g]kfnsf ] l;lgo/ lydln8/ Zofd;'Gb/ 1fjfnL / cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfnsf sfo{qmd ;+of]hs lji0f'k;fb v/]n tyf o;sf] z'4fz'l4 / ;fh;Hhfdf | ;xof]u ug]{ Osf]–g]kfndf sfo{/t d]/f ;xsdL{ ldqx?k|lt wGojfb JoQm ub{5' . – /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷4
  • 5. ljifo;"rL af9Lsf] kl/ro / k|sf/ %–!@ ljifok|jz ] % hnpTkgg k|sf]k / ljZj & af9Lsf] kl/ro * g]kfndf jiff{sf] :j?k ( af9Lsf] k|jlQ [ !) af9Lsf] k|sf/ !! g]kfndf af9Lsf] Oltxf; !@ af9L cfpg'sf sf/0f !@–!% k|fs[lts sf/0f !$ dfgjLo sf/0f !% af9Laf6 x'g] Iflt / k|efj !^–!& hgwgsf] Iflt !^ k|fs[lts tyf jftfj/0fLo Iflt !& ;fdflhs k|efj !& hg:jf:Yodf k|efj !& af9LhGo k|sf]ksf] Joj:yfkg !*–#) kl/ro !* ;d'bfodf cflwfl/t af9L Joj:yfkg !* hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu k"jtof/L { !( af9Lsf] ;dodf ul/g] sfo{ @^ af9Lkl5sf] sfo{ #) pk;+xf/ #@ af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷5
  • 6. af9Lsf] kl/ro / k|sf/ ljifok|jz ] g]kfn hn;|ftsf] b[li6n] a|flhnkl5 ljZjs} wgL d'nssf] >]0fLdf k5{ . ] ' k"jsf] d]rL gbLb]lv dfO{gbL, ;Ktsf];L, jfudtL, sdnf, gf/fo0fL, { sfnLu08sL, s0ff{nL x'b} ;'b/ klZrddf dxfsfnL ;lxt ;fgf–7"nf u/]/ F " g]kfndf sl/a ^ xhf/ gbL aU5g . oL gbLaf6 sl/a *# xhf/ d]ufjf6 hnljB't pTkfbg ug{ ;lsg] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . To;dWo] %) k|ltzt hnljB't cfly{s ¿kdf pkof]u ug{ ;lsG5 . s"n If]qkmndf *# k|ltzt e"efu kxf8 / lxdfnL If]qn] 9fs]sf] g]kfnsf] pQ/L If]qdf k"jbl] v klZrd;Dd lxGbs'z lxdfno kj{t km}lnPsf] 5 . { of] lxdfR5flbt lxdfno z[ªvnf g]kfnnufot ef/tsf] 7"nf] e"efusf nflu ;d]t :jR5 kfgLsf] pTs[i6 ;|ftsf ¿kdf /x]sf] 5 . pRr ] lxdfno kj{t / cem rLgsf] :jzfl;t ltAatdf pTklQ eP/ g]kfn x'b} F blIf0ftkm{ aUg] gbLn] o; e"v08nfO{ l;l~rt u/]sf 5g . g]kfnaf6 pTklQ eP/ au]sf oL gbLn] ef/t / aªunfb]zsf ;d]t s/f]8f}F dflg;sf cfjZostf k"lt{ ul//x]sf 5g . lxdfno, dxfef/t / r'/] kj{t z[ªvnfaf6 pTklQ ePsf oL gbLaf6 k|lt ;]s08 @@ s/f]8 $) nfv 3gld6/ kfgL aU5 -hjfd @)%&_ . ] g]kfndf kfgLsf ;|f]tsf ¿kdf /x]sf ljleGg k|sf/sf l;d;f/ kl/l:yltsLo k|0ffnL klg k|z:t 5g . :yfoL ¿kdf aUg] 7"nf tyf ;fgf gbL / vx/] vf]nf, tnfp, kf]v/L, lxdtfn, bnbnhldg, l;d, wfgv]t cflb /x]sf 5g . sl/a $!(,**) x]S6/ cyf{t d'nssf] s'n ' If]qkmndWo] @=*# k|ltzt e"efu kfgL tyf l;d;f/n] 9fs]sf] 5 - tflnsf– !_ . To;}u/L g]kfndf ! x]S6/eGbf a9L If]qkmn ePsf tfnsf] ;ªVof sl/a ^^) ePsf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . To;}u/L v'Da' If]qsf] $ xhf/ ld6/eGbf pRr lxdfnL If]qdf sl/a () j6f tfn /x]sf] cg'dfg af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷6
  • 7. ul/Psf] 5 . oL tYofªsf cfwf/df klg g]kfn hn;|ftsf nflu wgL 5 ] eGg] k|dfl0ft x'G5 . tflnsf– ! M g]kfndf hnIf]q kfgLsf ;|ft ] cg'dflgt If]qkmn -x]S6/_ gbL #(%,))) tfn %,))) hnfzo !,#*) u|fdL0f tnfp ^,%)) bnbn !@,))) hDDff $!(,**) ;|ft M /fhe08f/L tyf u'¿ª, ;g !(($ / pk|tL @)%* ] ] g]kfn blIf0f / pQ/tkm{ /x]sf ljzfn tyf gjzlQmzfnL d'ns ef/t /' rLgsf] aLrdf /x]sf] e"kl/j]li7t d'ns xf] . oxfF sl/a % s/f]8 jif{ ' klxn] pTklQ ePsf] ljZjs} ;a}eGbf sfG5f] / sdhf]/ cj:yfd} /x]sf] lxdfno z[ªvnfdf k5{ . To;}n] kfgLsf] /fd|f] ;|ft /x]sf] g]kfndf x/]s ] jif{ af9L / klx/f]n] hgwgsf] 7"nf] Iflt u/]sf] kfOG5 . jflif{s ;/b/ !,%#) ldlnld6/ jiff{ x'g] o; d'nsdf af9L / klx/f]af6 jflif{s cf};t ' @#@ hgf dflg;sf] Hofg hfg] u/]sf] 5 eg] s/f]8f}F ¿k}ofF a/fa/sf] cfly{s gf]S;fgL x'g] u/]sf] 5 . Ps cWoog cg';f/ g]kfn ljZjsf @ ;o d'nsdWo] af9L, klx/f], cltj[li6h:tf hnpTkGg k|sf]ksf] hf]lvdsf ' b[li6sf]0fn] #) cf}F :yfgdf k5{ . To;}sf/0f kfgL xfd|f nflu a/bfg dfq /x]sf] 5}g, cleiffksf ¿kdf klg /x]sf] 5 . k|lt ;]s08 @@ s/f]8 $) ] nfv kfgL au]/ ef/t x'b} aªufnsf] vf8Ldf k'U5, h;sf] pbud:yn F g]kfn /x]sf] 5 . o;/L au]/ hfg] kfgLdWo] k|dv gbLdf /x]sf] kfgLsf] ' ;b'kof]u g]kfn :jo+n] ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g -tflnsf g+= @_ . kfgLsf] pbud:yn o; d'nsdf :jR5 lkpg] kfgL / l;FrfOsf] Joj:yf gx'bf ' F cfly{s ljsf;n] afd];Dd klg ;g{ ;s]sf] 5}g eg] ToxL kfgLsf] axfj If]qdf hfg] af9Ln] ;of}F dflg;sf] Hofg lng] u/]sf] 5 . af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷7
  • 8. af9Lsf] kL8f g]kfnsf] t/fO{ If]qdf cTolws /x]sf] eP klg gbLa];Lx¿n] F klg o;sf] df/af6 pGd'lQm kfpg ;s]sf 5}gg . kxf8L If]qaf6 dlnnf] df6f] aufP/ t/fO{nfO{ pa{/ agfpg ;xof]u ug]{ af9Ln] nfesf t'ngfdf Iflt w]/} ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . g]kfndf x/]s jif{ 7"nf] Iflt ub}{ cfPsf] af9Ln] gbLlsgf/df a9]sf] cltqmd0f;Fu} hgwgsf] Iflt klg cTolws g} ug]{ u/]sf] 5 . k|sf]k 1fgdfnfsf] o; z[ªvnfdf xfdL af9Lsf] gfnLa]nL;Fu} o;sf] /f]syfd / Joj:yfkgsf] ljifodf cWoog ug]5f}F . { hnpTkGg k|sf]k / ljZj hg;ªVofsf] tLj|| j[l4, cJojl:yt ;x/Ls/0f, cf}Bf]lus ljsf;, k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf] cTolws bf]xg, jgljgfz / d¿e"dLs/0fh:tf sf/0fn] ljZjJofkL¿kd} hnpTkGg k|sf]ksf 36gfx¿df lg/Gt/ j[l4 eO/x]sf] 5 . ljZjdf k|sf]ksf]] tYofªsx¿sf] t'ngfTds cWoog ubf{ hnpTkGg k|sf]kn] ^) k|ltzteGbf a9L :yfg cf]u6]sf] kfOG5 . k|sf]k;DaGwL dxfdf/L cg'Gwfg s]Gb| -;Lcf/O{8L_ sf] tYofªscg';f/ ;g !(() b]lv @))! sf] cjlwdf dfq ljZjdf kfgL;Fu ;DalGwt @ xhf/ @ ;o ;fgf–7"nf k|sf]khGo 36gf ePsf lyP . af9L, klx/f], v8]/L, dxfdf/L, ef]sd/L, lxdkft cflb kfgL;Fu ;DalGwt k|dv k|sf]kdf k5{g . ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3sf] …ljZj kfgL ljsf; k|ltj]bg ' ' @))#Ú sf cg';f/ af9Laf6 %) k|ltzt, z'4 lkpg] kfgL / ;/;kmfOsf] cefjsf sf/0f pTkGg x'g] ;¿jf /f]uaf6 @* k|ltzt / v8]/Laf6 !! k|ltzt k|sf]ksf 36gf ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 . To;df klg Pl;ofdf dfq hnpTkGg k|sf]kn] #% k|ltzt :yfg cf]u6]sf] kfOG5 . To;}u/L hnpTkGg k|sf]kn] clk|msfdf @( k|ltzt, cd]l/sfdf @) k|ltzt / o'/f]kdf !# k|ltzt :yfg lnPsf] kfOG5 . hnpTkGg k|sf]kn] ljZjdf jif]gL nfvf}F { dflg;sf] Hofg lnO/x]sf] 5 . o;sf cltl/Qm cfly{s Iflt klg 7"nf] kl/df0fdf eO/x]sf] 5 . hnpTkGg k|sf]ksf 36gfaf6 ljz]ifu/L ljsf;f]Gd'v d'nssf] ;fdflhs, cfly{s tyf k|fljlws ljsf;df k|lts"n ' k|efj k/]sf] 5 . k|sf]ksf 36gfn] cToGt} 7"nf] dgf]j1flgs k|efj klg } kf/]sf] 5 . o;af6 k|sf]kkLl8ttnfO{ cfly{s ;xof]u dfq u/]/ k'Ub}g, pgLx¿nfO{ dgf]j1flgs ;xof]usf] cfjZostf kg]{ tYo :ki6 x'G5 . } k|sf]ksf 36gfx¿sf] ljZn]if0f ubf{ o;sf] Pp6} 36gfn] dfq klg af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷8
