39 issue of paryawaran

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39 issue of paryawaran

  1. 1. jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 1
  2. 2. tLtf] –;To Xof“ kf6Ldf klx/f] uO;Sof], ;w}“ ;8sdf gf/fh'n; . ' c“=========Û of] lalu|Psf] jftfj/0f ;'wfg{ r}“ t'?Gt /f]8Dofk tof/ x'b5 . clxn] Ao:t 5', k|bif0faf/] ;f]Rb} u/f}nf Û “ } " “ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 2
  3. 3. kf7ssf] cf“vfdf pTs[i6 k|ltlqmof k7fpgf];, Ps jif{sf] ;b:otf lgMz'Ns kfpgf]; ;DkfbsHo", lgoGq0f ug{ s'g} Ps JolQm jf ;+:yfsf] dfq k|of; kof{Kt kof{j/0fsf] cªs #* k9g kfPF . klqsfdf 5flkPsf ;a} x'Fb}g tfklg tkfO{+x¿sf] k|of; ;/fxgLo /x]sf] 5 . d / d]/f ;fdu|L ;do;fGble{s nfUof] . jt{dfg ;dodf lau|Fb} uPsf] s]xL ;fyLx¿n] kof{j/0f lgoldt¿kdf k9g] lg0f{o u/]sf jftfj/0f tyf nf]k x'Fb} uPsf / ;ªs6df k/]sf hLjhGt'sf 5f}F . cfzf 5, ahf/df lgoldt cfpg]5 . ;fy} jghªunsf] ;+/If0fsf nflu 1fgj4{s ;fdu|L ;dfj]z –;/f]h bfxfn, gf/fo0fk'/ uflj;–!, s}nfnL . x'g' o; klqsfsf] pTs[i6 ljz]iftf /x]sf] b]lvof] . jg / jftfj/0f hf]ufpg j}slNks tyf gjLs/0fLo pmhf{sf] k|of]udf /fhgLlt / dgf]/GhgfTds UNodf/o'Qm klqsfsf] eL8df hf]8 lbP/ klqsfn] u|fdL0f If]qsf] ljsf;sf nflu /fd|f] ;Gb]z kof{j/0f em'G8]sf] b]lvof] . jftfj/0fh:tf] ;+j]bgzLn lbPsf] 5 . o; klqsfnfO{ cem lj:tfl/t ¿kdf u|fdL0f ljifo ;d] l 6Psf] b] v ] / v' ; L nfUof] . ;fob If] q ;Dd k' ¥ ofpg] sfo{ eP jftfj/0f lzIffsf nflu jftfj/0f;DaGwL lgoldt lg:sg] g]kfns} klxnf] klqsf ;|f]tk'l:tsf g} aGg;Sg] b]lvPsf] 5 . xf]nf of] . o;df 5flkPsf ;fdu|Lsf] :t/cg';f/ 5kfO –s[i0fk|;fb bfxfn, eLd:yfg uflj;–@,, l;Gw'nL . ePg . t/ kf]:6/sf] :t/ /fd|f] 5 / 1fga4{s klg . kof{j/0f km]l/ ahf/df cfPsf] kfpFbf v';L nfUof] . b'O{ jif{ o:tf kf] : 6/ lgoldt eOlbP u| f dL0f If] q df lgs} cl3;Dd ahf/df cfPsf] g]kfns} Psdfq jftfj/0f;DaGwL nfebfoL x'g] cg'ej xfdLn] u/]sf 5f}F . klqsf PsfPs ahf/df gcfpFbf cfZro{ nfu]sf] lyof], t/ dgf]h ofbj, ;]dGt k/fh'nL tyf ;fyLx¿ klqsf o; e]usf ljBfnodf eg] cfO{ g} /x]sf] kfOof] . nIdLk'/ uflj;–&, s~rgk'/ . ljutsf] t'ngfdf cem uxlsnf ;fdu|L af]s]/ / k|fs[lts k| s f] k ;DaGwL hfgsf/L lbg] k] : 6/;d] t af] s ] / cfPsf] kof{j/0fsf ljljw ljifodf hfgsf/Ld"ns ;fdu|Lsf] kof{j/0fn] xfdLnfO{ w]/} s'/f lbPsf] 5 . klqsf lg/Gt/ k9g cem} cefj b]lvPsf] 5 . jftfj/0f ;+/If0fdf ePsf kfpg] ck]Iff u5f}F . k|of; / ljZjJofkL ultljlwnfO{ cem ;d]6bf /fd|f] –bLks a/fn, ;'dg >]i7, /f]zg vqL bds–!*, emfkf . xf]nf . k|sf]k lgoGq0f / Joj:yfkgsf] ljifonfO{ lnP/ d}n] kof{j/0f k9g yfn]sf] w]/} ePsf] 5}g . oxfFsf] ufpF ljsf; dWok[i7df /flvg] kf]:6/n] lg/Gt/tf kfP xfd|f u|fdL0f ;ldltdf hfFbf b'O{rf/j6f kof{j/0f b]v]sf] lyPF / cln–cln If]qdf k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Iflt sd ug]]{ 1fg ldNg]5 . k9]sf] klg lyP . t/ df3 dlxgfdf ahf/df klg b]v]/ lsGg] –;]dGt e§, cfsfz uf}rg,;"o{ b]jsf]6f df}sf kfPF . ;+;f/e/ lrGtfsf] ljifo ag]sf] jftfj/0f k|b"if0f bz/yrGb gu/kflnsf–@, a}t8L ;DkfbsHo", kof{j/0fLo ljgf;sf af/]df hgr]tgf hufpg o; klqsfn] tkfO{+x¿åf/f k|sflzt kof{j/0fsf] cªs #* k9g] df}sf kfPF . ;sf/fTds k|of; u/]sf] b]lvG5 . To;df k|sflzt cGo g]kfnleq k|sflzt ;of}F klqsfdWo] Pp6fh:t} t xf]nf lg ljifoj:t'sf ufDeLo{df klg s'g} sdL b]lvFb}g . hxfF;Dd eGg] nfu]sf] lyof], k9g'eGbf klxn] . t/, k9b}hfFbf of] Pp6f 5kfOsf] s'/f5, ljifoj:t' To;eGbf dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5h:tf] k[ys p2]Zo lnP/ k|sflzt klqsf /x]5 eGg] dx;'; eof] . nfu]sf] 5 / eljiodf 5kfOsf] u'0f:t/df ;'wf/ xf]nf eGg] x'g t s/f]8f}F 8n/ leqofP/ jftfj/0fsf gfddf sf/vfgf ck]Iff ub{5' . vf]Ng]x¿sf] dL7f] zAb e'mG8ofP/ df]6fpg]x¿n] ubf{ jftfj/0f jftfj/0f;Fu ljBfyL{x¿sf] k|ToIf ;/f]sf/ /x]sf] x'Fbf / If]q st} sdfOvfg] If]q dfq t xf]Og h:tf] dx;'; x'g yfn]sf] kof{j/0fdf k|sflzt ljifoj:t' x]bf{ o;nfO{ ljBfno– 5 . To;}n] klg xf]nf, jftfj/0fsf] gfpFdf s/f]8f}F lelqP klg ljBfno;Dd ljt/0f ug'{ cfjZos 5h:tf] nfu]sf] 5, o;tkm{ pkTosf eg] k|bl" ift g} 5 . oxfF x ¿sf] k| o f; ePs} xf] n f . o; cª s sf] pTs[ i 7 k| l tlqmof jftfj/0fsf ;}4flGts / Jofjxfl/s kof{ j /0fsf] cª s #* df 1fg k|fKt ljBfyL{ g} eljiosf ;Ifd gful/s x'g]5g . hg;/f]sf/sf af/]df ;r]t ug]{ p22]Zon] e"sDk;Fu ;DalGwt vf;u/L klqsfsf] dWok[i7df 5flkPsf] kf]:6/n] hgr]tgf ljljw ljifoj:t' ;dfj]z ul/Psf] /x]5 . jf:tjdf g]kfn e"– km}nfpg] sfo{df ljz]if e"ldsf lgjf{x ug]{ b]lvG5 . h] xf]; sDksf b[li6n] Hofb} ;Dj]bgzLn If]q ePsf] lj1x¿n];d]t kof{j/0fsf] k|of; ;sf/fTds 5 / o:tf] c;n p2]Zo lnP/ atfO/x]sf 5g . To;dfly nfvf}F hgtf a;f]af; ul//x]sf ;a}n] sfo{ ug'{ h?/L eO;s]sf] 5 . pkTosf t e"–sDksf b[li6n] clt g} hf]lvdk"0f{ If]qsf ¿kdf –/fh]Zj/ 8L= >]i7 /x]sf] atfOG5 . o:tf] ;+j]bgzLn / hf]lvdk"0f{ k|sf]k / sf7df8f}“ dxfgu/kflnsf–&, uf}/L3f6, jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf sf7df8f} “ . ÛÛ kof{ j /)f ÷ 3
  4. 4. sxf“ s] < sf=lh=sf= b=g+= @).)$(.)%) k[i7 M % dfl;s ljgf;sf/L e'OFrfnf];'/Iffsf pkfox¿ Paryawaran Monthly e" s DkLo Vol. 11, No.11, Feb/ Mar 2004 b[ l i6sf] 0 fdf jif{ !!, cªs !!, kmfu'g @)^) k"0ff{ªs #( ljZjs} ;Nnfxsf/ 8f= ljgfos eb|f hf] l vdk" 0 f{ 8f= sdn l/hfn ;x/ 8f= hgsnfn sdf{rfo{ k|f= 8f= /fdk|;fb rf}w/L e'O“rfnf] cfp“bf s] ug]{ -leQ]kf]:6/_ >L x]d/fh kf}8n ] k|wfg ;Dkfbs /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] l;d;f/ gLlt k[i7 M % ;Dkfbs uf]kfnk|;fb b'nfn sfg'gL ;Nnfxsf/ rGb| a:g]t ljz]if ;xof]uL ofbj yklnof ahf/ tyf ljt/0f /fdxl/ bfxfn sf6'g÷kf]:6/ lrq { sfof{Gjog / r'gf}tL /d]z bfxfn k|sfzs ■ l;d;f/ Joj:yfkgdf hg;xeflutf– ^ jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfn ■ l;d;f/ gLltsf] ;f/ slt <– * sf7df8f}“ dxfgu/kflnsf– #!, wf]lawf/f ■ lalu|Psf] jftfj/0f / dfgj lrGtf !# kf]= a= g+= !(&@), sf7df8f}+ ■ r9bf] 708L7 a9bf] jfo'kbif0f | " !% kmf]g M $$$%#@) ■ kmnk"mn e08f/0f ug]{ :yfgLo k|ljlw M 3/]n' ;f}oe08f/0f { #! kmofS; M (&&–!–$@^%$%% ■ pmhf{ s f] e/kbf] { ;| f ] t xfjfsf] lah' n L 0f L0f ## E-mail: eco_nepal@hotmail.com http://www.econepal.org ■ u|fdL0f ko{6gsf] cfsif{s ynf] – vf]sgf #* d'bs| ■ ufp“–ufp“af6 M ;"of]bo 5fkfvfgf, wf]lawf/f, sf7df8f}+ { ● rt'/sf] rdTsf/ s'jfaf6 lah'nL ÷ ljZj arfp ;+:yf ;fdflhs ] kf]= a= g+= @)&$%, kmf]gM $#$(&! sfo{df cu|;/ ÷ ljZjs} b'ne ufO{ g]kfndf ÷ ul/aL k|rf/afhLh:t} { ■ o; k|sfzgdf k|sflzt n]v/rgfdf r'gf}tLk"0f{ 5}g ÷ z'Snfkmf“6f jGohGt' cf/Ifsf] If]q bf]Aa/ JoQm ljrf/ n]vssf lghL x'g . ltgdf k|o'Qm ljrf/n] o; ;+:yfsf] ■ ;fydf M cflwsfl/s b[li6sf]0fsf] k|ltlglwTj ● tLtf] ;To ub} { g . ● kf7ssf] cf“vfdf ■ kof{j/0fdf k|sflzt ;fdu|L ;|f]t ● cfkmgf] snd pNn]v u/L z}lIfs tyf hgr]tgf ● /f]rs 1fglj1fg clej[l4sf nflu k'gk|{sfzg ug{ ;lsg]5 . ● xf]; u/f}“ x} Û jg:kltn] klg jfo'kbif0f u5{ |" jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 4