  • 9. d'nssf] s'n ufx{:y pTkfbgdf @) k|ltzt;Dd x|f; Nofpg] u/]sf] ' b]lvG5 . ljsl;t d'nssf] t'ngfdf ul/a / ljsf;zLn d'nsdf k|sf]kaf6 ' ' t]x| u'0ffeGbf a9L dfgjLo Pjd cfly{s Iflt ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 . Pl;ofdf k|sf]ksf 36gfdWo] af9Ln] k'¥ofpg] Iflt dfq #! k|ltzteGbf a9L /x]sf] 5 . ;g !(&# / !((& sf] @! jif{sf] cjlwdf ljZje/ k|ltjif{ ;fnfvfnf ^ s/f]8 ^) nfv dflg; af9Laf6 k|efljt ePsf lyP . of] tYofªsn] klg af9L clt ljgfzsf/L k|sf]k xf] eGg] k'li6 u5{ . hg;ªVof j[l4, gbLlsgf/ cltqmd0f, cJojl:yt a;f]af; / unt e"pkof]u ljlwsf sf/0f af9Ln] cgk]lIft ¿kdf Iflt ug]{ u/]sf] kfOG5 . af9Lsf] kl/ro af9L cTolws jiff{ ePkl5 cfpg] x'bf o;nfO{ hnpTkGg k|sf]k elgG5 . F xfd|f] d'nsdf k|To]s jif{sf] h]7 dlxgfsf] bf];f]| ;ftfb]lv dg;'gL jiff{ofd ' k|f/De eP/ ebf}sf] clGtd jf c;f]hsf] klxnf] ;ftf;Dd /xG5 . o; ;dodf aªufnsf] vf8Laf6 p7]/ cfpg] dg;'gL jfo'n] k|z:t kfgL kf5{ . jiff{ ePsf] kfgL hldgdf htftt} km}lnFb} aU5 . lxpFbdf klg lg/Gt/ kfgL aUg] gbLdf dfq xf]Og ;'s/ vªuªu ePsf vx/] / ;– ] | ;fgf vf]nfdf klg pln{P/ af9L cfpF5 . kf]v/L, tfntn}of, bnbn] e"ld / l;d;f/ If]qdf ;d]t kfgLsf] 5]nf]vnf] x'G5 . wfg v]t hnfdo x'G5g ] eg] kfvf] af/Ldf 5ª5ª ub}{ kfgL aUb5 . lg/Gt/ 7"nf] em/L k/]/ au]sf] kfgLdf df6f], 9'ªuf, emf/kfth:tf j:t' ldl;Fbf kfgL wldnf] x'G5 eg] kfgLsf] dfqf / aUg] ult klg tLj| x'G5 . o;/L vx/], vf]nf jf gbLdf kfgLsf] axfj / dfqf a9bf ;fdfGo cj:yfdf h:t} vf]nfdf c6fpg ;Qm}g . a9]sf] kfgL gbLsf] lsgf/, s'nf] jf gx/sf] l8n gf3]/ aflx/ lg:sG5 jf lsgf/ s6fg ug{ yfN5 . o;/L c;fdfGo lsl;dn] kfgLsf] :t/ a9]/ s6fg / 8'afg ub}{ gbL, vx/] jf vf]nfdf pln{g] kfgL a]usf] cj:yfnfO{ g} af9L elgG5 . af9L ljz]ifu/L jiff{ ePsf ;dodf dfq cfpF5 . t/ klg slxn]sfxLF jiff{ sd ePsf ;dodf klg af9L cfpg] u/]sf] kfOG5 . o:tf] cj:yf lxdfnlt/sf tfntn}of km'6bf, lxpFklx/f] hfFbf cyjf dflg;n] lah'nL pTkfbg ug{ / l;FrfO ug{ gbLdf agfPsf afFw km'6bf x'g] ub{5 . af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷9
  • 10. g]kfndf h]7af6 z'? eP/ c;f]hdf cGt x'g] dg;'gL jiff{sf] sf/0f ;'ssf kfgLsf d'xfgdf d"n km'65 . k|z:t jiff{ x'bf e"ldut kfgLsf] ] F ;tx klg dfly cfpF5 . e"ldut hnsf] :t/ dfly cfPkl5 jiff{sf] kfgL ;f]:g] hldgsf] Ifdtfdf klg x|f; cfpF5 / clwsf+z kfgL ;txLaf6f] x'b}F xf]rf] e"efutkm{ aU5 . kl/0ffd:j¿k 7"nf] jiff{ x'bf afXo;txdf kfgLsf] F axfj j[l4 x'g,] gbL, vf]N;fvf]N;L cflbdf kfgL ;fdfGo ;txeGbf dfly;Dd a9]/ lsgf/sf] e"ld s6fg ug]{ / ufp“a:tLnfO{ aufpg], 8'afpg], eTsfpg]h:tf xflg–gf]S;fgL k'¥ofp“5 . o;/L gbL, vf]nf / vf]N;fvfN;Ldf kfgLsf] ;tx ;fdfGoeGbf w]/} eP/ ufpFa:tL 8'afg x'g] cj:yfnfO{ af9L elgG5 . g]kfndf vf;u/L pQ/L If]qaf6 t/fO{tkm{ emg]{ gbL / vf]nfdf kfgLsf] dfqf a9]/ af9Lsf] ¿kdf t/fO{df k'u/ hgwgsf] Iflt u5{ . kxf8df ] klx/f]sf] ;d:of ePh:t} t/fO{df af9Lsf] ;d:of /x]sf] 5 . kxf8df x'g] jiff{sf] k|efj l;w} t/fO{df kg]{ / obfsbf kxf8L If]qdf klx/f] hfFbf vf]nfsf] kfgL y'lgP/ aGg] cNksfnLg cj/f]w jf afFw km'6/ gbLdf ] kfgLsf] axfj PSsf;L a9]/ klg af9L cfpg] u/]sf] 5 . g]kfndf jiff{sf] :j?k g]kfndf jiff{sf] k|dv ;|ft aªufnsf] vf8L xf] . ;f] vf8Laf6 p7]sf] ' ] hnjfiko'Qm dg;'gL jfo' h]7sf] clGtd ;ftfb]lv g]kfn k|jz u5{ /] c;f/sf] klxnf] ;ftf;Dddf klZrd g]kfnlt/ k'U5 . k"jL{ t/fO{af6 k|f/De ePsf] jiff{ klZrd tyf pQ/lt/ qmdzM Go"g x'b} hfG5 . o;sf F cltl/Qm g]kfnsf] kj{tLo z[ªvnf k"j–klZrd km}lnPsf] x'bf dg;'gL { F jfo' kxf8sf] blIf0fL kf6f]df 7f]lSsg] x'bf pQ/L kf6f]df dg;'gL jfo'sf] F k|efj sd eP/ ;f] If]qdf jiff{ klg Go"g x'G5 . cem lxdfnkfl/sf] If]qdf jiff{ sl/a z"Goh:t} x'G5 . lxdfno dxfef/t If]q lta]ltog e"v08 jiff{ ljxLgIf]q w]/} jiff{ lzjflns w]/} jiff{ ← ← yf]/} jiff{ ← yf]/} jiff{ ← w]/} jiff{ lrq !M g]kfndf blIf0faf6 pQ/L lxdfno kj{ttkm{ hf“bf x'g] jiff{sf] :j¿k -;|ftM 8f= d]3/fh lwtfn_ ] af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷10
  • 11. ;fdfGotof r'/] / dxfef/t If]qdf k|lt306f $) b]lv %) ldlnld6/ jiff{ x'g' ;fdfGo dflgG5 . t/ Ps lbgd} $)) ldlnld6/ jiff{ x'gnfO{ eg] ' c;fdfGo dflgG5 . To;}n] ljut jif{df s]xL ef}uf]lns If]qdf ePsf] jiff{sf] clen]v lgs} 8/nfUbf] lyof] . ;g !(*) sf] cu:t !@ df afh'/fdf $#! ldlnld6/ jiff{ ePsf] lyof] . To;}u/L ;g !(*! sf] ;]K6]Da/ @( df klZrdf~rn If]qsf] a]njfdf $$^ ldlnld6/, ;g ' !(^* cu:t @% df dWodf~rnsf] 3'Dtfªdf %)) ldlnld6/, emfkfsf] cgf/dgLdf ;g !(%( sf] cS6f]a/df $&# ldlnld6/ jiff{ ePsf] lyof] . jiff{sf] :j¿kdf ptf/r9fj x'gdf k|fs[lts 36sx¿aLr x'g] cGtlqm{of ' g} k|dv sf/s xf] . oBlk jfo'kbif0fsf sf/0f ljZjJofkL ¿kdf a9]sf] ' | " tfkqmd / hnjfo' kl/jt{g klg jiff{sf] :j¿kdf ljrng Nofpg] sf/s b]lvPsf] 5 . To;}n] k|sf]khGo 36gfnfO{ pTsif{df k'¥ofpg] k|dv sf/0f ' hnjfo' kl/jt{gnfO{ klg dflgPsf] 5 . af9Lsf] k|j[lQ jiff{ x'g' / gbLdf kfgLsf] axfj a9]/ af9L cfpg' k|fs[lts lgod xf] . gbLdf af9L cfP klg Tof] cfˆgf] k|fs[lts axfj If]qd} aUbf hghLjgdf vf;} c;/ kb}g . hgwgsf] Iflt gug]{ To:tf] af9LnfO{ k|sf]ksf ¿kdf { lng klg h¿/L 7flgFbg . t/ gbLdf cfPsf] af9Ln] cfjf; If]q 8'afof], } dflg; aufof], v]tLof]Uo hldg s6fg tyf 8'afg u/]/ hgwgsf] Iflt u¥of] eg] To:tf] af9LnfO{ k|sf]k dflgG5 . gbLsf] axfjsf] k|sl[ tdf kl/jt{g cfP/ To;n] cfˆgf] axfjdfu{ kl/jt{g ubf{ klg hgwgsf] Iflt x'g] ;Defjgf x'G5 . To;f] ePdf af9Lsf] k|jl[ Qdf kl/jt{g cfpF5 . hnfwf/ If]q cyjf axfj If]qdf hDdf x'g] afn'jf, 9'ªuf, tyf u]uØfgL jf lyu|gL tyf kfgLdf ldl;g] cGo kbfy{sf | ] sf/0f klg af9Lsf] Jojxf/df kl/jt{g cfpg ;S5 . ;ªnf] jf ;fdfGo wldnf] /x]sf] 7"nf] af9Lsf] t'ngfdf lyu|gL ldl;Psf] af9Ln] lgs} w]/} ] Iflt k'¥ofpF5 . gbLsf] axfjdfu{ w]/} le/fnf] ePdf af9L;Fu} 9'ªuf, df6f] / cGo h}ljs kbfy{ w]/} aU5 . To:tf] af9L sd le/fnf] jf d}bfglt/ k'Ubf o;n] aufP/ NofPsf] lyu|gL gbLsf] lkFwdf hDdf x'G5 jf lsgf/df hDdf ] af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷11