  5. 5. cfkmgf] snd 321 321 321 l;d;f/ ;+/If0f M sfdeGbf s'/f a9L 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 …;u/b]lv ;fu/;Ddsf l;d;f/ xfd|fnflu ;lqmo 5gÚ cf7f}F ljZj l;d;f/ lbj; @)^) sf] of] gf/fn] k[YjLdf /x]sf hLj–hutsfnflu ;a}vfn] ef}uf]lns cj:yfsf l;d;f/ ;Fw} lqmofzLn eO/x]sf] s'/ftkm{ dfgjhutnfO{ emsemSofpg] 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 Wo]o /fv]sf] 5 . l;d;f/n] lbg] j:t' / ljleGg k|sf/sf ;]jfaf6 dfgjhfltn] nfe}nfe dfq lnO/x]sf] 5 tfklg 321 321 321 321 321 of] If]q cem} sfd gnfUg] bnbnsf ¿kdf dflg;af6} pk]lIft /xFb} cfPsf] 5 . xfdLn] To; If]qaf6 k|fKt ul//x]sf ;]jf / pTkfbgaf/] cgle1 /xg' g} l;d;f/ If]q pk]lIft x'gsf] d"n sf/0f xf] . l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f ug{ / o;sf] lbuf] ' 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 pkof]u ug{;s] o;n] dxŒjk"0f{ k|fs[lts kfl/l:ylts k|0ffnLsf] ;+/If0f ug]{ g} 5, ul/aL lgjf/0fdf ;d]t pNn]Vo 321 321 321 321 321 e"ldsf v]Ng;S5 . o;sf nflu :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] clwsf/sf] Uof/]06L ub}{ pgLx¿nfO{ g} l;d;f/ If]qsf] ;+/If0f / pkof]udf ;d]t ;lqmo u/fpg' cfjZos x'G5 . t/, /fd;f/ dxf;lGwsf] cg'df]bg u/]sf] 8]9 bzs lalt;Sbf 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 klg l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0fdf ;Da4 lgsfoaf6 To:tf] s'g} pNn]v ug{ nfos sfd ePsf] b]lvFbg . } 321 321 xfdL l;d;f/ ;+/If0fsf] s'/f ub}{ 5f}+ . oxLa]nf g]kfnsf klxrfg ePsf @ ;o $) l;d;f/n] dfgjLo cltqmd0fsf] 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 ljleGg k|sf/sf df/ vKb}5g / t/fO{sf ^# l;df;f/ x]nr]qmfO{sf sf/0f ;'Sb}5g . ;'Gb/gu/L kf]v/fsf] klxrfg } 321 321 321 321 321 af]ssf] km]jftfndf !)) l;l; kflgdf $! xhf/ & ;o %) sf]lnkmd{ AofS6]l/of kfOg] xk{g vfnfsf] k|bl" ift kfgL ] 321 321 321 321 321 ljgf cj/f]w ldl;Fb5 . }] 321 321 321 321 321 321 clxn] xfdL ljZjJofkL¿kdf cf7f}F l;d;f/ lbj; dgfpg] qmddf 5f}F . g]kfnsf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] If]qkmnsf] klxnf] /fd;f/If]q sf]zL6Kk' jGohGt' cf/Ifdf lg/Gt/¿kdf 5f8f 5f]l8Fb} cfPsf 3/kfn'jf /fFuf–eF;L x6fpg] sfo{sf } 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 nflu xfdLn] oxL l;d;f/ lbj;nfO{ g} kv]/ a:5f}F eg] xfdLn] l;d;f/sf] s:tf] ;+/If0f ul//x]sf 5f}+ < 321 321 sf]zL6Kk'sf] dxQf d'Vo¿kdf hªunL e};L– …cgf{Ú ;Fu ufFl;Psf] 5 . :yfgLo ;d'bfo 3/kfn'jf hgfj/sf nflu F 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 r/gsf] cefj / 3/kfn'jf e};L cgf{df ldl;P /fd|f] hft lg:sg] k|nf]egn] cfˆgf kz' 5f8f 5f]8g] ub{5g . o; F 321 321 321 321 321 cj:yfdf 3/kfn'jf /fFuf;Fu kf]yL cgf{sf] ;xjf;af6 clxn] ToxfF ePsf elgPsf sl/a !$) j6f cgf{df cfˆgf] j+zf0f'ut ljz'4tf /lx/x]sf] xf]nf < 321 321 321 321 321 321 xfdLn] l;d;f/ lbj; dgfO/xFbf o;} jif{ dfq /fd;f/df ;"rLs[t aL;xhf/L tfnsf] cl:tTj ;ªs6fkGg 5 . 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 ToxfF y'lk|Psf] af9Lsf] n]bf] df6f]] / hns'DeL s'lxP/ tfn lg/Gt/ k'l/Fb} uPsf] 5 . :yfgLo ;d'bfo 321 321 321 321 321 t'ngfTds¿kdf ;r]t /x]sf] To; tfnIf]qsf afl;Gbf o;sf] ;+/If0fdf cu|;/ xF'bf;d]t lhDd]jf/ lgsfon] df}gj|t lnPsf] u'gf;f] ;'lgFb} cfPsf] 5 . 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 oL s]xL b[i6fGt dfq x'g . k|foM ;a} l;d;f/n] o:tf s'g} g s'g} cK7]/f] e]mln/x]sf 5g . oL cK7]/f xfdLn] ug]{ ;xl/of uf]i7Laf6 ;dfwfg klg x'bgg . of] t s]jn dfgf] krfpg] cg'i7fg dfq x'g;Sb5 . l;d;f/df cfOkg]{ ;a}vfn] F} 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 ;ªs6df]rg ta;Dd ;Dej 5}g, ha;Dd o;sf] ax'cfoflds pkfb]otfaf/] :yfgLo ;d'bfo g} ;r]t x'bg . } F} 321 321 321 321 321 321 rfx] ;/sf/n] hf/L u/]sf] /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLltsf] Jofjxfl/s sfof{Gjogsf nflu xf]; jf hfgsf/Ld}} gcfPsf 321 321 321 321 321 l;d;f/x¿sf] phfu/sf nflu, cyjf cl:tTj ;ªs6fkGg ePsf l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f / ;Da4{gsf nflu g} lsg gxf];, l;d;f/;DaGwL hgr]tgf :yfgLo tj/df k'Ug}kb{5 . o;sf nflu ;/sf/L k|lta4tf t rflxG5 g}, l;d;f/ 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 ;+/If0fsf If]qdf sfd ug]{ elgPsf u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx¿n] klg xf]xNnfsf e/df o;nfO{ b'xgf] ufO{ agfpg] k|jl[ Q ' 321 321 321 321 321 5f8]/ :yfgLo ;/f]sf/jfnf;Fd k'Ug], l;d;f/af6 k|fKt x'g] cyfx nfeaf/] r]tgf hufpg], pgLx¿sf] lxt/Iff ub}{ o;sf] lbuf] pkof]uaf6 lng ;lsg] cfly{snfesf ljleGg k"jf{wf/ ljsf;df ;l/s x'g] xf] eg] dfq l;d;f/ lbj; 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321dgfpg'sf] ;fy{stf /xG5 . ✩ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 5
  6. 6. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf aL ;f} F ztfAbLsf] dflg;n] j} 1 flgs ljsf;df ce"tk"j{ ;kmntf xfl;n u/]sf] 5 . nueu b; xhf/ jif{sf] Oltxf; af]s]sf] dflg;n] cfˆgf] Ifdtfsf] o;eGbf km/s xf]nf eGg ;lsFb}g . o:tf hd36df cf}krfl/s–cgf}krfl/s¿kdf rNg] cfly{s ljlgdon]– e"ldsf v]n]sf] tLvf] uGw klg cg'e"t gePsf xf]Ogg . ;jf{lws k|of]u o;} ztfAbL;Dd cfOk'Ubf u¥of] / e"ldsf /xg] ;Gb]xk/s rrf{ klg rNg] ub{5g . Ps j}1flgs o'udf k|j]z ug{ ;kmn klg eof]] . o;} o'udf 5fs 6fg{ k|fs[lts ;|f]tdfly g} lge{/ /xg'kg]{ ;d'bfo ljsf;sf ljljw If]qdf k|fKt ;kmntfsf]] pGdfb r9]/ tyf :yfgLo ;/f]sf/jfnfsf] ljsf;sf nflu kfFrtf/] ljZjsf x/]s j:t'sf] k|flKtsf nflu /fhgLlts p7a; xf]6]ndf x'g] ax;n] slt nfe b]nf < 8n/sf] v]tLdf / bfpk]rk|lt dflg; cem ;zQm aGb} uPsf] 5 . /d] s f tL ;' 6 –6fOwf/Ln] ljkGg ;/] s f/jfnfsf] æ;fgf] df5fnfO{ 7"nf] df5fn] vfG5Æ – of] cfZro{hgs cfjZostfsf] cfjfhsf] k|ltlglwTj ug{ ;Snfg < s'/f] xf]Og . x'g t ljsf;sf ljleGg l;4fGtsf] k}/jL jf:tjdf o'uf}Fb]lv ToxL k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf] ;xf/fdf u/]/ cfˆgf] :jfy{df sfo{k|lqmofnfO{ k|of]u ug]{ k/Dk/f afFRg]x¿sf] clwsf/ o;/L ;+/lIft x'g;Snf < jf ;|f]tsf gofF xf] O g . ljZjsf] Oltxf; zlQm;ª 3 if{ a f6 g} jf:tljs wgLx¿ cfˆgf] clwsf/af6 ljd'v x'g] x'g < n]lvPsf] 5, tfklg j}1flgs o'udf k|j]z u/]sf] dflg;n] o;tkm{ ;f]Rg' cfjZos 5 ls 5}g < o;sf] hjfkm lbg] cfˆgf] af}l4s IfdtfnfO{ cfˆg} clxt / lje]bsf nflu lxDdt s;}n] unf{ < pkof]u ug'{nfO{ eg] b'ef{Uok"0f{ dfGg}kb{5 . ul/a / wgL ;/sf/, bftf / ltgsf dWo:ystf{x¿aLr x'g] u/]sf l;d;f/ gLlt sfof{Gjog / r'gf}tL /fdrGb| Gof}kfg]÷uf]kfnk|;fb b'nfn b]zaLr rn]sf ljleGg k|s[ltsf åGådWo] k|fs[lts ;|f]t ljjfb, of]hgf tof/Ld} x'g] vr{sf] cfsfl;Fbf] :j¿k, ;+/If0f / lbuf] ljsf;sf gfddf To;sf] k|ltkmn xft bfg jf ;xof]u /sdsf] kl/rfngdf bftfsf] k|ToIf kfg{ lg/Gt/ rn]sf] åGånfO{ klg pbfx/0fsf] ¿kdf lng x:tIf]k, ;xof]udf ;~rflnt sfo{qmdsf ljleGg r/0fdf ;lsG5 . o;} l;nl;nfdf jftfj/0f tyf k|fs[lts ;|ft ] cfpg] cfGtl/s bafa cflb ljifosf] ljZn]if0f ug]{ xf] ;+/If0fsf nflu :yflkt s]xL cGt/f{li6«o u}/;/sf/L eg] c¿ If]qdf h:t} g]kfndf l;d;f/ ;+/If0f / lbuf] ;+:yfx¿n] ul/a d'nsdf a;]/ 8n/] hflu/ ksfpg' klg ' pkof] u sf sfo{ q mdx¿df klg lvrftfgL al9/x] s f] o;}sf] Pp6f kf6f] xf] eGg' cltzof]lQm x'g5g . ] } cg'ej ug{ ;lsG5 . oL ljifodf sxfF–sxfF s;/L x}sd nfbg] k|oTg x'G5g eGg] s'/f g ;/sf/ v'n:t ug{ jt{dfg ;dodf dfgjLo :jfy{sf nflu clwsf/ / rfxG5 g t bftf kf/bzL{ x'g vf]Hb5 . s'n rfln; bfloTjsf] s'/f, ;fd'bflos ljsf; / ;dfgtfsf s'/f, s/f]8 vr{df ;DkGg x'g] % jif]{ of]hgf tof/ ubf{ g} b'O{ k| f s[ l ts ;| f ] t dfly :yfgLo ;/f] s f/jfnfx¿sf] s/f]8 nufgL ug{ lxDdt ug]{ ;/sf/ / bftf tyf Tof] clwsf/sf] s'/f / o:t}–o:t} w]/} s'/fdf lbgxF'h;f] wg/fzL s'DNofpg] of]hgfsf/af6 ;d'bfon] s:tf] cfzf kfFrtf/] xf]6]ndf 6fO{–;'6wf/Lsf] hd36df ax; x'g] /fVg]] < To;df klg $) s/f]8af6 36fP/ sfof{Gjogsf] ;+:s[ltsf] ljsf; ePsf] 5 . g]kfndf dfq xf]Og, ah]6 @# s/f]8df emfl/Fbf kl/0ffd s:tf] xf]nf < k|Zg ljZjJofkL¿kd} clwsfª z ul/a d' n ' s sf] cj:yf lgs} uDeL/ x'g;S5 . g]kfndf a;]/ k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf] jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 6