  • 12. x'G5 . lyu|gL gbLsf] axfj dfu{d} y'lk|Pdf gbL psf; eP/ kfgLsf] axfj ] aflx/ aUb5 / dfgja:tL tyf s[life"ldlt/ km}lnG5 . o;/L gbLsf] pTklQ:yn, jiff{sf] cj:yf, gbL aUg] ef}uf]lns If]qsf] cWoogaf6 af9Lsf] k|jl[ Q s:tf] x'G5 eg]/ cWoog u/]kl5 dfq af9Lsf] hf]lvd / ;ªs6fled'vtf ljZn]if0f u/]/ k"jtof/L ug{ ;lsG5 . { af9Lsf] k|sf/ af9LnfO{ ef}uf]lns cj:yf / k/Dk/fut ;fdflhs k|rng cg';f/ ljleGg ¿kdf lrlgG5 eg] z}lIfs k|lti7fgn] af9LnfO{ k|fljlws ¿kdf juL{s/0f u/]sf] kfOG5 . o; k'l:tsfdf af9Lsf oL ;a} juL{s/0fsf] ljj]rgf ;Dej gePsf]n] ;fdfGo hfgsf/L dfq lbg] k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . gbLdf cfpg] af9L lgoldt ¿kdf Ps gf;n] kfgL aUg] 7"nf gbLdf jiff{sf ;dodf cfpg] af9LnfO{ gbLaf9L elgG5 . o:tf] af9Ln] gbLsf] lsgf/df /x]sf v]tLof]Uo e"ld, ufpF3/df Iflt k'¥ofpF5 . 7"nf gbLdf cfpg] af9L ;fdfGoh:tf] nfu] klg kfgLsf] dfqf a9b} hfFbf o;sf] Ifdtf lgs} ljgfzsf/L x'G5 . cfsl:ds af9L ljz]ifu/L 3gf jiff{ x'bf jf PsfPs 7"nf jiff{ x'bf ;txdf Psf]xf]l/P/ F F au]sf] kfgL vf]N;fvfN;L x'b} vx/]df k'u/ ljgfzsf/L ¿k wf/0f u5{ . F ] slxNo} kfgL gaUg] vf]nfdf PsfPs cfpg] o:tf] af9LnfO{ cfsl:ds af9L elgG5 . To;}u/L dflyNnf] If]qdf /x]sf] k|fs[lts tfn jf dfgjlgld{t afFw km'6/ cfpg] af9LnfO{ klg cfsl:ds af9L elgG5 . PsfPs cfpg] ] t/ jiff{ /f]lsgf;fy jf km'6sf] afFw jf kf]v/Lsf] kfgL ;lsgf;fy ;'Sg] ] ePsfn] o;af6 aRg t6Lo If]qsf dflg;n] k"jtof/L ug{ gEofpg] x'bf { F o:tf] af9L lgSs} ljgfzsf/L x'G5 . ;lDdl>t af9L afn'jf, 9'ªuf–df6f], emf/kft, af]6la?jf, cflb ldl;Psf] n]bf] af9LnfO{ u]uØfgL af9L elgG5 . cfsl:ds af9Lkl5 of] af9L Hofb} ljgfzsf/L | dflgG5 . u]uØfgL af9Ldf k/]sf dflg;, 3/kfn'jf hgfj/ s]xL klg | af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷12
  • 13. hLljt /xg ;Sb}g . o:tf] af9L ljz]ifu/L klx/f] hfFbf, d?e"ldo'Qm hldg au]/ vf]nf–gbLdf ldl;Fbf pTklQ x'g] ub{5 . ;d'b| t6Lo af9L ;d'bdf p7]sf] cfFwL, ;'gfdL cflbsf sf/0f ;d'bsf] 5fn t6Lo e"lddf | | af9Lsf ¿kdf k|jz u5{ . o:tf] af9Ln] vf;u/L ;d'b| t6 / cf;kf;sf ] ufpF / ;x/df Iflt k'¥ofpF5 . g]kfndf af9Lsf] Oltxf; g]kndf af9Lsf] klxnf] clen]v ;g !()@÷# df jfudtL gbLdf cfPsf] af9LnfO{ ul/Psf] 5 . To;kl5 ;g !(^$ tyf ;g !(*$ df ;'gsf];L gbLdf cfPsf] 7"nf] af9Lsf] clen]v /flvPsf] kfOG5 . gVv' vf]nfdf ;g !(*! sf] ;]K6]Da/df uPsf] u]uØfgLo'Qm af9L sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf | uPsf] ;aeGbf vt/gfs af9L dflgPsf] 5, h;df sl/a &@ dflg;sf] Hofg uPsf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . To;}u/L ;g !(%! df eLdkm]bLdf cfPsf] ;f]xL k|sf/sf] af9Ln] #) hgfsf] Hofg lnPsf] lyof] -O;Ldf]8, !((#_ . g]kfndf o;afx]s klg lgs} 7"nf af9L uPsf 5g . ;g !(*# b]lv ;g @))# ;Dddf af9L / klx/f]df k/L ^ xhf/ & ;o !$ hgfsf] Hofg uO;s]sf] 5 -g]kfn ;/sf/, u[x dGqfno, @))%_ . g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df ;g !((# sf] af9L g} xfn;Ddsf] ;a}eGbf ljgfzsf/L af9L dflgG5 . ;f] jif{ af9Lklx/f]df k/L ! xhf/ # ;o #^ hgfsf] Hofg uPsf] lyof] eg] c/af}F ¿k}ofFa/fa/sf] cfly{s Iflt ePsf] lyof] . af9L cfpg'sf sf/0f gbLdf af9L cfpg' eg]sf] dg;'gsf] ;dodf x'g] Ps k|sf/sf] lgoldt k|lqmof xf] . To;}n] af9L cfpgaf6 /f]Sg' c;Dej x'G5 . jiff{, af9L, v08j[li6, v8]/L k|sl[ tsf ;fdfGo lgod x'g . k|sl[ tsf] o;k|sf/sf] lgoldt k|lqmofnfO{ dflg;n] k"0f{ ¿kdf lgoGq0f ug{ ;Sb}g . t/ klg af9Lsf] k|efj tyf o;af6 x'g;Sg] hgwgsf] Iflt eg] sd ug{ ;lsG5 . o;sf nflu af9L s] sf/0fn] / s;/L cfpF5 eGg] hfgsf/L af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷13
  • 14. lng' k5{ . af9Laf6 aRg k"jtof/L ug{{ jf p4f/, /fxt / k'gM:yfkg, { k'gMlgdf{0fh:tf sfo{ ug{sf nflu klg af9L cfpg] sf/0f / To;sf] k|jl[ Qsf] cWoog x'g' cfjZos x'G5 . af9L k|fs[lts k|lqmof eP klg dfgjLo ultljlwn] o;sf] k|jl[ QnfO{ ljgfzsf/L agfPsf] 5 . ef/tLo pkdxfåLk / g]kfnnufotsf d'nsdf ' h]7sf] dWob]lv c;f]hsf] dWo;Dd dg;'g ;lqmo eP/ Jofks jiff{ x'G5 . o; qmddf 7fpF–7fpFdf jiff{sf] r/d bafa pTkGg eO{ 5f]6f] ;dodf c;fdfGo jiff{ x'G5 . lg/Gt/ ¿kdf ef/L dg;'gL em/L kbf{ 7"nf gbLdf dfq geP/ ;fgf vf]nf / vx/]df ljzfn af9L cfpF5 . obfsbf lxdtfn jf lxds'08sf] lj:kmf]6g x'bf klg af9L cfpF5 . klx/f] uP/ s'g} F gbL y'lgP/ Tof] afFw k'm6bf klg ljgfzsf/L af9Lsf] pTklQ x'G5 . xfnsf] cj:yfdf dfgjLo sf/0faf6 eO/x]sf] jftfj/0fLo Ifltaf6 af9Lsf] k|sf]kdf ;d]t j[l4 eO/x]sf] 5 . klx/f]lgld{t af"w km'6/ cfPsf af9L ] g]kfnsf] Oltxf;df klx/f]af6 ;g !(*% df lqz'nL gbL w'Gr]glhs} !@ 3G6f;Dd y'lgPsf] lyof] . o;/L gbL y'lgFbf ;fdfGotof #%) 3gld6/ k|lt;]sG8 kfgL ] aUg] o; gbLdf cu:t #, !(*% sf] lbg kfgL axfj PsfPs (# 3gld6/ k|lt;]sG8df el/of] . nueu !@ ] 3G6fkl5 kfgLsf] axfj @ 3G6f;Dd @,)!) 3gld6/ k|lt;]sG8sf] eLdsfo :j¿k lnP/ pln{of] / kfFr ] 3G6fkl5 aNn km]l/ ;fdfGo cj:yfdf cfOk'Uof] -vgfn !((*_ . t/ o; af9Laf6 ePsf] hgwgsf] Iflt Hofb} Go"g lyof] . To:t}, ;g !(*@ df # ju{lsnf]ld6/sf] eofgs klx/f] uP/ l;Gw'kfNrf]s lhNnfsf] j]NkL vf]nfnfO{ y'gsf] lyof] . klx/f]n] agfPsf] Tof] afFw ] km'6bf kmnfd];fF3' cf;kf;af6 (& dflg;nfO{ !% j6f 3/;lxt aufP/ nu]sf] lyof]] . af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷14
  • 15. k|fs[lts sf/0f 3gf jiff{ jf cltj[li6 jiff{ af9Lsf] k|dv k|fs[lts sf/0f xf] . gbLsf] hnfwf/ If]qdf 5f]6f] ' ;dodf 7"nf] jiff{ ePdf klg ljgf;sf/L af9L cfpF5 . e"Ifo tyf klx/f] g]kfnsf] kxf8L / lxdfnL If]qdf klx/f]n] agfPsf] afFw km'6/ cfpg] ] af9Ln] ;fdfGotof k|sf]k bf]xf]¥ofO/xG5 . kj{tLo If]qsf] le/fnf] hldg / 9'ªufsf] 7"nf] kl/df0f tnlt/ emb{5 . o;/L em/]sf] hldg / 9'ªufn] gbL y'G5 / dflyNnf] If]qdf 7"nf] kf]v/L aG5 . klx/f]n] agfPsf o:tf afFwx¿ s]xL ld6/ cUnf x'g ;S5g . o:tf c:YffoL afFw km'6/ gbLdf ] 7"nf] kl/df0fsf] kfgL PsfPs aUbf tNnf] t6Lo If]qdf ljzfn af9L cfpF5 . lxdtfn lj:kmf]6 g]kfnsf] lxdfnL If]qdf y'k}| lxdtfn 5g . ljZjJofkL ¿kdf eO/x]sf] hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf sf/0f 7"nf–7"nf lxd If]qx¿ b|tt/ ultdf klUnP/ " lxdtfnx¿ cem} w]/} ;ªVofdf ylkO/x]sf 5g . o:tf lxdtfnsf] lj:kmf]6g x'bf To;df hDdf ePsf] 7"nf] kl/df0fsf] kfgL PsfPs aflx/ lg:sFbf F af9L pTkGg x'G5 . o;/L lxdtfn lj:kmf]6g eP/ tLj| j]udf pln{Psf] 7"nf] kl/df0fsf] kfgL / To;df ;dflxt ePsf] 9'ªufdf6f]sf] ld>0fn] tNnf] t6Lo If]qsf k'n, hnljB'th:tf ;+/rgf, s[lif / hgwgdf ;d]t 7"nf] Iflt k'¥ofpF5 . Ol;df]8 / o"PgO{kLn] ;+oQm ¿kdf tof/ kf/]sf] ' ljj/0f cg';f/ g]kfndf /x]sf # xhf/ @ ;o %@ j6f lxdIf]qn]-lxdgbL_ s'n % xhf/ # ;o @# ju{lsnf]ld6/ If]qkmn cf]u6]sf 5g . To;}u/L, oxfF /x]sf @ xhf/ # ;o !% lxdtfndWo] @^ j6f lj:kmf]6 x'g] vt/fdf 5g (ICIMOD & UNEP 2000) . R5f]/f]Nkf lxdtfn lj:kmf]6g x'bf cfpg ;Sg] af9Lsf] hf]lvd 36fpg F Pp6f s'n;f] sf6]/ lxdtfnsf] ;tx # ld6/ 36fOPsf] 5 . ;fOkmgh:tf ] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf pkfo ckgfpg] k|of; klg ToxfF ul/Psf] 5 . af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷15
  • 16. lxdtfn lj:kmf]6 eP/ af9L cfOxfn]df tTsfn ;ts{ u/fpg tNnf] t6Lo If]qdf hgwgsf] Iflt x'g glbg k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf { ] ePsf] 5 . g]kfndf ljut s]xL bzsb]lv lxdtfn lj:kmf]6gaf6 pTkGg af9Lsf y'k|} 36gf bf]xf]l/O/x]sf 5g . ;g !(*! sf] h'nfO{ !! df ltAatsf] emfªhfªjf] lxdtfn lj:kmf]6 x'bf cfPsf] af9Ln] g]kfn–rLg l;dfgfsf] k'n dfq F aufPsf] lyPg, %) lsnf]ld6/ tn;Dd Iflt k'¥ofPsf] lyof] . To;}u/L $ cu:t !(*% df l8u T;f] lxdtfn lj:kmf]6 eP/ cfPsf] af9Ln] gfDr]l:yt hnljB'tsf] ;+/rgf aufP/ sl/a !% nfv cd]l/sL 8n/a/fa/sf] Iflt ePsf] lyof] . dfgjLo sf/0f jgljgfz kxf8L If]qdf lg/Gt/ x'g] jg ljgfzn] e"Ifo a9g] / hldgsf] df6f]sf] kfgL ;f]:g] Ifdtfdf x|f; cfpg] x'bf af9Lsf] dfqf a95 . ljz]ifu/L F g]kfnsf] dxfef/t / r'/] kj{t z[ªvnfdf a9]sf] hg3gTjn] jgljgfznfO{ ljs/fn agfpFb} nu]sf] 5 . To;}n] kxf8L If]qdf ;fg} jiff{ eP klg af9L cfpg] qmd a9b5 . cJojl:yt e"pkof]u k/Dk/fut e"pkof]u k|jl[ Q tyf v]tLk|0ffnL / j:t'efpsf] clt r/Lr/gsf sf/0f klg e"Ifo / klx/f] w]/} eP/ af9Lsf] hf]lvd a9b} uPsf] 5 . gbLsf] cltqmd0f gbLsf] axfjdfu{ / au/df lgdf{0f ul/Psf ljsf;sf ;+/rgf, dfgjLo a;f]af;df j[l4 cflbn] kfgLsf] lgsf;df cj/f]w pTkGg ug]{ x'bf F af9Lsf] hf]lvd lgs} a9]sf]] 5 . af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷16
  • 17. af9Laf6 x'g] Iflt / k|efj hgwgsf] Iflt af9Laf6 jif]gL xhf/fF} la3f pa{/ v]tLof]Uo hldg s6fg / 8'afg eP/ { s/f}8f}F ¿k}ofFa/fa/sf] Iflt x'G5 . af9Ln] l;FrfO gx/, ;8s, k'n, hnljB't of]hgfnufotsf ljsf;sf k"jf{wf/nfO{ Iflt k'¥ofpF5 . af9Ln] 3/kfn'jf hgfj/df klg Iflt k'¥ofpF5 . g]kfndf jif]gL t/fO{sf] clwsf+z { pa{/ / v]tLof]Uo e"ld s6fg / 8'afgaf6 Ifltu|:t x'g] ;d:of bf]xf]l/O/x]sf] 5 . w]/} 7fpFsf afl;Gbf k|sf]ksf] o; ;d:ofsf sf/0f lj:yflkt ePsf y'k}| pbfx/0f kfOG5g . gbLsf] hnfwf/ If]qdf af9Ln] k'¥ofpg] Ifltsf sf/0f s[lif If]qsf] nufgL ;d]t k|efljt ag]sf] 5 . af9Lsf sf/0f ;d'bfodf a9g] dgf]j1flgs kL8faf6 klg ;fdflhs tyf } cfly{s Ifltdf j[l4 eO/x]sf] 5 . af9Laf6 v]tLof]Uo e"ld, afnLgfnL, j:t'efp / ljsf;sf k"jf{wf/sf] Iflt eP/ ;d:t cy{tGq k|efljt x'G5 . g]kfndf jif]gL cfpg] af9Ln] { k'¥ofPsf] Ifltn] cfly{s ljsf;sf] ultnfO{ lgs} kl5 ws]ln/x]sf] 5 . cf“s8fdf af9Laf6 x'g] o; k|sf/sf] Ifltn] af9Lklx/f]af6 Iflt ljsf;nfO{ slt k|ltzt kl5 ws]nsf] ] g]kfndf af9Lklx/f]sf] 5 eGg] ljZn]if0f eg] x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . k|sf]ksf] clen]v cg';f/ kl/0ffd:j¿k d'n'ssf] cy{tGqdf ;g !((# nfO{ ;jf{lws lg/Gt/ gsf/fTds k|efj kl//x]sf] 5 . ljgfzsf/L jif{ dflgG5 . af9Lsf] hf]lvd /x]sf If]qdf lg/k]If ;fpgsf] clGtd / ul/ax¿sf] a;f]af; /x]sf] 5 . of] ju{ ebf}sf] k|f/Delt/ ePsf] g} ;|ft / ;fwgljxLg ePsfn] k|sf]ksf] af9Lklx/fdf k/L ;f] jif{ ] hf]lvddf klg ltgLx¿ g} a9L k/]sf ! xhf/ # ;o #^ x'G5g . af9Låf/f lj:yflkt ;d'bfosf] hgfsf] Hofg uPsf] lyof] ;'/lIft a;f]af; / cfocfh{gsf eg] $ ca{ () j}slNks ;|f]tsf] cefjsf sf/0f s/]f8eGbf a9Lsf] cfly{s pgLx¿ k'gM hf]lvdo'Qm If]qd} a;f]af; Iflt ePsf] lyof] . ug{ afWo x'G5g / yk ul/aLsf] kL8fdf af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷17
  • 18. hLjg afFRg ljjz x'G5g . o;n] ul/aL lgjf/0fsf] ;x>fAbL nIos} pkxf; u/]sf] 5 eGg] cj:yf xfdLsxfF /x]sf] 5 . k|fs[lts tyf jftfj/0fLo Iflt hg;ªVof j[l4sf] rfkaf6 k|fs[lts ;|ftdf w]/} bafa k5{ . jghªunsf] ] ljgfz Pj+ ;LdfGt v]tLsf sf/0f le/fnf] If]qdf klx/f] tyf e"Ifosf] ;d:of a9b5 . jgljgfz eO{ xl/of 8fF8fx¿ p/f7 ag]/ klx/f] hfg] tyf jiff{sf] kfgL ;f]:g] e"ldsf] Ifdtfdf x|f; cfP/ klg e"Ifo x'G5 . kmn:j¿k af9Ldf kfgL / df6f], afn'jf / u]uØofgLsf] ef/ a9]/ | axfjdfu{ k'l/G5 . o;/L axfjdfu{ k'l/Fbf 8'afg / s6fgsf] ;d:ofdf j[l4 x'G5 . jgljgfzsf sf/0f jiff{sf] :j¿kdf klg kl/jt{g eP/ st} kfgLsf ;|ft ;'s/ d¿e"dLs/0fsf] ;d:of al9/x]sf] 5 eg] st} cltj[li6 ] ] eP/ af9L cem Jofks aGb} uPsf] b]lvG5 . ;fdflhs k|efj d'nssf lg/k]If ul/a ;d'bfo g} af9Lsf] hf]lvd ePsf] If]qdf a;f]af; ' ug{ afWo 5g . ToxL ul/a ;d'bfosf] a;f]af; /x]sf] If]qdf af9Lnufotsf k|sf]k bf]xf]l/O/xG5g / ul/aLsf] :t/ emg a9b} hfG5 . clzIff / hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] 1fgsf] cefjn] af9Laf6 x'g] Iflt sd ug]{ pkfo ul/Psf] x'bg . ;fdflhs ul/aLdf j[l4 ePkl5 ;dfhdf ljrng k}bf F } eP/ åGåsf] pTklQ x'G5 . o;af6 n'6kf6, rf]/L–8s}tL h:tf ;fdflhs ck/fwdf j[l4 eP/ ;fdflhs ljrng k}bf x'g] ;Defjgfdf j[l4 x'G5 . hg:jf:Yodf k|efj gbLdf af9L cfpFbf 6f9f–6f9faf6 kmf]xf]/ kfgL ldl;P/ cfPsf] x'G5 . To:tf] kfgL ufpFa:tLdf k:of] eg] htf;'s} kmf]x/ kfgL hDb5 . o;n] gbL, s'jf, Ogf/, 6oaj]n, kf]v/L, h¿jfh:tf vfg]kfgLsf ;|ftnfO{ ' ] kmf]xf]/ jf b"lift agfOlbG5 . vfg]kfgLsf] csf]{ ;kmf ;|ft gePsf] ] cj:yfdf ufpFa:tLsf dflg;n] ToxL kfgL k|of]u ug'kg]{ afWotf x'G5 . { o:tf] k|bl" ift kfgLsf sf/0f sdnlkQ, emf8fkvfnf / 6fOkmfO8sf] dxfdf/L km}ng] ;Defjgf lgSs} /xG5 . af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷18
  • 19. af9LhGo k|sf]ksf] Joj:yfkg kl/ro af9Ln] ljz]ifu/L gbL lsgf/sf ufpF, a:tL, v]tLof]Uo e"ldsf cnfjf 3/kfn'jf kz' / dfgjlgld{t cGo ef}lts ;+/rgfnfO{ aufP/ jf 8'afP/ Iflt k'¥ofpF5 . To;}n] Ps JolQm tyf kl/jf/af6 dfq af9Lsf] k|efjsf] /f]syfd ug'{ ;Dej x'bg . F } em§ x]bf{ k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 af9L cfpg] cfef; x'G5 . clws jiff{ eP/ af9L cfpg] x'bf af9LnfO{ k|fs[lts k|sf]ks} ¿kdf :jLsf/ ug]{ ul/Psf] F 5 . t/ cTolws jiff{ / af9LhGo k|sf]ksf] j[l4 x'gdf dfgjLo sf/0f ' klg w]/} xb;Dd lhDd]jf/ /x]sf] 5 . af9Laf6 aRg cfˆgf] 3/af/, v]tLkftL, hUufhldg ;a} 5f]8/ a;fO ;g'{ ] klg ;Dej x'bg . To;}n] af9LhGo k|sf]ksf] Joj:yfkgdf ;fd'bflos F } ¿kaf6} sfd ug'{ /fd|f] x'G5 . ;/sf/L lgsfo, ;/f]sf/jfnf cGo ;ª3;+:yf;Fu ;dGjo u/]/ af9Laf6 x'g] Iflt sd ug{ k"jtof/L / p4f/ { tyf /fxtsf sfo{ ug'kg]{ x'G5 . k|efljt ;d'bfosf] efjL ;'/Iff / { hLljsf]kfh{gsf] ;'lglZrttfsf nflu k'gM:yfkg / k'glg{df{0fsf sfo{ ug'kg]{ x'G5 . { ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t af9L Joj:yfkg af9L lgoGq0f ug{ g;lsg] k|sl[ thGo k|sf]ksf] 36gf xf] . t/ klg xfd|f] c1fgtf / cJoj:yfn] ubf{ af9Ln] ljgfznLnf b]vfpF5 . af9L cfpg] lglZrt ;do yfxf geP klg dg;'gL ofddf af9L cfpF5 eGg]] ;a}nfO{ yfxf x'G5 . g]kfndf h]7sf] cGTob]lv ebf};Dd dg;'gL jiff{ x'g] ePsfn] of] cjlwnfO{ af9Lsf] hf]lvdsf] ;do dflgG5 . o; ;dodf cfpg] af9Lk|lt ;ts{ x'g] / To;sf] k|efjsf] /f]syfd ug{ tof/ /xg] xf] eg] af9Ln] ;d'bfodf k'¥ofpg] hgwgsf] Iflt w]/} xb;Dd sd ug{{ ;lsG5 . af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷19