  7. 7. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf ;+ / If0fsf nflu ljb] z L:t/af6 tof/ ul/g] o:tf] xf]6ndf ukm ug]{ k|j[lQ lg?T;flxt geP;Dd ;+/If0f / of]hgfsf nflu sfd ug]{ of]hgfsf/n] cd]l/sf jf lbuf] ljsf;sf] ;kgf s;}n] b]V5 eg] To;nfO{ o; hfkfgsf] cfly{s:t/sf] ;]jfz'Ns lnP/ of]hgf th'{df o'usf] l;v08L gfds/0f ul/lbP x'G5 . ug'{ slt pko'Qm xf]nf < oxfFsf] j:t'l:ylt cg's"n / lbuf]¿kdf k|efjsf/L pknlAw lbg;Sg] xf] < hn;|f]tdf oL k|Zgx¿ g]kfndf l;d;f/ gLlt sfof{Gjog ug]{ ljZjsf] bf];|f] wgL d'n's eP/ ;jf{lws dxFuf] d"No ljifo;Fu ;DalGwt 5g . ut jif{sf] cGTolt/ g]kfnsf] lt/]/ hnljB'tsf] pkef]u ug]{ afWo x'g'k/]h:t} l;d;f/ /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt, @)%( nfu" eof] . gLltn] l;d;f/ If]q Joj:yfkg;DaGwL o:tf of]hgfaf6 pkef]Qmfn] If] q sf] ;+ / If0f, lbuf] ljsf;, pkof] u / :yfgLo s:tf] df/ ;xg'knf{ < cfly{s ;xof]u / nfe k|fKt ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutfdfly hf]8 lbg' lgs} /fd|f] kIf xf] . gxf] n f eGg] 8/ tyf k| n f] e gaf6 k| ] l /t ;/sf/ / /fd;f/ dxf;lGwdf x:tfIf/ ug]{ kIf/fi6«sf x}l;otn] sd{rf/LtGqsf] sf]kefhgdf lg/Lx hgtf lkl;g] kl/kf6L cfˆgf] d'n'sdf ePsf l;d;f/sf] Joj:yfkg / cfly{s slxn] cGt xf]nf < jf:tjdf ;d'bfosf] gfddf kfFrtf/] If]qdf ltgsf] k|of]u ug{ ;a} kIf/fi6« tyf ;/sf/n] l;d;f/ zAb hglha|f]df rNg yfn]sf] w]/} jif{ ePsf] 5}g . x'g t g]kfnn] l;d;f/ If]qsf] ;+/If0f / ;Dj4{g ug]{ k|lta4tf cfheGbf ## jif{klxn] -;g !(&!_ cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw -/fd;f/ dxf;lGw_ df kIfw/ eP/ hfx]/ u/]sf] xf] . To; k|lta4tfsf] nueu #@ jif{kl5 ut jif{ dfq /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt, @)%( ;fj{hlgs x'g;Sof] . x'g t /fd;f/ dxf;lGwdf k|j]z ug'{eGbf Ps bzsklxn] g} g]kfnn] hnr/ ;+/If0f P]g, @)!& nfu" u/]sf] xf] . ;+/If0fnfO{ dWogh/ /fv]/ ag]sf] of] klxnf] P]g x'g'k5{ t/ of] P]g kof{Kt / k|efjsf/L ePg jf sfof{Gjog ePg . h] elgP tfklg of] P]g hLljt 5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ la;{g ldNb}g . cGt/f{li6«o dxf;lGw ;g !(&! n] hnkG5Lsf] af;:yfg ;+/If0f ug]{ nIonfO{ cl3;f/]sf] 5 eg] g]kfnsf] hnr/ ;+/If0f P]gn] df5fnfO{ cfˆgf] k|d'v ljifo agfPsf] 5 . lagfdf5fsf] l;d;f/ kG5Lsf] nflu pko'Qm x'Fb}g eGg] ;a}nfO{ yfxf 5 . To;}n] l;d;f/ gLltsf] sfof{Gjog ubf{ p7g] d"n d'2fdf df5fsf] ljz]if e"ldsf /xG5 . df5f, dfemL, hfn / tfnnfO{ ;jf] { k /L :yfg lbP/dfq l;d;f/ gLlt cl3 a9g;S5 eGg' d f cTo' l Qm gxf] n f . l;d;f/ gLlt @)%( sf] l;d;f/ Joj:yfkgdf k| d ' v p2]Zo g} l;d;f/sf] Joj:yfkgdf :yfgLo hgtfnfO{ ;xefuL agfpg' xf] . cfhsf] g]kfndf ;aeGbf Kof/f] zAb g} hg;xeflutf aGg k'u]sf] 5 . Joj:yfkg kIf egf}F jf ;/sf/L kIf, ;a}n] cfˆgf]] gLlt, of]hgf, sfo{of]hgf jf sfo{qmd ;a} b:tfj]hdf :yfgLo hgtfnfO{ ;xefuL agfOPsf] bfaL ;xh ¿kdf ul/Psf] x'G5 . t/ :yfgLo hg;d'bfosf] kIfaf6 eg] To;sf] ljk/Lt, yfx} ePg eg]/ cfjfh p7fOG5 . :yfgLo /fhgLltsf] kIf / ljkIfsf sf/0fn] klg of] ;d:of a9g] u/]sf b[i6fGt kof{Kt kfOG5g . yfx} glbO{sg of] lsg u/]sf], s;/L eof] / s;n] cfb]z lbof] egL s'n{g] k|zf;sx¿ gePsf klg 5}gg . o; ljifosf s]xL /f]rs pbfx/0fx¿ klg 5g . o;} jif{ cGt/f{li6«o dxŒjsf l;d;f/ egL 7x/ ePsf # j6f :yn– -!_ 3f]8f3f]8L tfn -s}nfnL_, -!_ hubLzk'/ hnfzo -slknj:t'_ /f -#_ aL;xhf/L tfn -lrtjg_ nfO{ ljZj;"rL /fd;f/ If]qsf] dfGotf k|fKt eof] . o; k|flKtsf nflu >L % sf] ;/sf/, jg tyf e";+/If0f dGqfnonfO{ ljZj ;+/If0f ;ª3n] k|fljlws 6]jf lbFb} cfPsf] lyof] . 3f]8f3f]8L tfnsf] cWoog / ToxfF hgr]tgf km}nfpg g]r'/n lx:6«L ;f];fO6L (Natural History Society) sf] /fdk'/ zfvf sfo{/t lyof] . :yfgLo hgtf;Fu ldn]/ To; tfnsf] k|j]z:yfgdf 3f]8f3f]8L tfn arfcf}F eGg] r]tgfd"ns Ps ;"rgfkf6L 6fF:g] sfd ePsf] /x]5 . ;f]xL af6f] u/L Ps lbg jg tyf e";+/If0f dGqfnosf tTsfnLg ;lrj e|d0fdf hfFbf] /x]5 . ;"rgfkf6Ldf gh/ kgf{;fy df]6/ /f]s]/ cfˆg} xftn] Tof] kf6L 78ofOPsf] sf7sf] 3f]rf] pv]n]/ x'¥of{OlbP5g, s;sf] cfb]zn] ;"rgf 78ofPsf] eg]/ . cfh ;f]xL :yn /fd;f/ ;"rLdf kg{ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ kof{ j /)f ÷ 7
  8. 8. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf /fd;f/ dxf;lGwn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] kl/lwleq /xL :ki6 5 . t/, gLltcg'¿k lgodsf] th'{df, :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] gLlt tof/ ug'{kg]{ ePs} sf/0f g]kfnn] klg l;d;f/ ;xeflutf / To;af6 k|fKt nfesf] afF8kmfF8h:tf gLlt tof/ u/] s f] b] l vG5 . l;d;f/ If] q sf] lbuf] ;jfndf ljjfb l;h{gf gxf]nf eGg klg ;lsFb}g . ljsf;sf nflu ;f] gLltn] Jofks If]q to u/]sf] l;d;f/ gLltsf] sfof{Gjogsf nflu tof/ ePsf] kfFrjif]{ s'/fnfO{ c:jLsf/ ug{ klg ;lsFb}g . sfo{ q mdsf ljifodf pTkGg gofF ;jfnn] xfd| f ] l;d;f/ dxf;lGwn] lbPsf] kl/efiff / juL{s/0fnfO{ x]bf{ sfo{k|lqmof / To;af6 k|fKt x'g;Sg] k|ltkmndf ;d]t g]kfnsf] t/fO{sf] clwsfªz If]q l;d;f/df ;dflxt k|ZglrGx t]:of{Psf] 5 . bftfn] /fVg] ;t{ut bafas} x'g;S5 eg] kxf8L tyf lxdfnL If]qdf ;d]t klxrfg sf/0f ;/sf/ ljjz eP/ cfˆgf gful/s;Fu Jofkf/ x' g g;s] s f xhf/f} F l;d;f/ 5g . ctM g] k fnn] ug]{ b':k|of; ub{5 eg] ;/sf/af6 s:tf] ck]Iff /fVg l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkgdf rf;f] /fVg' clgjfo{ ;lsPnf < cGt/f{ l i6« o u} / ;/sf/L ;+ : yfx¿ g} ;t{ klg xf] . l;d;f/ gLltn] oL s'/fnfO{ /fd|/L ;d]6]sf] ljz]if1x¿sf] ynf] xf] eg]/ ltg}nfO{ o:tf] sfd lhDdf uPsf] 5 / /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt, @)%( sf] bkmf * df r]tgf clej[l4;DaGwL gLlt cl3;fl/Psf] 5 . :yfgLo ;d'bfonfO{ ;r]t u/fpg] w]/} s'/f To;df ;dfj]z 5g t/ clwsf/n] dflQPsf k|zf;sx¿sf] r]tgf clej[l4;DaGwL gLlt eg] hgtfn] g} to ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt, @)%( n] hg;xeflutfnfO{ cfˆgf] d"n s8Lsf ¿kdf k|:t't u/]sf] 5 . o;;Fu ;DalGwt !) pkbkmfx¿n] hglxtsf w]/} s'/f cf}FNofPsf 5g . ltgnfO{ ;fy{s agfpg hg;xeflutfaf/] Ps lglb{i6 lgb]{lzsfsf] th'{df ug'{kg]{ b]lvG5 . hgtfdf uP/ ToxfF cfk"m ;xefuL x'g' hg;xeflutfsf] d"n s8L x'G5 . Ps lbg uP/ hg;d"xdf s]xL s'/f /fVb}df jf s]xL JolQmnfO{ sfo{qmddf ;dfj]z ub}{df hg;xeflutfn] k"0f{¿k lng ;Sb}g . o; ljifosf] Pp6f cg'ej o:tf] klg 5 . dgf:n' lxdfnsf] sfvdf