  • 20. g]kfnsf clwsf+z hgtfdf ul/aLsf] kL8f 5 . pgLx¿ af9Lsf] vt/f ePsf :yfgdf a:g afWo t 5g g}, ;DalGwt If]q tyf lgsfoaf6 af9L Joj:yfkgsf] kof{Kt 1fg pgLx¿df k'¥ofpg klg ;lsPsf] kfOFbg . } af9Lsf] hf]lvd ePsf t/fO{sf s}of}F a:tLdf x/]s jif{ ;of}F dflg;sf] d[To' x'g] u5{ eg] xhf/f}F kl/jf/ k|efljt x'G5g . af9Laf6 lj:yflkt x'gsf] jf:tljs tYofªs pknAw geP klg jif]gL sl/a Ps xhf/ ] { 3/kl/jf/ af9Lsf sf/0f lj:yflkt x'g] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . af9Lsf] ;dodf p4f/ tyf /fxtsf clwsf+z sfo{ kLl8t :jo+n] JolQmut tj/af6 ug'kg]{ afWotf /x]sfn] klg ck]Iffcg'¿k hgwgsf] Iflt sd { x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . o:tf sfo{ ;/sf/sf :yfgLo lgsfo / ;d'bfosf] ;+oQm k|of;af6 ug]{ xf] eg] hgwgsf] Iflt w]/} xb;Dd sd ug{ ' ;lsG5 . u|fdL0f tyf gu/f]Gd'v ufpFx¿sf sltko :yfgdf clxn] klg Ps JolQm kl/jf/sf] Ifdtfn] EofP;Dd JolQmut tj/af6} af9Lsf] k|lt/f]w ug]{ ul/Psf] klg b]Vg ;lsG5 . vf;u/L ;d'bfosf ;DkGg / ;Ifd JolQmn] g} af9Laf6 aRg ljleGg k|sf/sf k"jtof/L u5{g . ul/a kl/jf/df { af9Lsf] k|ltsf/ ug]{ 1fg, ;|ft / ;fwg kof{Kt x'bg . To;}sf/0f ] F } pgLx¿ g} af9Laf6 a9L kLl8t x'G5g . Go"g kx'r, ;fdflhs ;+/rgf F tyf hLljsf]kfh{gsf] cefjsf sf/0f km]l/ klg log} ul/a ;d'bfo af9Lsf] hf]lvdo'Qm If]qdf a;f]af; ug{ afWo x'G5g . t}klg ;d'bfon] ;fªu7lgs ¿kdf af9Lsf] k|lt/f]w ug]{ /0fgLlt clVtof/ ug{ z'¿ ug{ yfn]kl5 eg] o; cj:yfdf Go"g eP/ ;'wf/sf] ;ªst b]vf k/]sf] 5 . ] ;d'bfon] ;ªul7t ¿kdf af9L Joj:yfkgsf] vfFrf] dx;'; ug{ yfn]sf / sltko :yfgdf ul/Psf] Joj:yfkgn] o; k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug{ ljleGg r/0fdf sfd ug'kg]{ b]lvPsf] 5 . k|sf]k Joj:yfkg rqms} { cg';/0f u/]/ af9Lsf] Joj:yfkg ug'kg]{ x'G5 . { hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu k"j{tof/L af9L cfOxfn]df s'g} Ps JolQm tyf kl/jf/n] dfq ;d'bfonfO{ arfpg ;Sb}g . To;}sf/0f af9L cfpg'klxn] g} ;d'bfosf ;a} ldn]/ ;'/lIft /xg] pkfox¿sf] klxrfg eof] eg] af9Laf6 x'g;Sg] ;Defljt IfltnfO{ w]/} xb;Dd sd ug{ ;lsG5 . o;sf nflu ;d'bfosf ;a} ;b:o Ps;fy ldn]/ ;fd'bflos k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ;ldlt u7g ug'{ k5{ . af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷20
  • 21. o:tf] ;ldlt u7g ubf{ ;d'bfon] lgDg nfe k|fKt ug{ ;S5g M af9Laf6 x'g] Iflt sd ug{ pko'Qm k"jtof/L ug{ ;lsG5 . { af9L cfOxfn]df ;d'bfosf clwsf+z dflg;nfO{ ;xof]u ug{ ;lsG5 . p4f/ tyf /fxtsf nflu afXo ;xof]u h'6fpg ;lsG5 . ;d'bfosf] cfjfh afXo hut;Dd k'¥ofpg ;lsG5 . ;/sf/L ;xof]usf nflu ;DalGwt lgsfo;Fu kxn ug{ ;lsG5 . hgr]tgf tyf Ifdtf clej[l4 ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t af9L Joj:yfkgsf] sfo{n] af9Laf6 x'g] Iflt Go"g ug{ / af9Lsf] k|efjsf] ;fdgf ug{ hgr]tgf / Ifdtfj[l4nfO{ klxnf] k|fyldstf lbg' k5{ . ;fd'bflos k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ;ldltn] lhNnfl:yt ;/f]sf/jfnf ;/sf/L lgsfo tyf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿;d]t ;lDdlnt cfkTsfnLg of]hgf tof/ ug'{ ;fGble{s x'g5 . ;ldltn] plNnlvt ] lgsfo;Fu Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu tflndsf] Joj:yf ldnfpg cfu|x klg ug'{ k5{ . ;d'bfon] af9Lsf] hf]lvd sd ug{ k"jtof/L, af9Lsf] { ;dodf ug'kg]{ cfkTsfnLg sfd, af9Laf6 Ifltu|:t ;+/rgfsf] k'gMlgdf{0f { tyf k'gM:yfkgh:tf ljifodf tflnd lng' k5{ . hf]lvdsf] klxrfg tyf Go"gLs/0f af9Ln] slt Iflt k'¥ofpg ;S5 eGg] cg'dfg ug'{ k5{ . o;sf nflu ljutsf] af9Lsf] 36gf, jt{dfg ;dodf cfPsf] kl/jt{g, ;d'bfosf] Ifdtfh:tf ljleGg ljifodf Wofg lbg' k5{ . ;d'bfon] cfˆgf] 1fg, ;Lk / k|ljlwsf dfWodaf6 af9Lsf] hf]lvd klxrfg ug]{ / To;sf] Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{ ug'{ h¿/L x'G5 . ef}uf]lns cj:yf, ;fdflhs ;+:s[lts cfly{s / k|fljlws x}l;otn] km/s ;d'bfodf hf]lvd klg km/s–km/s x'g ;S5 . gbL5]p / To;eGbf k/ x'g] Iflt Ps} k|sf/sf] x'g ;Sb}g . Ps}7fpFdf klg 3/sf] agfj6sf] cfwf/df af9Lsf] hf]lvdsf] :t/ km/s x'g ;S5 . kSsL 3/df sd / sRrL 3/df a9L Iflt k'Ug ;S5 . o;}n] k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ;ldltn] af9L cfpg] If]qsf] juL{s/0f u/L ;d'bfodf af9Lsf] hf]lvdsf] gS;f tof/ ug'{ k5{ . o;k|sf/sf] gS;fdf ;fj{hlgs hUuf, cUnf] hldg / af6f];d]t b]vfpg' k5{ . ;Dej eP ljleGg If]qdf af9L cfpFbfsf] kfgLsf] ulx/fO tyf af9Lsf] kfgL hDg] cjlw;d]t o:tf] gS;fdf af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷21
  • 22. b]vfpg' /fd|f] x'G5 . hf]lvdsf] gS;fªsg u/]/ agfOPsf] gS;faf6 af9Ln] s'g–s'g 3/ 8'afgdf kg{ ;S5g / s'g–s'g If]qsf] v]tLafnL Iflt x'g ;S5 yfxf kfpg ;lsG5 . o;k|sf/sf] gS;f tof/ ug{ ;Dej 5}g eg] ;ldltn] ;d'bfo;Fu 5nkmn u/L ljutdf cfPsf af9Lsf] cg'ejaf6} hf]lvdsf] klxrfg ug{ ;S5 . hf]lvd gS;fªsgkl5 yfxf ePsf hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{ ug'{ k5{ . gbLsf] cltqmd0f lgoGq0f ljZjJofkL ¿kdf hg;ªVof j[l4df cfPsf] tLj|tf;Fu} dflg;sf] cfjf; If]q klg km}lnFb} uPsf] 5 . kl/0ffd:j¿k dflg;sf] a;f]af; gbLlsgf/df a9L s]lGb|t x'g yfn]sf] 5 . u|fdL0f / ;x/L If]qsf gbLlsgf/df dflg;sf] af;f]af; lg/Gt/ a9]sf] sf/0f kfgLsf] axfjdfu{ ;fF3l' /b} uPsf] 5 . o; sf/0fn] klg af9Lsf] ;dodf kfgL axfjdfu{ aflx/ uP/ ufpFa:tL / v]tL aufpg] qmd a9]sf] 5 . To;}n] af9Laf6 x'g] Iflt lgoGq0f ug]{ klxnf] tl/sf eg]s} gbLlsgf/dfly eO/x]sf] cltqmd0f lgoGq0f ug'{ xf] . gbLlsgf/nfO{ cltqmd0faf6 arfpg gbLsf] cfsf/, k|sf/ / To;df aUg] kfgLsf] dfqfcg';f/ ! ;ob]lv # ;o ld6/;Dd gbLlsgf/nfO{ k|fs[lts¿kdf 5f]8g] /fli6«o gLlt g} aGg'kg]{ b]lvG5 . t6aGw lgdf{0f gbLsf] tLj| axfjaf6 x'g] s6fg / 8'afg lgoGq0f ug{ ;Defljt Ifltsf] cj:yfcg'¿k t6aGw lgdf{0f ug'{ k5{ . gbLdf t6aGw nufpFbf ljleGg k|ljlw ckgfpg ;lsG5 . ;–;fgf t6aGw :yfgLo ;|ftsf] pkof]uaf6} ] nufpg ;lsG5 eg] 7"nf t6aGwsf nflu cfw'lgs k|ljlwsf] k|of]u ug'kg]{ x'G5 . { af9Låf/f Iflt x'g;Sg] ;–;fgf afFwsf nflu afn'jfsf] af]/f, afF;sf ef6fsf] af/ / h}ljs j:t'sf] k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . 7"nf afFwsf nflu tf/hfnLdf 9'ªuf e/]/ t6aGw lgdf{0f ug'{ k5{ . e"Ifo eO/xg] gbL cf;kf;sf 8fF8f–kfvfdf j[If/f]k0f u/L le/fnf] kfvf]df ux|f agfP/ df6f] aUgaf6 arfpg] . klxn] af9Ln] Iflt k'¥ofPsf] 7fpFsf] hf]lvd ljZn]if0f u/L eljiodf x'g;Sg] Iflt sd ug{ :yfgLo 1fg / k|ljlwcg'¿k sfd ug]{ . af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷22
  • 23. af9Låf/f Ifltu|:t e"ld jf au/sf] pkof]u ug{ ;DalGwt k|fljlws tyf :yfgLo ;/sf/L lgsfo;Fu ;xof]u lng] . Ifltu|:t e"ldsf] pkof]u ;d'bflos ;xeflutfdf ug]{ . gbL lgoGq0fsf s'g} klg ljlw ckgfpFbf t6aGw;Fu} j[Iff/f]k0f ug]{ / ;s];Dd afF; /f]k/ x'sf{pg] . ] af9Laf6 pTkGg x'g;Sg] hf]lvd sd ug{ ef}uf]lns cj:yf, ;d'bfosf] Ifdtf, k/Dk/fut 1fg, ;Lk / k|ljlwnfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ ug'{ k5{ . o:tf sfo{ s] x'g eGg] klxrfg ;fd'bflos 5nkmnaf6 ug'{ k5{ . ;'/lIft a;f]af; af9Lsf] kL8f jf:tjd} Hofb} eofjx x'G5 . ljzfn jiff{ / ;j{q hndUg ePsf] cj:yfdf clwsf+z ul/a ;d'bfo 8'Ab} jf aUb} u/]sf] cfˆgf] 3/leq} a:g ljjz x'G5g . ;dod} p4f/sdL{ gk'udf pgLx¿ aluPnf ] eGg] 8/n] aflx/ hfg] ;fx; h'6fpg ;Sb}gg . t/fO{df af9Laf6 aRg aflx/ lg:sFbf aUg] dfq xf]Og, ;k{sf] 6f]sfOdf kg]{ ;Defjgf klg /xG5 . To;}u/L aflx/ hfg;s] klg efUg] ;'/lIft af6f] / a:gsf nflu ;'/lIft 7fpFsf] cefj x'g] x'bf ul/a kl/jf/ qf;k"0f{ cj:yfdf klg F ;Dk"0f{ hf]lvd af]s/ 3/leq} a:g afWo x'G5g . ] o; cj:yfdf klg sltko 3/x¿ af9Lsf] hf]lvdaf6 w]/} xb;Dd ;'/lIft x'g ;S5g . o;sf nflu lgDg Joj:yf ug'{ h¿/L x'G5 M 3/sf] ;tx af9Lsf] kfgL hDg] txeGbf cUnf] agfpg' k5{ . 3/kfn'jf kz'sf nflu agfpg] uf]7 8'afgaf6 ;'/lIft x'gu/L ] cUnf] kf/]/ agfpg' k5{ . zf}rfno af9L tyf 8'afgn] ge]6gu/L cUnf] agfpg' k5{ . ] kfgL hDg ;Sg] xf]rf] e"If]qdf a;f]af;sf nflu 3/ agfOPsf] 5 eg] ufpFsf] ;a}eGbf xf]rf] 7fpFdf kfgL hDg] vfN8f] vGg' k5{ . ;/;kmfO, kmf]xf]/ kfgLsf] plrt lgsf;sf] k|aGw ug'{ k5{ . vfBfGg e08f/0f k|sf]ksf ;dodf rflxg] cTofjZos vfBkbfy{sf] aGbf]a:t klxn] g} ug'{ k5{ . ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutfdf k|sf]k vfBe08f/sf] :yfkg ug'{ k5{ . af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷23
  • 24. u'7Lsf] cjwf/0ffcg';f/ ;d'bfosf ;b:oåf/f d'7L bfg u/]/ rfdn, bfn, kL7f] / cGo cfjZos vfBkbfy{sf] e08f/0f ug{ ;lsPdf af9Laf6 ePsf] Ifltsf ;dodf tTsfnsf nflu vfBfGg pknAw x'G5 . z'4 kfgLsf] ;|ftsf] ;+/If0f ] 6Ø'aj]nsf] kfgL ;'/lIft eP af9Lsf] ;dodf klg k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . af9Ln] clwsf+z kfgLsf ;|ft b"lift kfg]{ x'bf 6oaj]n g8'Ag] u/L cUnf] ] F ' kf/]/ uf8g' k5{ . To;}u/L lkpg] kfgLsf] ;|ft Ogf/ 5 eg] To;sf] l8n ] cUnf] kf/]/ af9Lsf] kfgL k:g g;Sg] agfpg' k5{ . cf}iflw / :jf:Yos]Gb|sf] Joj:yf d'nssf clwsf+z ufpFdf :jf:Yorf}sLsf] Joj:yf ePsf] b]lvG5 . t/ ' tL pkrf/s]Gb|df cfkTsfnLg cf}iflwsf] cefj ;b}j /xg] cj:yf ljBdfg 5 . To;}n] :yfgLo :jf:YosdL{sf] ;d]t ;Nnfx / ;xof]u lnP/ cfkTsfnLg ;dodf rflxg] k|fylds pkrf/sf cf}iflwsf] Joj:yf ;fd'bflos ¿kd} ug'{ /fd|f] x'G5 . p4f/ tyf /fxt ;fdu|Lsf] aGbf]a:t af9LkLl8tsf] p4f/sf nflu 8'ªuf, nfOkm Hofs]6, 6fo/, 6oa, 8f]/L ' cflb ;lhn} e]6g ;lsg] :yfgdf /fVg] . To;}u/L ;ªs6sfnLg ;dodf cfjZos kg]{ vfBfGg, n'ufkmf6f], k|fylds pkrf/sf nflu cf}iflw, dnxdk§L cflb af9L cfPsf] ;dodf lnP/ efUg ;Sg] u/L /fVg] . c:yfoL lzlj/sf] aGbf]a:t af9Ln]] 3/–uf]7 aufpg] jf 8'afg x'g] x'bf dflg;nufot 3/kfn'jf F kz'sf nflu c:yfoL cf>o lng] ;fd'bflos cf>o:ynx¿sf] Joj:yf ug'{ k5{ . af9Lsf] cTolws hf]lvddf /x]sf kl/jf/sf] klxrfg u/]/ To:tf] cf>o:ynsf] cfsf/–k|sf/ s:tf] x'g' k5{ eGg] lgSof]n ug'{ k5{ . { cf>o:ynsf] lgdf{0f hf]lvd sd ePsf] cUnf] 7fpFdf ug'{ k5{ . af9Lsf] ;dodf hf]lvddf g/x]sf l5d]sL, ljBfno tyf ;fj{hlgs ejg, d7dlGb/, dl:hb, rr{ cflb 7fpFdf klg cf>o lng' kg]{ x'G5 . To;}n] ;d'bfo ldn]/ o:tf ejgsf] dd{t;Def/ ;dod} ug'{ /fd|f] x'G5 . c:yfoL lzlj/sf] cfjZostf kg{;Sg] 3/ tyf uf]7sf] ljj/0f klg klxNo} tof/ u/]/ /fVg' k5{ . af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷24
  • 25. cfkTsfnLg of]hgf af9Lsf] hf]lvdaf6 ;d'bfonfO{ ;'/lIft /fVg, af9L cfOxfn]df ug'{ kg]{ cfkTsfnLg sfo{sf nflu :yfgLo clwsf/L, lhlj;, uflj;, ;fd'bfodf cfwfl/t k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ;d"x / :jo+;jsx¿;Fu ;dGjo u/L ] cfkTsfnLg of]hgf tof/ u/L sfdsf] afF8kmfF8 ug]{ . k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsf] Joj:yf { ] af9L ljz]ifu/L dg;'gL ofddf cfpg] x'bf To; ;dodf af9Lsf] eljiojf0fL F / k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsf] :yfgLo Joj:yf ug'{ /fd|f] x'G5 . ;d'bfo ldn]/ { ] :yfgLo ;/sf/L lgsfo / u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿;Fu ;dGjo u/L k"jrtfjgL{ ] k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf ug{ ;lsG5 . gbLsf] d'xfg tyf dflylt/ jiff{ ePsf] va/ lng] Joj:yf dflyNnf] If]qsf] ;d'bfo;Fu ;DaGw :yfkgf u/]/ ug{ ;lsG5 . To;}u/L gbLglhs} cUnf] :yfgdf s'¿jf 3/ agfP/ ¿Fufnf] /fVg] aGbf]a:t klg ug{ ;lsG5 . dflyNnf] If]qdf jiff{ ePdf / af9L cfpg nfu]df s'¿jfn] l;67L, dfbn, bdfxf, zªv cflb ahfP/ tNnf] If]qsf ;d'bfonfO{ hfgsf/L lbg ;Sg] k|aGw ldnfpg' :yfgLo ;d'bfon] cfkm}F ug{ ;Sg] sfo{ xf] . g]kfnsf s]xL :yfgdf o:tf] aGbf]a:t ug{ yflnPsf] 5 . lrtjg lhNnfl:yt gf/fo0fL gbLdf cfw'lgs k|ljlwsf] k"jrtfjgL { ] k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf klg ePsf] 5 . dflyNnf] If]qaf6 cfPsf] af9Lsf] ;tx a9g yfn]kl5 :jrflnt ¿kdf ;fO/g aHg] d]l;g k|flS6sn PS;g gfds cGt/f{li6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfsf] ;xof]udf h8fg ePsf] 5 . t/ g]kfnL ;dfhsf] cfly{s cj:yf tyf k|fljlws 1fgn] o:tf] ;"rgfk|0ffnLnfO{ lbuf] ¿k lbg ;S5 of ;Sb}g eGg]tkm{ klg cWoog x'g' h¿/L 5 . olb ;d'bfon] o;sf] nfut lgoldt ¿kdf axg ug{ / ;~rfng ug]{ bIftf k|fKt u¥of] eg] /fd|f] sfdsf] k|f/De ePsf] dfGg' k5{ / cGoq klg la:tf/ ug'{ k5{ . ;d'bfosf] cfly{s / k|fljlws cj:yfsf cfwf/df ;d'bfo :jo+n] cfkm";u F ePsf] ;|ft tyf cg'ejnfO{ k|of]u u/]/ cfˆg} lsl;dsf] k"jrtfjgL ] { ] k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf ug{ ;Sof] eg] To;n] lbuf] ¿k lng ;S5 . ;d'bfonfO{ ;|ft / ;fwgn] :jLsfo{ x'g] af9Lsf] eljiojf0fL tyf k"jrtfjgLk|0ffnLsf ] { ] s]xL pkfo lgDgcg';f/ x'g ;S5g M af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷25
  • 26. /]l8of] tyf 6]lnlehgdf ;dfrf/ k|zf/0fsf] cGTodf b]zsf ljleGg efusf] df};dL ljj/0fsf] k|zf/0f x'g] u5{ . o:tf ;"rgf af9Lsf] cg'dfg nufpg ;xfos x'G5g . t;y{ jiff{sf] df};ddf o:tf ;dfrf/ lgoldt x]g{] jf ;'Gg] ug'{ k5{ . gbLsf] kfgLsf] ;txsf] lgu/fgL ug{ ;d'bfosf] s'g} JolQmnfO{ lhDdf lbg ;lsG5 . gbLsf] dflyNnf] hnfwf/ If]qdf jiff{ x'g;Sg] l:yltsf] cjnf]sg u/]/ klg af9Lsf] k"jcg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 . { gbLsf] kfgLsf] ;txdf j[l4 x'g,' lxnf] df6f] ldl;P/ cfpg', kft au]/ cfpg', df5fsf] ;ªVof PSsfl; a9gh:tf kl/jt{g x]// ' ] af9Lsf] ;DaGwdf ;d'bfonfO{ ;ts{ u/fpg ;lsG5 . gbLdf u8u8fx6sf] cfjfh jf gbLsf] kfgLdf uGw cfpg'h:tf c;fdfGo cj:yf b]lvPdf af9L cfpg] ;Defjgf x'G5 . jiff{ofddf rf}aL;} 3G6f vf]nf jf gbLsf] lgu/fgL ug{' k5{ . cjnf]sg ul/Psf ;"rsfªs, ;d'bfonfO{ ;r]t ul/Psf] ljj/0f tyf jf:tljs cg'ej ul/Psf] 36gfsf] clen]v /fVg' k5{ . af9L;DaGwL 36gfsf] ljj/0f ;ªsng u/L cBfjlws ugf{n] eljiodf ;d'bfosf nflu pkof]uL x'g] af9Lsf] eljiojf0fL tyf To;af6 ;r]t u/fpg] Joj:yf ug{ ;lsG5 . af9Lsf] eljiojf0fL tyf ;r]ttf ;d'bfosf x/]s JolQm;Dd k'¥ofpg] rfFhf] ldnfpg' k5{ . ;Dk"0f{ If]qnfO{ Joj:yfkgsf ljleGg kIfsf] rfFhf] ldnfpg cg'sn x'gu/L If]qut ¿kdf cfjZos ;ªVofdf ljefhg u/L " ] ;"rgf k'¥ofpg] lhDdf ;ldltsf ;b:on] lng' k5{ . ;"rgf k|jfxsf nflu kl/lrt ;ªst, jf af9L cfpFb5– 3/ jf a:tL vfnL u/, ;'/lIft ] } :yfgtkm{ efu, eg]/ ;Gb]z lbg' k5{ . To;}u/L ;d'bfosf ;b:onfO{ dfOsaf6 ;"rgf lbP/ jf 9f]ns, l;67L, dfbn, bdfxf, zªvh:tf 7"nf] cfjfh cfpg] afhf ahfP/ ;"rgfk|jfx ug'{ k5{ . :yfg vfnL ug]{ of]hgf agfpg] xf]rf] hldgdf /x]sf] a:tLnfO{ af9L / 8'afgn] a9L Iflt k'¥ofpg ;S5 . gbLn] s6fg u/]/ klg 3/a:tL aufpg ;S5 . af9L cfpFbf hgwgsf] Iflt sd x'g] cj:yf agfpg o:tf] If]qnfO{ af9L cfpg' cufj} vfnL ug'{ k5{ . ;d'bfosf cu'jf / :jo+;jsn] ufpFn;u 5nkmn u/L af9L ] ] F cfPsf] r]tfjgL k|fKt x'gf;fy hf]lvdk"0f{ If]qsf] a:tL tTsfn} vfnL ug]{ af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷26