Nxf] ufpFsf afl;GbfnfO{ kof{ ko{6gsf (Ecotourism) ljifo cWoogdf ;xefuL agfpg xfdLn] ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf s]xL JolQm / c¿ pknAw :yfgLo k|efjzfnL JolQmnfO{ lgDtfof}F . hg;xeflutf b"w / lrgLsf] lrofsf ;fy ;xefuL ;fyLx¿af6 w]/} s'/f hflgof], l;lsof] . To;sf] csf]{ jif{ km]l/ ToxL –8f= tLy{axfb'/ >]i7 ufpFdf k'Uof}F . :yfgLo s]xL ;fyLn] 3/df af]nfP . o;k6s xfd|f] ;fd'Gg] g'glrof lyof] . xfdLn] Tof] lkpg ;s]gf}F . s]xL ldqn] ha/h:tL lkO{ klg xfn] . dgdg} nfUof], h;sf] Ps Kofnf lrofdf ;xeflutf hgfpg ;s]gf},F ltgsf] ;d:ofdf s] ;xefuL x'g ;sf}nf < F cfh l;d;f/ gLlt sfof{Gjog ug]{ k|;ªudf hg;xeflutfsf s'/f l;d, wfk, bnbn, gbLgfnf / tfnsf af]6], dfemL, yf¿, lwdfnnufot cg]sf}F hghflt;Fu sfFw ldnfpg ;S5f}F jf ;Sb}gf}F eGg] x]SsfnfO{ d"n ljifo agfP/ hg;xeflutf ljifodf bl/nf] lbUbz{g agfpg plrt x'g]5 . l;d;f/sf] juL{s/0f / Joj:yfkg gLltcg';f/ l;d;f/nfO{ tLg k|sf/df 5'6ofOPsf] 5 . klxnf] ju{df /flvPsf] ;+/lIft If]q / dWojtL{ If]qleqsf l;d;f/sf] Joj:yfkg ubf{ ;dGoflos cj;/ s;/L k'¥ofpg] eGg]af/] :ki6 sfo{of]hgf x'gkg]{ b]lvG5 . /fli6«o lgs'~hleqsf l;d;f/sf] Joj:yfkgdf hgtfnfO{ s;/L ;l/s agfpg] eGg] ' k|Zgsf] l5gf]kmfgf] x'gk5{ . dWojtL{ If]qdf kg]{ lghL l;d;f/df ;/sf/L s;/L ;+nUg x'g] eGg] s'/fsf] klg ' ;dodf g} lgSof]n x'gk5{ . lghL If]qsf] l;d;f/df b'ne k|f0fL jf jg:kltsf] af;:yfg kg{ uof] eg] l;d;f/wgLsf] { ' { bfloTj s;/L lgwf{/0f ug]{ eGg] k|Zg klg p7g] x'G5 . dT:okfngsf hnfzodf b'ne kG5Lsf] a;f]af; 5 eg] { ltgsf] Joj:yfkg s;/L ug]{ cflb k|Zgsf] lg/fs/0faf/] ;dodf g} Wofg k'¥ofOPg eg] l;d;f/sf] Joj:yfkg /fd|f] x'bg . To;}n] /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLltsf] sfof{Gjog ug{ k|ydtM /fli6«o dxŒjsf l;d;f/sf] cflwsfl/s klxrfg / F } ;"rLs/0f inventory x'g' cfjZos kb{5 . To;sf ;fy} Joj:yfkgdf hg;xeflutfsf k|lqmof / nfesf] ;dGoflos afF8kmfF8sf] Joj:yf s;/L ;'lglZrt ug]{ eGg] k|ZgnfO{ la;{gxbg . ✪ ' F' } jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 8
  9. 9. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf lbg' ;/sf/sf] gfnfosL kg g} t xf]Og t/ g]kfnsf] lhDd]jf/L k"/f ug{;Sg] cfˆgf sd{rf/L / :jb]zL k|a'4 cfly{ s :t/df k6Ss} d] n gvfg] ;' l jwf pknAw ljz]if1nfO{ sfd glbP/ ljsl;t d'n'ss}h:tf] cfly{s u/fpg' r flxF l;d;f/sf] ;Gbe{ d f 8n/sf] bnbndf ;'ljwf lbP/ of]hgf tof/ u/fpg'sf] s'g} cf}lrTo kmF;]sf] cfefif ldNb5 . cGoyf Go"gtd vr{df cfˆgf] b]lvFb}g . s] g]kfnL ljz]if1n] sfd} ug{ ;Sb}gg < ljb]zL l; d;f/ ;DaGwL cGt/f{li6«o 3f]if0ff /fd;f/ dxf;lGw !(&! nfO{ cg'df]bg u/]sf] 8]9 bzskl5 g]kfnn] /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt, @)%( xfn} k|sfzdf NofPsf] 5 . l;d;f/ gLltsf] k|:t't /fli6«o gLlt to ug{ s] slt ;do vlr{of], Tof] t l;d;f/sf] dxQf eg]sf] jf:tjdf k|sl[ tdf ltgn] lgjf{x To;df pNn]v ul/Psf] 5}g, t/ sl/a $ xhf/ zAbn] ug]{ kl/j[QLo (Ecological) e"ldsf xf] . l;d;f/n] vf;u/L u'lylPsf] ;f] gLltdf /fhwfgLsf ;+/If0f uf]i7Lx¿df k|oQm ' peor/ / ;l/;[k ju{sf k|f0fLx¿sf] hLjg–rqm k"/f ug{ x'g] k|foM ;a} zAbfjnL c6fpg] e/dUb'/ k|oTg ul/Psf] cgGo cfjZostf k"lt{ ub{5 . l;d;f/ gxFbf] xf] t tL ' 5 . 5'6sf] Pp6f zAbfjnL ;fob æul/aL lgjf/0fÆ xf]nf . ] k|f0fLx¿sf] cl:tTj g} /xg] lyPg . hnr/sf nflu w]/} ljifoj:t' / ljljw ljrf/x¿nfO{ ;+ufNg vf]Hbf of] l;d;f/ lgoltsf] af;:yfg x'G5 eg] c¿ y'ksf nflu }| gLlt sltko 7fp“df cfk}mF cNdlng k'usf] 5 eg] sltko ] Tof] ;ªs6sf] a]nf cf>o:yn x'G5 . l;d;f/sf] h}ljs “ ltgsf a'bfx¿ lj/f]wfefifk"0f{ /xL ;+/If0f zAbfnªsf/df ljljwtf eg]sf] o;sf] cfˆg} kl/j]zLo u'0fn] ubf{ ToxfF clNemPsf] 5 . ljsl;t /}yfg] (Endemic) k|hfltx¿ x'g, h}ljs ljljwtfsf] k[i7e"ldsf] ljz]iftf k|r/tf Toxf“ gx'g klg ;S5 . l;d;f/sf] csf]{ ;an ' k|:t't /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt k[i7e"ldaf6 k|f/De eO{ kIf eg] s f] hn / ynsf] kof{ j /0fLo cGt/df] x 8f (Interface) xf] . oL s'/f eg]sf l;d;f/sf cfwf/e"t l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkgsf efjL sfo{x¿df k'u/ ] u'0fx¿ x'g, h'g l;d;f/;DaGwL g]kfnsf] /fli6«o gLltdf cGt ePsf] 5 . s'n !$ j6f pk–zLif{sx¿ ;dflji6 uf}0f aGg k'usf 5g . ] pQm gLltleq cf7j6f yk gLltx¿ -pkgLlt <_ klg 5g– gLltleq gLltx¿ x'g' o; gLltsf] cfˆgf]kgf x'g g]kfnnfO{ l;d;f/sf] /fli6«o gLlt lsg cfjZos k¥of] ;S5 . gLltsf] yk ljz]iftf s] b]lvG5 eg] o;n] ;a}h;f] t < o; ;DaGwdf k|:t't l;d;f/ gLltsf] k[i7e"ldsf] pkgLlt / sfo{qmd sfof{Gjogdf æ:yfgLo ;d'bfoÆ nfO{ bf];|f] cg'R5]bn] ;g !((^ df ePsf] kIf/fi6«x¿sf] g} s]Gb|laGb' agfP/ gLltsf] JofVofdf ´08} #) k6s ;Dd]ngn] hf/L u/]sf] lgb]{zgnfO{ ;sf/fTds¿kdf Tof] zAbfjnL pkof]u ePsf] 5 . t/, gLltlgdf{0fdf Tof] Olªut u/]sf] 5 eg] k[i7e"lds} t];f] cg'R5]bn] g]kfnsf | s] G b| l aGb' n fO{ slt xb;Dd ;xefuL u/fOof] < o; ljBdfg P]gsfg'gsf] ck"0f{tfnfO{ gsf/fTds cf}FNofPsf] ljifodf eg] gLltn] k"0f{tof df}gtf ;fFw]sf] 5 . gLlt 5 . /fHon] k|ltkflbt ug]{ Pp6f gof“ gLltn] cl3Nnf th'{df s;/L eof] < o;sf] k|lqmofut ljifodf k|:t't gLlt jf sfg'gx¿sf] abVjfO{+ ub}g, a¿ ltgsf] cf8df { gLltdf s'g} s'/f pNn]v ePsf] 5}g . cfjZostfg';f/ gofFsfg'gx¿ to ub{5 . ctM g]kfnsf] slyt /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt k|fof]lht ePsf] b]lvG5, l;d;f/sf] k|fljlws a'emfOsf af/]df k|:t't /fli6«o l;d;f/ /fi6«sf] gLlt o;/L k|fof]lht x'g'x'Fb}g . gLltsf] klxnf] jfSof+z g} ck"0f{ / e|fds 5 . To;df pNn]v ePe}m+ l;d;f/ æs[lif pTkfbgsf] b[li6n] pa{/ e"ldÆ kl/efiffsf] s;/t / nIo÷p2]Zo xf]Og, g, t Tof] æh}ljs ljljwtfsf b[li6n] cGoGt} wgLÆ k|sfzdf cfPsf] g]kfnsf] l;d;f/ gLltdf v'a} s;/t g} x'gk5{ eGg] 5}g . /;'jfsf] uf];fO{+s08 s;/L s[lifof]Uo ' ' ul/Psf] kIf l;d;f/sf] kl/efiff xf] . /fd;f/ dxf;lGwd} xf]nf, cyjf v'Da'If]qsf lxdtfnx¿df slt g} hLjx¿ ha ljlwjt x:tfIf/ eO;s] s f] 5 eg] /fd;f/ a:nfg / tL h}ljs ljljwtfn] wgL xf]nfg < t/fO{h:tf] ;Dd] n gåf/f kl/eflift l;d;f/sf] k' g k{ l /efiff lsg Gofgf] xfjfkfgL If]qsf l;d;f/n] h}ljs ljljwtfsf] cfjZos k¥of] < a'‰g sl7g 5 . /fd;f/ ;Dd]ngaf6 s'/fnfO{ s]xL k'li6 unf{, t/ t/fO{sf s]xL l;d;f/n] :jLs[ t kl/efiffnfO{ klg g] k fnsf] l;d;f/ gLltn] g]kfnsf] ;du| l;d;f/x¿sf] k|ltlglwTj eg] ub}g . g]kfnL { kG5fPsf] 5 . jf:tjdf l;d;f/ kl/eflift eO;s]sf] l;d;f/x¿sf] ljz]iftf o; b]zsf] ef}uf]lns psfnL– kl/j[QLo zAbfjnL xf] . k|:t't gLlts} efiffdf æljZjdf cf]/fnLhlQs} ljljw dflgG5g . xfn;Dd l;d;f/sf sl/a %) y/Lsf kl/efiffÆ ljBdfg jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 9
  10. 10. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf jf bftfn] tf]s]sf dflg; dfq bIf x'G5g < afF;s} ;d'bfodf sfd ug]{ gfddf cfpg] t/ cg'bfgsf] pkof]u ljifodf ljBfjfl/wL ug{ s'g} ;do g]kfndf afF;v]tLsf] cGo If]q jf To;sf] k|ltkmn ;DalGwt;d'bfo aflx/ ljsf;sf] axfgfdf cfPsf o'/f]k]nL ljz]if1sf] syfsf] pkof]u ug{ bafa cfpg] k|sf/sf cg'bfg lng'sf] s'g} k'g/fj[lQ ePdf ;/sf/n] s] ug]{ < :k:6 zAbdf eGg'kbf{ cy{ x'Fb}g / To:tf] cg'bfgnfO{ c:jLsf/ ug]{ lxDdt 5 < hg;d'bfos} ;Gbe{df gLltsf] p2]Zo $=@ n] ltgdf ;f/ slt < –8f= lbg]z/fh e'h" * ;l~rt l;d;f/;DaGwL 1fg, ;Lk, cEof; / cfljisf/sf] ;/fxgf u/]sf] 5 t/ $=^ df ltg} hg;fwf/0fdf l;d;f/ 5g . s] ca xfdLn] %! cf}+ kl/efiffsf] cfljisf/ u¥of}+ If]qaf/] hfgsf/L lbg] s'/f pNn]v ub{5 . t < w]/} kl/efiffdf kl/efiff yKb} hfFbf kl/efiffn] dlxnf ;xeflutfsf ljifonfO{ klg k|:t't l;d;f/ gLltn] hg;fwf/0fdf yk e|ddfq k}bf u5{ . 5'6fPsf] 5}g . p2]Zosf] $=$ a'Fbfdf Tof] ;dflxt 5 . t/ k|:t't l;d;f/ gLltn] nIo -pk–zLif{s #_ / p2]Zo -pk– To;kl5sf s'g} klg sfof{Gjog a'“bfdf ltgaf/] pNn]v zLif{s $_ nfO{ gLltsf b'O{ 5'§f5'§} cjojsf ¿kdf ul/Psf] 5} g . o;/L gLltdf n} ª l us ;dfgtfsf] cl3;f/]sf] 5 . nIo / p2]ZoaLr s]xL ;" Id lje]b cf}krfl/stf ToxL p2]Zoleq} ljno ePsf] b]lvG5 . x'g;Snf, t/ tL b'jdf Ps} cy{sf jfSox¿ sf]l/lbP/ ltgsf] } l;d;f/ gLltsf afFsL kf7df cf7j6f gLltleqsf gLltx¿ b'O{ pkzLif{ssf] cfjZostfnfO{ k|:t't gLlt cfk}mn] d]6sf] F ] n]lvPsf 5g– :yfgLo ;xeflutfdf cfwfl/t l;d;f/ 5 . x'g s] ;SYof] eg] nIodf gLltsf] b[li6 / p2]Zodf Joj:yfkg gLlt -pk–zLif{s %_, l;d;f/sf] juL{s/0f / To; gLltsf ofqfx¿ a'Fbfut k|:t't ug{ ;lsGYof] . t/ Joj:yfkg gLlt -pk–zLif{s ^_, l;d;f/sf] a'l4dQfk"0f{ cªuhLsf] Aim / Objective sf] g]kfnL cg'jfbdf dfq ]| k|of]u ;DaGwL gLlt -pk–zLif{s &_, r]tgf clej[l4;DaGwL ;dfgfy{s zAbsf] rog x'g;Sof], zAbleqsf] dd{ To;df gLlt -pk–zLif{s *_, ldrfxf k|hfltnfO{ /f]syfd, lgoGq0f /x]g . / Joj:yfkg ug]{ -gLlt <, pk–zLif{s (_ l;d;f/ l;d;f/ gLltsf] nIo / p2]Zo b'j} pk–zLif{ssf sygdf Joj:yfkg;DaGwL ;+:yfut gLlt -pk–zLif{s !)_, l;d;f/ l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkgsf s'/fx¿ p7fOPsf 5g . k|lts"n sfo{df /f]s nufpg] gLlt -pk–zLif{s !!_, / kl5Nnf j}1flgs cg';Gwfgx¿af6 s] yfxf nfu]sf] 5 eg] dfl;Psf Pjd dfl;g] vt/fdf k'u]sf l;d;f/;DaGwL PlSnFbf] cj:yfdf /xFbf 7"nf If]qkmn cf]u6g] ;+/lIft gLlt -pk–zLif{s !@_ tyf b'Oj6f sfo{ -pk–zLif{s !# / { If]qx¿;d]t ToxfF leq /x]sf jg:klt / hLjhGt'sf] !$_ ;DaGwL JofVofx¿ 5g . tL JofVofdf gf}nf] s'/feGbf bf]xf]/fkgf Hofbf e]l6G5 . ;+/If0flglDt kof{Kt x' “ b } g g . o;sf/0f, cnu–cnu cl:tTjdf /x]sf ;+/If0f If]qx¿aLr ;DaGw sfod u/fpg æa'l4dtfk"0f{ / lbuf] k|of]uÆ vflt/ k|:t't gLltn] l;d;f/nfO{ k|fs[lts dfu{ (Corridor) k|z:t u/fpg'kb{5 . o;af/]sf Joj:yfkgsf b[li6n] juL{s/0f u/]sf] 5 . t/ ;d:of s] 5 k|z:t tYox¿ k|sfzdf cfO;s]sf 5g / gofF ;+/If0f eg] l;d;f/nfO{ cfk"m s'g dGqfno jf ljefucGtu{t k5{ gLltx¿df tL qmdzM k|ltlalDat x'g yfn]sf 5g . ;f] s'/f yfxf x'bg, g t ToxfF /Dg] kz'kG5L / af]6la?jfnfO{ F} g]kfnsf] Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) cfof]hgf o;}sf] g} . pgLx¿nfO{ yfxf x'g] s'/f eg]sf] k|fs[lts jftfj/0f Pp6f kl5Nnf] b[i6fGt xf] . tyflk, l;d;f/sf] gLlt dfq} xf] h;sf] /fhgLlts l;dfªsg / k|zf;lgs OsfO ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkgsf oL gjLg k|of]ux¿af6 laNs'n} x'bg . ;+/If0fsf] d"ndGq lj1fgl;t /xG5, lj1fglagfsf] F} cgle1 b]lvG5 . k|zf;lgs Joj:yfkg lgodfg';f/sf tf]s cfb]z / l6Kk0fL ;b/sf sfuhdf ;Lldt x'g k'U5 . p2]Zosf af/]df plNnlvt gLltsf] p2]Zo -pk–zLif{s $_ cGtu{t $=! n] g]kfnsf k|To]s l;d;f/sf] lj:t[t cGtdf, Joj:yfkg of]hgf tof/ kfg]{ s'/f pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . o;k|sf/, k|sflzt g]kfnsf] /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt, @)%( ljZj;Dkbf ;ª3 cfO{o";LPgn] tof/ kf/]sf] g]kfnsf df pNn]v ul/Ph:t} ;+/If0f / ljsf;sf cfhef]ln k|rlnt l;d;f/x¿sf] k|f/lDes ;"rLd} @$) j6f l;d;f/ 5g, ;a} zAbx¿ ;dfj]z ug]{ k|lqmof k'u]sf] 5, t/ gjLg To;df c¿ sof} F ylkg] j fnf 5g . s] tL ;a} s f] ;f]rfOsf] cefjdf k|sflzt gLlt sfgf] dfdfl;jfo s]xL Joj:yfkg of]hgf tof/ kfg'{ ;Dej 5 < cyjf, ha aGg ;s]sf] 5}g . s] xfdL Tof] pvfgeGbf dfly slxNo} p2] Z osf] sygdf l;d;f/sf] lhDdf :yfgLo p7g} g;Sg] /x]5f+} t < hg;d'bfosf kf]N6fdf xflnG5 eg] s] of] ug'{ cfjZos * n]vs l/;f];; lxdfnosf] r'l/of–l;d;f/ cg';Gwfgdf ;+nUg x'gxG5 . {] '' jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 10
  11. 11. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf ;/sf/n] lng' k b{ 5 . To;f] ePdf oxfF ;fF 9 ] eP/ ljefu;Fu ePsf] Go"g ah]6, l;d;f/;DaGwL sfg'gsf] l;F3f}/L v]Nb} a;]sf s]xL ;+:yfx¿n] kSs} klg kf7 cefjh:tf s'/fn] klg ;f] zfvfsf] sfo{If]q ;ªs'lrt l;Sg]5g . ePsf] b]lvG5 . ljZj ;+/If0f ;ª3 / ljZjjGohGt' ;/sf/sf] bfloTj ;d'bfonfO{ ;]jf pknAw u/fpg] / ;+/If0f sf]ifn] h}ljs ljljwtfsf] ;+/If0fsf ;Gbe{df To;sf] k|ltkmnsf] ;dfg'kflts ljt/0f ug]{ x'g'kb{5 . ;/sf/nfO{ ;xof]u u/]sf eP klg l;d;f/ If]qs} ;]jfk|bfg u/]afkt ;]jfu|fxLaf6 /fh:j jf s/ k|fKt ;+/If0f;DaGwL eg] Hofb} yf]/} dfq sfd ePsf 5g . ;f] ug'{ ;/sf/sf] clwsf/ xf] . t/, bftfsf] nx}nx}df zfvfn] ;/sf/L ah]6sf] cefjsf sf/0f tL ;+:yfaf6 nfu]/ jf nufgLsf] k|ToIf nfe lng] lgotn] ;/sf/n] k|fKt x'g] ;xof]udf ;~rflnt x'g'kg]{ cj:yf cfpg' g} Jofkf/ g} ug{ yfNof] eg] p;n] lbg] ;]jfsf] u'0f:t/ ;a}eGbf 7"nf] cK7]/f] x'g;Sb5 . o; cj:yfaf6 kf/ / Odfgbf/Lk|lt cfzªsf ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . TolQdfq xf]Og, kfpg ;/sf/n] l;d;f/ Joj:yfkg ljefu :yfkgf ug'{ l;d;f/ gLltn] lgwf{ / 0f u/] s f] :yfgLo cfjZos b]lvG5 . ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿sf] clwsf/ g} s'l07t x'g] s'/fnfO{ klg 7f]s'jf ug{ ;lsG5 . l;d;f/x¿sf] klxrfg M l;d;f/ gLltsf] k" 0 f{ sfof{Gjogsf nflu g]kfndf slt l;d;f/ If]q 5g eg]/ xfdLsxfF ljutdf ag]sf sfo{qmd, ah]6 ljlgof]hg, yfxf kfpg' cfjZos x'G5 . g]kfndf sf]zL6Kk' jGohGt' sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog cflb ljifonfO{ s]nfpg] xf] eg] cf/If, 3f]8f3f]8L tfn, hubLzk'/ tfn / la;xhf/Ltfn ljs[ltsf k|z:t gd'gf ge]l6g] xf]Ogg . t;y{, ljutdfdfq l;d;f/ If]q xf]Ogg . ljZj ;+/If0f ;ª3n] g]kfndf s;n] s] u¥of] eGg] ljifotkm{ nfUg'eGbf jt{dfg ;dosf] @$) j6f l;d;f/ If]q /x]sf] hgfPsf] eP klg g]kfndf cfjZostf / :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] cj:yfk|lt Wofg s]lGb|t xhf/f}F l;d;f/ If]q 5g, h;sf] klxrfg ul/Psf] 5}g jf x'gkb{5 . jif{df Pslbg l;d;f/ lbj; jf ljZj jftfj/0f ' ul/P klg ltgsf] gfd aflx/ Nofpg] k|of; g} ePsf] lbj; jf h}ljs ljljwtf lbj; dgfpFb}df / Psfw 5}g . jif]gL s/f]8f}F vr{ u/]/ o; If]qdf sfd ug]{ ;+:yfn] { sfo{kqdfly 5nkmn x'bdf :yfgLo ;d'bfo kl/rflnt F } o;;DaGwdf s'/f] rkfpg' lgs} b'vbkIf xf] . x'G5 eGg] ;f]Rg' unt dfq xf]Og, xf:of:kb klg x'G5 .g]kfndf slt l;d;f/ If]q 5g eGg] s'/fsf] k|f/lDes t/ klg o; k|jl[ Qdf ;'wf/sf nIf0f b]Vg kfOPsf] 5}g . cWoog g} ePsf] 5}g . ;Defljt If]qsf] :ynut ofqf leq k;]/ o:tf ljifo vf]tNg] g} xf] eg] lgs} nfdf] ug'{ klxn] g} pknAw tYo tyf ;fwgsf] pkof]u u/L >[ªvnf tof/ x'g;S5 . ;/sf/n] l;d;f/ gLlt nfu" To:tf If]qsf] klxrfg ug{ ;lsG5 . g]kfndf 6f]kf]u|flkms ul/;s]sf] cj:yfdf To;sf] ;xL sfof{Gjog x'g'kb{5 Dofk, l;g]8f Dofk / lkmg]8f Dofk;d]t tof/ eO;s]sf] eGg] s'/fdf ;a} kIfn] hf]8 lbg' hlt h?