  • 27. k"jtof/L ug'{ k5{ . o;/L 3/af/ g} 5f]8/ cGoq hfg] sfo{ To; { ] ;d'bfosf ;r]ttfsf] :t/df lge{/ x'G5 . af9L cfOxfn]df kLl8t ;d'bfonfO{ k"jklxrfg ul/Psf] ;'/lIft af6f]af6 { cf>o:yn;Dd k'¥ofpg' k5{ . ;ªs6sf] ;Defljt If]q vfnL u/fpFbf afnaflnsf, a"9fa"9L, czQm / dlxnfnfO{ klxnf] k|fyldstf lbg' k5{ . o;/L hf]lvdo'Qm If]q vfnL u/fpFbf s'g If]qsf ;d'bfo s'g If]qsf] cf>o:yn jf lzlj/df hfg] xf] To;sf] klxn] g} lgSof]n ul/Psf] x'g' { k5{ . o:tf] Joj:yfnfO{ lgoldt / e/kbf]{ agfpg :jo+;]jsn] cfjZostfcg';f/ k|aGw ldnfpg' k5{ . :yfg vfnL ug]{ qmddf af9Ldf k/]sf ;b:osf] p4f/sf nflu cfjZos kg]{ p4f/ ;fdu|L klg ;Fu} lnP/ hfg' /fd|f] x'G5 . klxn] g} ;'/lIft /flvPsf 8'ªuf, 6oa, 6fo/, 8f]/Lh:tf ;fdu|L;d]t af]Sg' pQd x'G5 . ' o;sf ;fy} cfk"m;Fu ePsf ax'dNo u/uxgf, gub, xn'sf vfgf / " cf}iflw /flvPsf] emf]nf cflb ;s];Dd ;Fu} lnP/ :yfg vfnL ug'{ k5{ . ;"rgf k|jfx ;Defljt af9Laf6 ;d'bfonfO{ ;r]t u/fO;s]kl5 ;ldltn] cfjZos ;xof]u tyf p4f/sfo{sf nflu ;DalGwt ;+:yf;Fu ;~rf/;Dks{ sfod ug'{ k5{ . ;ldltn] ;d'bfosf ;a} ;b:onfO{ cfjZos sfo{sf nflu ;ts{ /xg cfu|x ug'{ k5{ . af9Lsf] ;dodf ul/g] sfo{ af9L cfO/x]sf] cj:yfdf ug'kg]{ sfo{nfO{ klg ljleGg r/0fdf /flvPsf] { x'G5 . af9Ldf k/]sf ;d'bfosf s'g} klg ;b:onfO{ arfpg' o; r/0fsf] klxnf] sfo{ xf] . af9L cfO/x]sf] / To;sf] nuQ} lg/Gt/ ug'kg]{ sfo{nfO{ { af9Lsf] ;dodf ul/g] sfo{sf ¿kdf lng' k5{, hf] lgDgcg';f/ 5g M p4f/, vf]h / pkrf/ af9Ldf k/]sf ;b:osf] p4f/ ug'{ :jo+;js / ;'/lIft /x]sf ;a} ] ;b:osf] bfloTj x'G5 . 3/sf] 5fgf jf hf]lvdo'Qm :yfgdf /x]sf afnaflnsf, a"9fa"9L, dlxnf tyf cGo JolQmnfO{ pknAw ;|ftsf] ] pkof]u u/L ;'/lIft :yfgdf jf lzlj/df n}hfg' k5{ . af9Ldf k/]/ 3fOt] ePsf ;b:onfO{ tTsfn} k|fylds pkrf/sf] Joj:yf ug]{ / cfjZos af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷27
  • 28. k/]df c:ktfn k7fpg] k|aGw ug'{ k5{ . af9L cfO/x]sf] cj:yfdf s;}nfO{ aufPsf] 5 ls eg]/ rgfvf] /xg' k5{ . olb ;d'bfosf] s'g} ;b:o x/fPsf] kfOPdf t'¿Gt} vf]hL ug'{ k5{ . o; cj:yfdf :jo+;jsx¿sf] e"ldsf dxTjk"0f{ x'G5 . ;/sf/L p4f/ 6f]nL ] gcfP;Dd cfˆgf ;b:osf] p4f/df :yfgLo :jo+;jsx¿sf] e"ldsf ] dxTjk"0f{ x'g] x'bf ltgLx¿sf] kl/rfngsf] k|efjsf/L k|aGw ul//fv]sf] F x'g' k5{ . cfkTsfnLg cfjf; Joj:yfkg / /fxt ljt/0f af9L cfPsf] ;dodf clwsf+z :jo+;js af9Ldf k/]sfsf] p4f/ / ] x/fPsfsf] vf]hLdf nfu]sf x'G5g . s]xL :jo+;js 3fOt]sf] pkrf/df ] ;+nUg eO/x]sf x'G5g . To; cj:yfdf afFsL /x]sf :jo+;js tyf ] ;d'bfosf ;Ifd ;b:on] p4f/ ul/Psf kLl8t ;d'bfonfO{ ;'/lIft cf>o:yndf nu]/ a;fpg' k5{ . o:tf] sfo{df nfUg' kLl8tdWo]s} klg ;r]t / lzlIft gful/ssf] lhDd]jf/L tyf bfloTj xf] . k|sf]kklxn] af9Laf6 ;'/lIft /xg] jf Ifdtf clej[l4 tflnd lnPsf ;d'bfosf ;b:on] kLl8tnfO{ ;'/lIft :yfgdf n}hfg] / ltgnfO{ cfjZos kg]{ /fxt ;fdu|Lsf] Joj:yf ldnfpg] sfo{ ug'{ k5{ . ;/sf/L /fxt ;fdu|L k|fKt geP;Dd tTsfnsf] cfjZostf k"/f ug{ ;fd'bflos cGge08f/af6 ;fdu|L lgsfNg' k5{ . k"jtof/Lsf qmddf ;'/lIft /flvPsf sDan, { n'ufkmf6f], vfBfGg, k|fylds pkrf/sf ;fdu|L cflbsf] k|of]u ug'{ k5{ . o:tf sfo{sf nflu k|sf]kklxn] ag]sf] cfkTsfnLg of]hgf / sfdsf] afF8kmfF8 ePcg';f/ ;a}n] cf–cfˆgf] bfloTj lgjf{x ug'{ k5{ . af9Laf6 lj:yflkt ePsf ;d'bfonfO{ /fxt k|bfg ubf{ Wofg lbg'kg]{ ljleGg ljifodf Wofg lbg' k5{, hf] lgDgcg';f/ 5g M lzlj/ Joj:yfkg af9Låf/f k|efljt kl/jf/nfO{ ltgsf] cfjZostfcg¿k cf>o pknAw u/fpg] . af9Ldf km;]sf dflg;nfO{ af9LkLl8t lzlj/df :yfgfGt/0f ug'{ k5{ . :yfgfGt/0fsf] qmddf afnaflnsf, dlxnf, j[4 / czQmnfO{ k|fyldstf lbg' k5{ . 3fOt] / af9Lkl5 x'g;Sg] dxfdf/Lh:tf k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug{ lzlj/d} c:yfoL c:ktfn agfpg] . af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷28
  • 29. lzlj/df zf}rfnosf] Joj:yf ug]{ / lzlj/ cf;kf;sf] ;/;kmfOdf Wofg lbg] . dlxnf la/fdLsf] pkrf/ ug{, aRrfnfO{ cfdfsf] b"w v'jfpg / dlxnfsf] ;'/Iff tyf uf]kgLotfsf] /Iffsf nflu Joj:yf ug]{ . vfBfGg, OGwg / kl/jf/sf ax'dNo ;fdfgsf] e08f/0fsf nflu " ;'/lIft Joj:yf ldnfpg] . ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfåf/f ljt/0f x'g] /fxt ;fdu|Lsf] e]befj/lxt ljt/0fsf nflu kLl8tx¿df cfk;L ;dGjo / ;dembf/L a9fP/ Ps–csf{sf] ;xof]uLsf ¿kdf k|:t't x'gtkm{ ;r]t u/fpg] . ] lzlj/df k|fKt ePsf] ;xof]u / ljt/0fsf] ljj/0f :ki6;Fu /fVg] . kLl8t ;d'bfonfO{ af9Lsf] kL8f sd u/L ;fGTjgf lbg r]tgfd"ns syf, sljtf / dgf]/~hgfTds sfo{qmd rnfpg] . :jf:Yo;]jf ue{jtL dlxnf, la/fdL, afnaflnsf / a"9fa"9Lx¿sf] lgoldt :jf:YohfFrsf] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . l;ls:t la/fdLsf nflu 5'§} kfn jf sf]7fsf] Joj:yf u/L cfkTsfnLg pkrf/sf] Joj:yf ldnfpg] . k|fylds :jf:Yo pkrf/sf nflu rflxg] ;fdfgsf] hf]xf] ug]{ . /fxt ;fdu|L aflx/af6 cfPsf] / kLl8t ;d'bfonfO{ ljt/0f u/]sf] clen]v b'¿:t kf/L /fVg] . kf]if0fo'Qm vfgfsf] k"lt{ af9LkLl8t ;d'bfonfO{ :km]o/ kl/of]hgfåf/f lgwf{l/t dfkb08 cg'¿k vfBfGgsf] Joj:yf ug'{ k5{ . ;s];Dd :yfgLo ahf/df pknAw t/sf/L / ;fukft / cGo vfBkbfy{sf] pkof]u ug'{ k5{ . vfBfGgsf] kf]if0f:t/df Wofg lbg' k5{ . af9Laf6 kLl8t s]6fs]6L, j[4, czQm tyf dlxnf, To;df klg ue{jtL tyf ;'Ts]/L dlxnfsf nflu kf]if0fo'Qm vfBfGgsf] aGbf]j:t ug'{ k5{ . :jf:Yo tyf ;/;kmfO af9Lkl5 dxfdf/Lsf] k|sf]k klg ylkg] ;Defjgf x'G5 . To;}n] kmf]xf]/ kfgL glkpg] / ;/;kmfOdf ljz]if Wofg lbg' k5{ . af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷29