/L 5, :yfgLo cj:yfdf tL gS;fs} cWoogaf6 klg klxrfg x'g afFsL ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ o; ljifodf k|ToIf¿kdf ;+nUg w]/} gofF l;d;f/sf] klxrfg ;Dej x'G5 . olQ sfd ug{ u/fP/ gLltsf] sfof{Gjog Jofjxfl/s¿kdf ug'{ klg TolQs'g} 7"nf] nufgL / vr{ klg nfUb}g . gS;f jf u|fkmsf] g} cfjZos 5 . l;d;f/ gLltsf] sfof{Gjogsf] ;Gbe{df cWoogaf6 If]q klxrfg ug{ Pshgf ljz]if1 / b'O{hgf lgDg ljifonfO{ cufl8 ;fl/g' cfjZos b]lvG5 M ;xof]uLnfO{ Ps jif{ g} nfu] klg t'ngfTds¿kdf w]/} cflwsfl/s lgsfosf] Joj:yf M g]kfndf l;d;f/ sd vr{ nfUb5 . k]ml/ g]kfns} ljz]if1 o; sfo{sf If]qsf] klxrfg / ;+/If0fsf nflu :jtGq t/ cflwsfl/s nflu k"0f{;Ifd ePsfn] o; sfo{sf nflu s'g} ljb]zL lgsfosf] cefj b]lvPsf] 5 . xfn;Dd ;/sf/L tj/af6 ljz]if1 g} rflxg] klg xf]Og . /fli6«o lgs'~h tyf jGohGt' ;+/If0f ljefusf] Pp6f ;/sf/n] l;d;f/ gLlt sfof{Gjog g} ug]{ xf] eg] zfvfn] o;;DaGwL] sfo{ ub}{cfPsf] 5 . ;f] zfvfn] l;d;f/ If]qsf] klxrfgsf nflu tbf¿stf b]vfpg'kb{5 ljefu / ;/sf/;Fu ;dGjo u/]/ sfo{ ul//x]sf] eP / klxrfg ePsf l;d;f/ If]qsf] cfly{s, ;fdflhs, klg l;d;f/ If] q sf] klxrfg, ;+ / If0f / lbuf] ;f+:s[lts / If]qkmnnfO{ cfwf/ dfg]/ ljleGg ju{df Joj:yfkgsf nflu k"0f{¿kdf sfd ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . ljefhg ug'{kb{5 . o;/L juL{s[t l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 11
  12. 12. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf / lbuf] Joj:yfkgsf nflu pko' Q m sfo{ o f] h gf u/fpg]tkm{ hf]8 lbg' cfjZos x'G5 . cfocfh{gsf agfpg ;lsG5 . gfddf b' O { – rf/ dlxgfsf] tflnd lbF b } d f To;af6 hgr]tgf clej[l4 M l;d;f/nfO{ sfd gnfUg], pAhf /f]huf/Lsf] l;h{gf x'g;Sb}g . tflndk|fKt ljifodf sfd ug{ ltgn] cfjZos k'FhL h'6fpg ;Sb5g jf ;Sb}gg gx'g], k|s[ltsf] cle;fk / v]/ uO/x]sf] e"ldsf ¿kdf eGg] k|Zg dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . a}ªsaf6 C0f pknAw lng] rng g]kfndf dfq xf]Og, ljZjsf w]/} :yfgdf u/fpFb}df klg ;d:of ;dfwfg x'Fb}g . C0fsf] ;b'kof]u, cem} k| r lnt 5 . o; kl/k| ] I odf l;d;f/ h} l js sfd ug]{ ljifosf] k|ljlw / pTkflbt j:t' jf ;]jfsf] ljljwtfsf] pko'Qm ynf] xf] / o;sf] ;xL 9ªuaf6 ahf/sf] klg klxrfg Pjd k|a4{g x'g' cfjZos x'G5 . pkof]u ug{ ;lsP k|z:t cfly{s nfe lng ;lsG5 eGg] ;8s oftfoft gePsf] b'u{d ufpFdf uP/ t/sf/L s'/fdf :yfgLo:t/df hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug'{ cfjZos v]tLsf] tflnd lbg'sf] s'g} cf}lrTo x'Fb}g . 5 . jt{ d fg ;dodf cfPsf] l;d;f/ gLltn] o; s' / fnfO{ klg :jLsf/] s f] b] l vG5 . o;sf] cy{ :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] clwsf/sf] /Iff M ;+/If0f, hg;xeflutf / ltgsf] r]tgf j[l4 gePdf l;d;f/ Joj:yfkg, lbuf] ljsf; tyf l;d;f/af6 x'g] pTkfbg gLltn] ;kmntf kfpg ;Sb} g eGg] cg' e j / ;] j fdfly :yfgLo ;d' b fo tyf ;/f] s f/jfnfsf] gLltlgdf{tfaf6 ePsf] b]lvG5 . t/, k|Zg a'emfO / gLlt clwsf/ slt x'g] xf], To;sf] lgwf{/0f x'g' h?/L 5 . th'{df u/fOdf dfq ;Lldt x'Fb}g . d"n s'/f o;sf] :yfgLo ufpFn]nfO{ o:tf ljifodf /fd|f] hfgsf/L x'Fb}g . sfof{ G jog xf] . gLltn] pNn] v u/] s f] hgr] t gf lzIff / r]tgfsf] cefjdf /x]sf :yfgLo ;d'bfon] clej[ l 4sf] ljifonfO{ ;/sf/n] :yfgLo ;d' b fodf l;d;f/sf ljifodf hfgsf/L kfP eg] / ;/sf/n] Kofs]h sfo{qmd lnP/ hfg' cfjZos 5 . To:tf] Kofs]h ltgsf] clwsf/ /Iffsf] lhDdf lnof] eg] kf] jf:tljs sfo{qmdn] ;d'bfosf ;a} ;b:onfO{ ;d]6g ;Sg'kb{5 . ljsf;sf] k|f/De x'g;Sb5, cGoyf nufgL / k|of; b'j} j}slNks ;|f]tsf] Joj:yf M sf]zL6Kk' jGohGt' cf/If lg:kmn aGg;Sb5g . ;/f]sf/jfnsf] clwsf/ / ltgn] Joxf]g'{kg]{ bflwTjsf ;DaGwdf ;/sf/n] cfk"m :jod / g]kfnsf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] / ljZjd} kl/lrt ;/sf/åf/f ;/f]sf/jfnfx¿nfO{ k"0f{¿kdf ;';"lrt u/fpg'kb{5 . ;+/lIft l;d;f/ xf] . ljZjd} gkfOg] b'n{e r/f / cgf{ :yfgLo ;d'bfonfO{ ;d]t To:tf] If]qsf] ;+/If0f ug]{ kfOg' o;sf] uf}/jdo kIf klg xf] . ut ;ftf dfq ;d" x df ;dfj] z u/fP/ ltgx¿sf] cfjZostfsf] g]kfnsf] r/f dxf]T;j dgfOPsf] sf]zL6Kk'sf] jf:tljs ufyf eg] km/s / kL8fbfoL 5 . sf]zL6Kk' cf/If klxrfg ug]{, lg0fo{k|lqmofdf ltgnfO{ ;xefuL u/fpg], cf;kf;sf ufpFn]n] To;af6 s] nfe k|fKt u/]sf 5g / pgLx¿sf] ljifonfO{ k|fyldstf lbg] / To:tf If]qaf6 ToxfF ltgaf6 x'g] cltqmd0f lgoGq0f ug{ s:tf] /0fgLlt k|fKt nfesf] lglZrt efu :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] clwsf/ clVtof/ ul/Psf] 5 eg]/ 3f]lTng'kg]{ cj:yf klg Ho"F /Iff tyf cfocfh{gsf sfo{df nufpg] u/L ljz]if sf To"F 5 . To; If]qnfO{ dWojtL{ If]qsf ¿kdf lnP/ sf] i fsf] :yfkgf ug] { h :tf k| o f; ul/Pdf kl/0ffd :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] cfjZostf k"lt{ ug]{ k|of; ePsf] ;sf/fTds g} x'g]5 . 5 . tyflk, h'g :t/df vr{ ul/Psf] 5, To;}:t/df l;d;f/ h}ljs ljljwtfsf] ;ªudynf] dfq geP/ b'n{e ;d'bfonfO{ j}slNks ;|f]t pknAw u/fpg] sfo{ eg] hLj / jg:kltsf] ;+/If0fs]Gb| klg xf] . o; If]qaf6 x'g] ePsf] 5}g . ltgn] cfˆgf kz'nfO{ 3fF; v'jfpg gkfpg] ef} l ts tyf cef} l ts nfenfO{ ;dfg¿kdf /fv] / cj:yf l;h{gf eof] eg] s[lifsf w]/} If]qdf To;sf] k|ToIf Joj:yfkg of] h gf tof/ u/] d f k| f s[ l ts ;| f ] t c;/ kb{5 . bfp/f ;ªsng ug{ gkfP OGwgsf nflu Joj:yfkgn] ;d:of lg¿k0fsf] gofF ¿k k|fKt ug]{5 . t8lkg'kg]{ x'G5 . o:tf w]/} ljifo :yfgLo cfjZostfsf ctM l;d;f/ Joj:yfkgaf6 k|fKt x'g] k|ToIf nfenfO{ ;/f]sf/sf ljifo aGb5g . ctM To:tf If]qdf lghL dfq df}lb|s d"Nodf cfFsng ug]{ xf] eg] o:tf s'/fdf jgsf] ljsf;, 3fF ; v] t L, gjLs/0fLo pmhf{ d f ;do vr{ ug'{ g} a]sf/ x'G5 . lsgeg] l;d;f/ k|ToIf cg' b fgh:tf ljifodf :yfgLo ;d' b fonfO{ ;+ n Ug nfesf t'ngfdf ck|ToIf nfe g} a9L k|fKt x'G5 . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 12
  13. 13. k|fs[lts ;Dkbf :d/0fLo 5, o:tf] ck|ToIf nfe, k|ToIf nfesf] t'ngfdf uP/ o;nfO{ Jofjxfl/s ¿kdf sfof{Gjog ug{ w]/} s}of}F u'0ffa9L d"Nojfg x'G5 . ctM l;d;f/af6 k|fKt lsl;dsf r' g f} t Lsf] ;fdgf ug' { k g] { x' g ;Sb5 . x'g] pTkfbg / ;a} ;]jfnfO{ d"Nodf ¿kfGt/0f u/L o; ;/sf/n] To:tf r'gf}tLsf] ;fdgf ug]{ ;fx; h'6fP/ If]qsf] Joj:yfkg sfo{qmdsf] ¿k/]vf th'{df u/] a9L o; If]qdf cufl8 a9g' >]o:s/ x'g]5 . l;d;f/sf] k|efjsf/L x'g]5 . Joj:yfkg / ;+/If0f sfo{k|ult :ynuteGbf sfuhL– l;d;f/ gLlt sfof{Gjogsf oL ljifoj:t' em§ x]bf{ 7]nLd} lrQ a'emfpg] cj:yf cfof] eg] Tof] ;a}sf lgs} ;lhnf / ;/n b]lvG5g . t/, :yfgLo txdf nflu b':s/ ;fljt x'g]5 . ✪ ljZj arfp ;+:yf ;fdflhs sfo{df cu|;/ ljZj arfp ;+:yfsf] cfly{s ;xof]u tyf ;lqmotfdf u/fpg] p2]Zon] ;f]xL uflj;l:yt k|l;4 af}4Zj/ dlGb/sf] ] sf7df8f} F lhNnfsf] b' u { d ufpF ;F U nf ufpF ljsf; cf;kf;df jgef]h sfo{qmdsf] cfof]hgf;d]t ul/Psf] ;ldltl:yt s7]/L k|fylds yfxf x'g cfPsf] 5 . ljBfnosf] k| f ª u 0fdf zflGtsf] :yfkgf, dfgj– vfg]kfgLsf] wf/f lgdf{0f sfo{ clwsf/ ;+ / If0f, ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . cfly{s cfocfh{ g sf ljleGg ;|f]tsf] cefjdf /x]sf] ;f] sfo{qmd;d]t ;~rfng ub}{ ljBfnosf] lgoldt cfPsf] ;f] ;+:yfn] ul/a / k7gkf7gsf nflu h] x ] G bf/ 5fq5fqfnfO{ ;xof] u :j¿k Ps 5fqj[ l Q;d] t k| b fg ub} { lzlIfsf;d] t pknAw cfPsf] 5 . ;+:yfsf cWoIf u/fPsf] ;f] ;+:yfn] lgdf{0f lzj >]i7sf cg';f/ xfn ul/lbPsf] vfg] k fgLsf] emf]/ dxfªsfn ufpF ljsf; wf/faf6 ljBfnosf ljBfyL{, ;ldltl:yt af}4]Zj/ dfWolds ljBfnodf cWoog/t !$ lzIfs;d]t :yfgLo afl;Gbfn] klg nfe k|fKt ug]{ s'/f hgf ul/a tyf h]x]Gbf/ ljBfyL{nfO{ ljut # jif{b]lv atfOPsf] 5 . ;+:yfsf cWoIf lzj >]i7n] ;+:yfsf 5fqj[ l Q k| b fg ub} { cfPsf] 5 . ;+ : yfn] xfn;Dd kblwsf/L, :yfgLo a'l4hLjL, ;dfh;]jL, lzIfs tyf clw/fHosf ^% hgf 5fq5fqfnfO{ 5fqj[ l Q k| b fg ljBfyL{x¿sf] pkl:yltdf ljz]if sfo{qmdsf ;fy lgld{t ul/;s] s f] yfxf ePsf] 5 . ;+ : yfn] ;do–;dodf wf/fsf] pb 3 f6g ug' { e Psf] lyof] . wf/f pb 3 f6g lgMz' N s :jf:Yo lzlj/;d] t ;~rfng ub} { cfPsf] sfo{qmd;Fu} u|fdL0f hgtfdf ;dfh;]jfsf] efjgf hfu[t hgfOPsf] 5 . –kof{j/0f ;Dafbbftf ;fOsnsf] rSsfaf6 rvf{ agfO{ 8fF8fem]/L ufpF ljsf; dfWodaf6 %) ld6/ tn NofP/ ToxfF lah'nLsf] ;fdfGo ;ldlt j8f g+= & /fdsf]6df Ps jif{cl3 6]lnlehg pks/0f hf]8/ ufpFsf tLg 3/df lah'nL aQL afNg] Joj:yf ] ;~rfng u/L ;a} n fO{ cfZro{ d f ldnfPsf 5g . ;xof]u kfP glhs} kf/] s f gjnk/f;L lhNnf 5/5/] rt'/]sf] csf]{ rdTsf/ /x]sf] ;fFbfvf]nfsf] kfgL3f6df lgs6 ufpFsf rgaxfb'/ ;f¿ rt'/]n] s'jfsf] kfgLaf6 lah'nL eljiodf g} lah'nL lgsfn]/ a'lnª6f/ / 8fF8fem]/L ufpF lgsfn]/ km]l/ Psk6s ;a}nfO{ cfZro{df kf/]sf 5g . ljsf; ;ldltsf ;of}F kl/jf/nfO{ ;]jf k'¥ofpg;Sg] bfaL cfˆg} k| o f] u x¿df ;w} F tNnLg /xg] rt' / ] n ] cf}krfl/s¿kdf dflyNnf] txsf] s'g} lzIff k|fKt u/]sf pT;fxL rgaxfb'/n] u/]sf 5g . pgn] u/]sf] sfo{sf] 5}gg . pgL rt'/] ;fdfGo n]vk9 dfq ug{ hfGb5g . k|rf/k|;f/ ePkl5 pgnfO{ lgs} dflg;x¿n] ;xof]u u/]sf] lyP . ;fdfGo s[ifs rt'/n] u/]sf o; pbfx/0fLo sfo{af6 ] Psjif{ klxn] ;fOsnsf] rSsf k|of]u u/L rvf{ agfP/ pmhf{ pTkfbg u/L pgn] ufpFel/ 6]lnlehg x]g{] OR5fnfO{ ;dfhdf ;sf/fTds k|efj kg]{ / ;dfhn] g} ;'v kfpg] ;fsf/ kf/]sf lyP . pgn] 8fF8fem]/L ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt x'bf 5/5/]sf afl;Gbf bªu k/]sf 5g . F j8f g+= * 5/5/]df ;fgf] s'jfdf /x]sf] kfgLnfO{ kfOksf] –/f}gs nfld5fg], 8fF8fem]/L jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 13
  14. 14. jftfj/0fLo r'gf}tL lalu|Psf] jftfj/0f / eujfg v8sf dfgj lrGtf s'g} ;r]t kl/jf/df aRrf hlGdof] eg] To; kl/jf/n] j/k/sf] jftfj/0fk|lt lrGtf JoQm ug{ yfNb5 . …;ªut ;fyL;ªut dfq jftfj/0f xf]Og . jftfj/0fsf] kl/efiffn] u'gfsf] kmnÚ eGg] g]kfnL pvfgsf] k|rngn] u|fdL0f w] / } a[ x b If] q cf] u 6 b 5 . oxL Jofkstfsf sf/0f ;d' b fodf /x] s f] dfgjLo rfnrng, Jojxf/ / jftfj/0f clxn] ljZjsf nflu dxŒjk"0f{ / uDeL/ rf;f]sf] ultljlw;F u ;DalGwt jftfj/0fnfO{ hgfpF b 5 . ljifo ag] s f] 5 . x/] s dfgjsf lqmofsnfkn] o;}sf/0f gofF aRrfsf] ;fdflhs ;ªut, ldqx¿sf] jftfj/0fnfO{ k| l ts" n c;/ kfl//x] s f] 5 . dflg; Jojxf/h:tf ljifodf kl/jf/n] ;f]Rg] ub{5 . aRrfnfO{ jftfj/0fsf] Ps cleGg cª u eP klg p;sf ;fyL ;ªutsf] cfjZostf gx'Fbf;Dd p;sf cleefjs lqmofsnfk g} k[YjLdf lg/Gt/ ablnFbf] jftfj/0fsf] s]jn ;f]Rg] dfq unf{g t/ ha aRrf ;fyL;ªutdf sf/s klg ag]sf 5g . ctM jftfj/0f ljgf;sf] k|d'v nfUb5, cleefjs Tof] s:tf] ;ªut xf] eg]/ rgfvf] lhDd]jf/L klg p;}df hfG5 . x'g]ub{5 / v/fa ;ªutaf6 5'6fpg] k|oTg ub{5 . ljsf;sf b[li6sf]0f of] o'u lj1fg / k|ljlwsf] o'u xf] . afnaRrfsf nflu ;fyL;ªut d'Vo jftfj/0f xf] . lj1fgn / k| l jlwsf] ljsf; / lg/Gt/ gjLs/0fn] dflysf] pvfgcg';f/ klg h:tf] ;ªutdf aRrf x'Sof]{, dfgjhfltnfO{ cfw'lgs ;Eotfsf] prfOdf k'¥ofPsf] 5 . To;n] To:t} Jojxf/ u|x0f ub{5 . /fd|f] ;ªutdf aRrfn] t/ k|fs[lts jftfj/0fdf ljsf; / cf}Bf]lusLs/0faf6 rnv]n ug{ kfof] eg] To;sf] eljio Tot}lt/ 8f]xf]l/G5 . kl//x]sf] k|lts"n k|efj dfgjhLjgs} nflu cle;fklz4 g/fd|f] ;ªutdf nfUof] eg] p;n] ToxL Jojxf/ u|x0f x'g yfn]sf] 5 . Pstkm{ lj1fg / k|ljlwsf] ljsf;af6 u/]/ k|:t't x'G5 . k|fKt pknlAw xfd|f] nflu j/bfg;fljt ePsf] 5 eg] oxfF ljj]rgf ug{ vf]lhPsf] ljifo jftfj/0fn] dflg;nfO{ csf]{tkm{ jftfj/0fLo ljgf; / k|b"if0f cfˆg} v'§fdf s;/L k|efj kfb{5 eGg] xf] . dfgj aGr/f] xfg]h:tf] ePsf] 5 . lj1fg ;dfhdf jftfj/0fsf] dxŒj slt s'g} ;dosf] k/df0f'c:qdf / k| l jlwsf] ljsf;sf sf/0f x'G5 eGg] s'/fsf] ;fdfGo b[i6fGt zlQmzfnL /fi6« ?;nfO{ clxn] cfljisf/ ePsf ljleGg oGq / dfq xf] of] . jf:tjdf Pp6f ltgsf] ;~rfng ug{ k| o f] u x' g ] ltg} k/df0f' xltof/ s;/L ljleGg pmhf{hGo j:t'sf] hngaf6 dfgjn] k[YjLdf kfOnf 6]s]b]lv g} p;dfly jftfj/0fn] slt k|efj gi6 ug]{ eGg] lrGtfn] ;tfPsf] pTkGg x' g ] xflgsf/s tŒj, kfb{5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ a'emg aRrfsf] 5 . lgld{t / ;l~rt xltof/ pBf] u ;lh{ t kbfy{ , xftxltof/ / dgf]j[lQb]lv g} cWoog ul/g'k5{ . gi6 ug{ ?;nfO{ cfly{s ltgsf] k| o f] u af6 pT;h{ g x' g ] afnaRrfsf] nflu klxnf] jftfj/0f sf/0fn] klg 7"nf] r'gf}tL tŒjx¿n] k| f s[ l ts jftfj/0fnfO{ 3/sf cleefjs x'g eg] bf];|f] b]vfk/]sf] 5 . dxŒjk"0f{ s'/f lg/Gt/ k|b"lift agfO/x]sf] 5 . o;/L >]0fLdf p;sf ;fyL;ªut kb{5g . jt{ d fg ;dodf eO/x] s f] eg]sf] cf0fljs xltof/sf] jftfj/0fLo ljgf; tyf k| b " i f0f oL b' j } jftfj/0f c;n ePdf aRrfn] x's{g] qmddf g/fd|f] af6f] k|of]u jf gi6 ug{ h'g;'s} z}nL 36fpg] / u' 0 f:t/Lo jftfj/0fsf] lng] ;Defjgf w]/} Go"g x'G5 . k|of]u u/] klg To;n] lgdf{0f tyf ;+/If0f lj1fgsf nflu Pp6f aRrfn] x's{g] qmddf k|fKt jftfj/0fdfly gsf/fTds c;/ g} r'gf}tLsf] ljifo ag]sf] 5 . ug] { :jefjhGo jftfj/0fsf] kb{5 / cfly{s gf]S;fgL klg cf0fljs xltof/ tyf pmhf{ k| e fjnfO{ g} u| x 0f ub{ 5 t/, u/fp“ 5 . pTkfbgsf ljleGg k|ljlwsf] ljsf;n] ljj] r gf ul/Ph:t} 3/kl/jf/ / jftfj/0fLo k|b"if0fnfO{ cem ljs/fn jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 14
  15. 15. jftfj/0fLo r'gf}tL agfPsf] 5 . ut ztfAbLsf] cGtlt/ ePsf] ;f]leot ljsf;sf sf/0f x'g] k|b"if0fsf] lhDd]jf/ ljsl;t /fi6«nfO{ ?;sf] r]gf]{ljn cf0fljs e§Lsf] r'xfj6 eP/ pTkGg dfq dflgGYof] eg] clxn] ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n's klg To;sf] ljls/0faf6 k/]sf] k|efjsf] sNkgfdfq} ug]{ xf] eg] klg efuLbf/ aGg yfn]sf 5g . gflesLo k|b"if0f slt vt/fo'Qm x'G5 eGg] :ki6 x'G5 . jftfj/0f k|b"if0f hxfFaf6, h;/L k|f/De ePsf] eP klg ljZjsf clt ljsl;t d'n'sx¿n] klg cf0fljs e§Lsf] of] ;d:of ljsl;t /fi6«df dfq ;Lldt 5}g . ljZjsf :yfkgf / cf0fljs xltof/sf] ljsf;df cfk"mnfO{ cu|;/ g]kfnh:tf cljsl;t tyf ljsf;f]Gd'v /fi6«df o;sf] u/fO/x]sf 5g . ljZjdf /x]sf] cf0fljs zlQmsf] xf]8n] ;d:of cem eofgs aGb} 5 . lzIff tyf hgr]tgfsf] k|fs[lts jftfj/0fdf lgZro g} k|lts"n k|efj kfb{5 . cefj, ul/aL tyf k| f s[ l ts ;| f ] t dflysf] cTolws cfw'lgs k|ljlwsf] ljsf; / ltgsf] k|of]un] ;Dk"0f{ hLjsf lge{/tf, a9bf] e|i6frf/ / jGo;|f]tsf] t:s/Lh:tf w]/} sf/0fn] ljsf;f] G d' v d' n ' s df jftfj/0f ;+ / If0f / nflu geO{ gx'g] k|f0fjfo' /x]sf] jfo'd08nnfO{ ;a}eGbf a9L ;Daw{gsf lqmofsnfk lgs} k5fl8 k/]sf 5g . k|bl" ift agfpg] sfd eO/x]sf] 5 . o;sf sf/0f k|fs[lts jftfj/0fsf k|To]s 36sdf k|bif0f >[ªvnfa4¿kdf a9b} " ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n'ssf nflu cfly{s ljsf; k|fylds r'gf}tL ePsf sf/0f ltgn] ub}cfPsf] cf}Bf]lusLs/0fdf { uPsf] 5 . o;/L jftfj/0fsf] ljZjJofkL k|bif0f a9fpg] " jftfj/0fLo Joj:yfkgn] k|fyldstf