  • 30. af9Laf6 x'g] kmf]xf]/d}nf tyf k|bif0fsf] c;/ afnaflnsfdf ;a}eGbf " a9L kg]{ ePsfn] ltgLx¿sf] :jf:Yo / ;/;kmfO{df ljz]if Wofg k'¥ofpg' k5{ . emf8fkvfnf nfu]sf] JolQmnfO{ k|fylds pkrf/n] gEofPdf tTsfn} glhs}sf] :jf:Yorf}sL jf c:ktfndf k'¥ofpg' k5{ . af9Lsf] kfgLdf lb;flk;fa ug{' xFbg . ' } ;/;kmfOsf nflu ;fd'bflos ¿kd} eP klg rkL{ k|of]u ug'{ k5{ . af9L;Fu} laR5L / ;k{sf] k|sf]k klg a9g] ;Defjgf x'g] x'bf F zts{tf ckgfpg' k5{ . sy+sbflrt ;k{ jf laR5Ln] 8;]df 8;]sf] 7fpFdf a/kmsf 6'qmf /fvL tTsfn} c:ktfn n}hfg' k5{ . /fHoåf/f k|fKt x'g] ;xof]usf] bfaL af9LkLl8tsf nflu ;/sf/n] w]/yf]/ /fxt / cfkTsfnLg ;xof]u k|bfg ug]{ Joj:yf x'G5 . ;/sf/n] kLl8t ;d'bfonfO{ lgwf{l/t ;xof]u u5{ eg] af9Lsf] :j¿k, cj:yf / Ifltsf] n]vfhf]vf u/]/ cGo k|sf/n] klg ;xof]u pknAw u/fpF5 . ;/sf/n] s]–s:tf] ;xof]u lbg] 3f]if0ff u5{ To;k|lt ;d'bfon] ;r]t x'g' cfjZos x'G5 . ;d'bfodf p4f/ tyf /fxtsf nflu vl6Psf :jo+;jsn] ;/sf/åf/f 3f]lift ;xof]u ;d'bfon] ] kfpg] Joj:yfsf nflu cfjZos kxn u/L ;xof]u ug'{ k5{ . clwsf/sf] k|Tofe"lt k|sf]kdf kg'{ s'g} efUosf] v]n jf k"jhGdsf] kfksf] kl/0ffd xf]Og . { To;}n] k|sf]kkLl8t ;d'bfonfO{ lbOg] /fxtnfO{ s'g} bfg–bftJo jf bofk"js eLv lbOPsf] dfGg' x'bg . kLl8tsf] p4f/ ug'{ tyf /fxt { F } ;xof]u ug'{ dfgjLo sd{ xf] eg]/ a'‰g' k5{ . lsgls k|sf]kkLl8t;Fu klg ;fdfGo gful/s;/x ;Ddfgk"js afFRg kfpg] clwsf/ /xG5 . { af9L g]kfndf x/]s jif{ cfO/xg] hnpTkGg k|sf]k xf] . clwsf+z ul/a tyf ;LdfGt kl/jf/ g} o;sf] cTolws hf]lvddf k5{g . o:tf ;d'bfonfO{ kL8fsf] ;dodf lbOg] ;xof]u ;Ddfghgs x'g' h¿/L x'G5 . o;sf cltl/Qm /fHo / p;sf :yfgLo lgsfo;Fu kLl8tsf] clwsf/ /Iffsf] nflu kxn ug'{ x/]s gful/ssf] st{Jo g} x'g cfpF5 . /fxt :j¿k lbOg] cGg, vfBfGg :j:ys/ / tfhf x'g' k5{ eg] n'ufkmf6f] klg cfk"mn] k|of]u u/]/ kmflnPsf] lbg' x'bg . h] hlt ;lsG5 pgLx¿sf] ;Ddfg / :jfledfgdf F} cfFr gcfpg] u/L lbg' k5{ . af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷30
  • 31. af9LkLl8t kl/jf/sf] cj:yf ;fdfGo / cfocfh{gsf] lgoldt Joj:yf geP;Dd /fHo, 5/l5d]s jf cGo bftfaf6 x'g] ;xof]un] lg/Gt/tf kfpg] k|Tofe"lt lbg' k5{ . kLl8t ;d'bfonfO{ :km]o/ kl/of]hgfn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] dfkb08 cg'¿k ;xof]u / ;'ljwf lbg] k|aGw ug'{ k5{ . To;sf ;fy} ltgLx¿sf afnaRrfnfO{ lbOg] lzIff :km]o/ kl/of]hgfn] g} lgwf{/0f u/]sf] dfkb08 cg'¿k g} lbg] Joj:yf ug'{ k5{ . af9Lkl5sf] sfo{ af9Lkl5 ;dfhdf l:ylt ;fdfGo x'b} hfG5 . obfsbf jiff{ nfdf] ;do;Dd F eP/ af9L klg nfd} ;do cfpg] ;Defjgf /xG5 . h] eP klg af9L dTy/ x'b} uPkl5 k|efljt kl/jf/nfO{ ;fdfGo cj:yfdf cfˆgf] 3/af/ F ;DxfNg ;xof]u ug'{ k5{ eg] lj:yflkt kl/jf/nfO{ a;f]af;sf] k|aGw ug'{ k5{ . af9Laf6 eTs]sf lghL tyf ;fj{hlgs ;+/rgfsf] /]vb]v, dd{t;Def/ tyf k'gMlgdf{0fsf sfo{ ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 . Ifltsf] d"Nofªsg af9Laf6 ePsf] Ifltsf] k'gMlgdf{0f tyf dd{t;Def/sf nflu s]–s:tf] / slt d"Nosf] Iflt ePsf] 5 eg]/ ;j]If0f ug'{ k5{ . k'gM:yfkg tyf { k'gMlgdf{0fsf nflu /fHon] ah]6 Joj:yf ug{ klg o:tf] d"Nofªsg u5{ eg] ;d'bfon] klg af9Lkl5sf] ;'/lIft lgdf{0fsf nflu Ifltsf] ljZn]if0f ug'{ k5{ . cfˆgf] lghL ;DklQ / ;fj{hlgs ;DklQsf] Ifltsf] cj:yfsf] ljZn]if0f klg k|efljt ;d'bfo, 5/l5d]s, :yfgLo ;/sf/L lgsfo, u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf tyf cGo ;/f]sf/jfn ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutfdf ug'{ pko'Qm x'G5 . To;f] ePdf k'gMlgdf{0f / k'gM:yfkgfsf sfo{df klg ;a} ju{sf] ;xeflutf /xg] ;'lglZrt ug{ ;lsG5 . k'g:yf{kg sfo{sf] k|fyldsLs/0f af9Ln] k'¥ofPsf] Ifltsf] k"lt{ t'¿Gt} x'g ;Sb}g . Ifltsf] k"lt{, dd{t;Def/ / k'gMlgdf{0fsf nflu tTsfnLg cfjZostf klxrfg ug'{ k5{ . k'g:yfkgsf nflu sfo{ k|f/De ug'cl3 lgDg ljifoj:t'sf] ljZn]if0f ug'{ k5{ M { :jR5 lkpg] kfgL, :jf:Yo, ;/;kmfOsf] k'gM:yfkg, af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷31
  • 32. vfBfGg / cfjf;sf] aGbfa:t, dfgjclwsf/sf] lgoldt cg'udg ;ªs6sfnLg lzIffsf] k|aGw, ;~rf/ Joj:yfsf] k'gM:yfkg tyf ;Dks{, cNksfnLg / bL3{sfnLg sfdsf] klxrfg / sfo{of]hgfsf] tof/L, k'gM:yfkg tyf k'gMlgdf{0fsf nflu ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfo;Fu ;dGjo . k'gM:yfkg tyf k'glg{df{0f af9Lsf] k|efj dTy/ x'b} uPkl5 ;d'bfonfO{ k"jf{j:yfdf Nofpg lgs} F nfdf] ;do nfU5 . ;d'bfosf] cfjZostfsf] k|yfldsLs/0fsf cfwf/df tTsfn / lj:tf/} ug'kg]{ sfo{sf] klxrfg ul/g' k5{ . :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] { ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts hLjgk4lt / cfly{s tyf k|fljlws Ifdtfsf cfwf/df sfo{x¿sf] lgwf{/0f ug'{ k5{ . :yfgLo ;|ftsf] pknAwtf / ] afXo ;xof]usf] cfjZostfsf] klg klxrfg u/]/ sfo{ k|f/De ug'{ k5{ . o;/L ul/Psf] cWoog / ljZn]if0fsf cfwf/df lgDf sfo{ ug'{ k5{ M tTsfnLg k'gM:yfkg af9L dTy/ x'gf;fy ;d'bfosf] ;'/Iff / tTsfnLg /fxtsf nflu lgDg sfo{ ug'{ k5{ M z'4 lkpg] kfgLsf] cfk"lt{, ;/;kmfOsf] Joj:yf / lgoldt cg'udg, afnaRrf, dlxnf, a"9fa"9L, czQmsf] pkrf/, vfBkbfy{sf] cfk"lt{, d"No lgoGq0f / pknAwtfsf] k|Tofe"lt, ;xof]uL ;+:yf tyf lgsfo;Fu ;dGjo / ;xof]u kl/rfng, zflGt;'/Iff, kLl8tsf] clwsf/ ;+/If0fsf] k|Tofe"lt, :km]o/ kl/of]hgfåf/f lgwf{l/t dfkb08sf] sfof{Gjog tyf cf+lzs Ifltu|:t 3/sf] dd{t;Def/ / k'gM:yfkg . bL3{sfnLg k'gM:yfkg af9Ll5 ;d'bfosf] cfjZostfsf] klxrfg / k'gM:yfkgsf nflu lgDg sfo{ ug'{ k5{ M af9Ln] k'¥ofPsf] Ifltsf] cfFsng, af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷32
  • 33. k'gM:yfkg of]hgfsf] tof/L, ;Defljt bftf JolQm, :yfgLo lgsfo, ;+:yfh:tf ;/f]sf/jfnfsf] ;Fu ;DaGw :yfkgf / ;xof]usf] cfbfgk|bfgsf] Joj:yf, afXo ;+:yfåf/f k|bfg ul/g] ;xof]usf] ;dGjo, vfBfGgsf] lap, dn tyf v]tLsf nflu cfjZos cf}hf/sf] ;xof]u jf sfdsf nflu vfBfGgsf] k|aGw, bL3{sfnLg ¿kdf cfocfh{gsf j}slNks ;|ftdf kx'r k'¥ofpg ;xof]usf] k|aGw, ] F 3/ lgdf{0fsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ :yfgLo ;|ftsf] ;ªsng, ] ;/sf/ / cGo ;/f]sf/jfnfaLr ;dGjo sfod u/L k|sf]k k|efljt ;d'bfonfO{ ;'/lIft :yfgdf :yfgfGt/0f, pk;+xf/ af9L w]/} k|sf/sf k|sf]kx?dWo] x/]s jif{ 3'Db} cfpg] df};dL k|sf]ksf] 36gf xf] . ljZjdf jif]gL nfvf}F kl/jf/nfO{ lj:yflkt u/fP/ xhf/f}F { dflg;sf] Hofg lng] hnpTkGg k|sf]k af9Ln] c/af}F cd]l/sL 8n/ a/fa/sf] Iflt ug]{ u/]sf] 5 . g]kfndf dfq x/]s jif{ cf};tdf @#@ dflg;sf] Hofg lng] af9Ln] ljut @) jif{sf] tYofªs cg';f/ jflif{s &)–&% s/f]8 ?k}ofF a/fa/ gf]S;fg x'g] u/]sf] 5 . x/]s jif{ af9Laf6 x'g] olt 7"nf] IfltnfO{ s'g} k|sf/sf] k"jtof/Ln] z"Go u/fpg ;Sb}g . oBlk { *) k|ltzteGbf a9L Go"g ug{ ;lsg] lj1x¿sf] egfO{ /x]sf] kfOG5 . g]kfndf af9Laf6 x'g] IfltnfO{ ;d]t k"jhGdsf] kfk eg]/ efUonfO{ bf]if { lbg] k|rng cem} klg sfod} /x]sf] 5 . ha;Dd ;d'bfodf o:tf] wf/0ff sfod /xG5 o;sf] k|efj jf IfltnfO{ sd ug]{ dfgjLo k|of; sdhf]/ g} x'G5 . af9L k|fs[lts sf/0faf6 x'g] t/ dflg;s} sf/0f ljgfzsf/L aGg] Ps k|sf]khGo 36gf xf] eGg] ljZjf; lnP/ gbLlsgf/sf] ;+/If0f, t6aGw lgdf{0f, k"jrtfjgL k|0ffnLsf] :yfkgf, ;'/lIft cfjf; / vfg]kfgL / { ] ;/;kmfOsf nflu ;'/lIft ;+/rgfsf] Joj:yf ug{ ;lsPdf o;sf] IfltnfO{ Go"g ug{ ;lsG5 . af9Lsf] k|sf]kaf6 kLl8t ;d'bfo, ;d'bfodf k|ToIf jf k/f]If ?kn] ;xof]u ug]{ ;ª3;+:yf, uflj;, lhlj;, Jofkfl/s tyf cf}Bf]lus lgsfo / gful/s ;dfh;Fu ;dGjo u/]/ af9Lsf] k|efjsf] ;fdgf ug]{ /0fgLlts of]hgfcg'?k sfd ug{ ;lsPdf hgwgsf] Iflt 8'ag ug]{ k|of;df ;kmntf af9L, Go" fg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷33 k|fKt x'g] ck]Iff ug{ ;lsG5 .
  • 34. af9L, 8'afg tyf Joj:yfkg ÷34

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