kfpg g;Sg' n ] sfddf cf}Bf]lusLs/0f, cJojl:yt ;x/Ls/0fh:tf s'/fn] jftfj/0fLo ljgf;sf] d'Vo ;|f]tsf] ¿kdf ul/a /fi6«x¿ d'Vo e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf 5g . g} b] v fkg{ yfn] s f 5g . jt{ d fg ;dodf k| b " i f0f x' g t jftfj/0f ljgf;sf ;DaGwdf xfn cfP/ Go"gLs/0fsf k|of;df s]xL rf;f] a9]sf] cg'ej ul/P klg ljZjJofkL¿kdf lrGtf ug{ yflnPsf] 5 . jf:tjdf To;n] Jofjxfl/s¿kdf k"0f{tf kfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . lalu|Psf] jftfj/0f ;'wf/ ug'{ 7"nf] r'gf}tLk"0f{ sfo{ klg g]kfns} ;Gbe{df eGg] xf] eg] sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf un}rf F xf] . cfkm}Fn] lgdf{0f u/]sf j}1flgs k|ljlw, xftxltof/, pBf]usf] clgolGqt ;~rfngn] hnk|b"if0fdf NofPsf] ljs/fn ;d:of ;dfwfg ug] { p2] Z on] w] / } un} F r f cf} B f] l us ljsf;, k| f s[ l ts ;| f ] t sf] clgof] l ht sf/vfgf sf7df8f}+ pkTosfaf6 x6fpg] lg0f{o ePsf] pkef]uh:tf sf/0fn] lgDTofPsf] jftfj/0fLo ;d:ofn] lyof], h'g sfof{Gjog x'g;s]g . jf:tjdf sf/vfgf g} ljZjnfO{ g} lk/f]n]sf] 5 . s'g} ;dosf] k/df0f' c:qdf lj:yfkg ug]{ jf :yfgfGt/0f ug]{ sfo{ jftfj/0fLo zlQmzfnL /fi6« ?;nfO{ clxn] ltg} k/df0f' xltof/ b[li6sf]0faf6 s]xL ;sf/fTds b]lvP klg Jojxfl/s ¿kdf s;/L gi6 ug]{ eGg] lrGtfn] ;tfPsf] 5 . 7"nf] dfqfdf Tof] cg'lrt cyjf kl/df0ffTds ¿kdf sdL Nofpg] lgld{t / ;l~rt xltof/ gi6 ug{ ?;n] cfly{s sf/0fn] pkfo dfq lyof] . un}rf sf/vfgf rnfpFbf To;af6 kg]{ F k|lts"n k|efj tyf lg/fs/0f k|b"if0f Go"g ug{ cGo klg TolQs} 7"nf] r'gf}tL Joxf]g'k/]sf] 5 . dxŒjk"0f{ s'/f pkfox¿sf] klxrfg u/L ltgsf] sfof{Gjog ug'{ lxts/ eg]sf] cf0fljs xltof/sf] k|of]u jf gi6 ug{ h'g;'s} x'gtkm{ s;}sf] Wofg uPsf] b]lvPg . sf7df8f}+ pkTosfdf ] z}nL k|of]u u/] klg To;n] jftfj/0fdfly gsf/fTds s]lGb|t un}+rf sf/vfgfx¿ sf7df8f}+aflx/ k7fpFb}df c;/ kb{5 / cfly{s gf]S;fgL klg u/fpF5 . jftfj/0f k| b " i f0f x' F b } g eGg] 5} g . Tof] ;d:of sf7df8f}aflx/ ;g]{ dfq g xf] . F jftfj/0fsf] csf]{ b'Zdg cf}Bf]lus ljsf; klg xf] . g]kfnsf] kl/j]zdf eGg'kbf{ a9bf] ;x/Ls/0f / clgolGqt pBf]uaf6 lg:s]sf] kmf]xf]/, w"jfF / k|b"lift /;fogn] ;du| a;f]af; Pjd ;jf/L;fwgsf] a9bf] rfkn] ubf{ jftfj/0f jftfj/0fnfO{ lg/Gt/ k| b " l ift agfO/x] s f] 5 . v' n f ljgf; eO/x]sf] 5 . sf7df8f}+ pkTosfnufotsf cGo xfjfdf Zjf; lng] :ynLo hLj dfq xf]Og, hnLo ;x/LIf]qdf Jojl:yt a;f]af;, pko'Qm af6f], au}Frf, k|f0fLn] ;d]t jftfj/0fLo k|b"if0fsf] k|efjsf] ;fdgf kmf]xf]/d}nf lgoGq0f cflbsf] Joj:yfsf] bL3{sfnLg ;f]r ug'{kl//x]sf] 5 . cf}Bf]lus k|b"if0fsf] ¿kdf lgl:sPsf] Pjd of] h gfsf] th' { d f ug{ ;/sf/sf] Wofg k'u]sf] b]lvFb}g . To;}u/L u|fdL0f jftfj/0f k|bif0fdf jg;Dkbfsf] " /;fog gbL, vf]nf / ;d'b|df ˆofFSg] k|j[lQn] hnk|b"if0f ljgf;, s[lifdf cTolws /f;folgs dn / sL6gf;s al9/x]sf] 5 . klZrdL d'n'saf6 k|f/De ePsf] cf}Bf]lus cf}iflwsf] k|of]u / clzIffh:tf s'/fn] d'Vo e"ldsf lgjf{x ljsf; ljsf;f] G d' v tyf cljsl;t /fi6« d f km} n F b f ub{5g . ctM jftfj/0f k|bif0fsf] ;d:of ;x/ / u|fdL0f " To;sf] k|ljlwdf dfq xf]Og, jftfj/0fLo k|b"if0f klg b'j} If]qdf eP klg To;sf] sf/0f / cj:yf eg] km/s ;F u } km} n gk' U of] . s] x L bzsklxn] ; Dd cf} B f] l us /x]sf 5g . ★ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 15
  16. 16. jfo'kbif0f | " hf 8f]go]ufddf. ;x/L If]qdfb"ijfo'kQ|bm"if0fdf slgs}cTolws x' b{5 3gfa:tL, k| f0fo' kbfy{ f] j[l4 / ;8s afnaflnsfx¿ h] kfof], ToxL afn]/ cfuf] tfKg ljjz x' G 5g . hf8f] d f o;/L aflng] j:t' x ¿df lj;h{g, ltgsf] yfGsf] nufpg] plrt Joj:yfsf] cefj ˆofFlsPsf Knfl:6s, kmf]d, 6fo/ jf d'b|fdf ¿kfGtl/t / k| f s[ l ts¿kdf k| b " i f0f lgd{ n Ls/0fsf nflu gx'g] cGo aNg] j:t' kb{5g . oL j:t' afNbf afSnf] / jghªunsf] cefjh:tf sf/0fn] ;x/L If]qdf To;} klg sfnf] w"jfF dfq xf]Og, ljiffQm kbfy{x¿ jfo'd08ndf jfo'kbif0f a9bhfg] u/]sf] kfOG5 . To;df klg hf8f]ofddf |" } lj;h{g x'G5g / jfo'k|b"if0fsf] dfqfnfO{ a9fpFb5g . ;x/L If]qdf jfo'kbif0f emg j[l4 x'g] ub{5 . cflv/ lsg |" ;x/L If]qdf w]/} ;jf/L;fwg u'8g] ub{5g . o;/L u'8g] a9b5 ;x/L If]qdf jfo'kbif0f hf8f] ofddf < |" ;jf/L;fwg s}of}F jif{ k'/fgf / yf]qf /x]sf kfOG5g . != ul/aL;“usf] lr;f] M g]kfnsf sf7df8f}F, nlntk'/, o:tf yf]qf uf8L jf cGo ;jf/L;fwgn] cTolws w"jfF eQmk'/, jL/uGh, lj/f6gu/h:tf 7"nf ;x/df /f]huf/Lsf / xflgsf/s tŒj lj;h{g ug]{ t lglZrt g} 5, ltgsf] cj;/sf] vf] h Ldf u| f dL0f If] q sf ljkGg dflg;sf] dd{t;Def/sf nflu htftt} v'n]sf Uof/]hx¿df sfo{/t pkl:ylt klg TolQs} x'g]ub{5 . kmf]xf]/;Fu} kmflnPsf clwsfªz afndhb'/n] klg afNgnfO{ ;lhn} / lgMz'Ns r9bf] 708L Knfl:6s, af]tn jf cGo wft'hGo kbfy{ ;ªsng u/]/ a9bf] jfo'kbif0f | " cfˆgf] hLjg lgjf{x ul//x]sf dflg;x¿sf] ;ªVof klg ✍ uf]kfnk|;fb b'nfn ljz] i fu/L sf7df8f} F pkTosfdf yf] / } 5} g . af6f] – k|fKt x'g] 6fo/ g} k|of]u ub{5g . o;sf cltl/Qm un}Frf rf}af6f]df 6fo/sf] v/fgLdf n'6k'l6P/ a:g] ;8s afnaflnsf klg ;x/L If]qsf k]6Ld} cf>o lng]ub{5g . pBf]udf sfd ug]{ dhb'/ klg To:t} ljiffn'tŒj lg:sg] hf8f] t cflv/ hf8f] g} xf] Û o;n] ;DkGg–ljkGgaLr j:t' afn]/ cfuf] tfKg ljjz /x]sf 5g . ul/aLsf sf/0f a:gsf nflu Gofgf] 3/ / tftf] k|fKt ug{sf nflu s'g} lje]b klg t ub}{g . Gofgf] 3/ ePsf ;DkGg dflg; klg l;/sdf u'6d'l6P/ lx6/sf] /fk lnFb} ;'Tg' kg]{ k|b"if0f/lxt OGwg k|of]u ug{ g;Sg]h:tf ljljw sf/0fsf s7ofªu|g] hf8f]df ljkGg dflg;n] s] ug]{ < pgLx¿;Fu cltl/Qm hf8f]ofddf a9g] cTolws w"d|kfgsf sf/0f klg jfo'k|b"if0f j[l4 x'g] sfo{df ;xof]u k'lu/x]sf] x'G5 . g Gofgf n'uf 5g g t a:gnfO{ ;'/lIft 3/ g}, g afNgsf nflu pko'Qm OGwg . o:tf] kl/j]zdf ;x/L @= yf]qf ;jf/L;fwg / ltgsf] rfk M jfudtL If]qdf /x]sf 7"nf] ;ªVofsf kmf]xf]/df cfl>t ljkGgx¿ c~rndf btf{ ePsf ;fjf/L;fwgsf] ;ªVof clxn] jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 16
  17. 17. jfo'kbif0f | " c9fO nfvsf] xf/fxf/Ldf k' l u;s] s f] 5 . pknAw g} pko' Q m x' G 5 . o;k| s f/ afnL leq o fpg] sfo{ tYofªscg';f/ o; c~rndf btf{ x'g] ;jf/L;fwgsf] ;lsPkl5 OF6fe§fsf] sfd k|f/De eP/ csf]{ jiff{bsf] ;ª V of jflif{ s !& k| l tztsf b/n] j[ l 4 eO/x] s f] df};d k|f/De x'g'cufl8;Dd OF6f kf]Ng] sfo{ lg/Gt/ b]lvG5 . t/ ;8ssf] lj:tf/ To;sf] t'ngfdf cfwf rNg]ub{5 . OF6fe§fsf] ;~rfng hf8f]ofdsf] k|f/Deaf6} klg j[l4 x'g;s]sf] 5}g . o; cj:yfdf oxfF lelqPsf x'g] ePsfn] lr;f] df};ddf jfo'k|b"if0f a9fpg logn] ;jf/L;fwgsf] Jojl:yt ;~rfng x'g g;Sg' s' g } 7" n f] e" l dsf lgjf{ x ub{ 5 g . hf8f] o fds} k| f /lDes cfZro{sf] s'/f xf]Og . o;sf cltl/Qm xfn;Dd btf{ lbgaf6 ejg lgdf{0fsf] k|lqmofn] klg c;fdfGo ult ePsf tL;f}F jif{ k'/fgf ;jf/L;fwgn] klg pkTosfsf lng]ub{5 . ;8sdf £of/{–£of/{ u/]/} eP klg bf}8g] cj;/ kfO/x]sf $= hnjfo'sf] cj:yf M jiff{ df};ddf jfo'df ePsf 5g . ;8sdf nfdf] nfd nfu]/ lg/Gt/ £of/{–£of/{ ug]{ k| b " i f0fsf s0f jf w" n f] n fO{ kfgLn] lg/Gt/¿kdf / sfnf] tyf ljiffQm w"jfFsf] d':nf] 5f8g] uf8Lsf] ;ªVof olsg ug{ klg g;lsg] cj:yfsf] 5 . o;n] ubf{ ;x/L kvfNg]ub{5 . o;sf cltl/Qm hf8f] df};dafx]ssf If]qdf jfo'k|b"if0f lg/Gt/ j[l4 eO/xg] k|lqmofsf ¿kdf df};ddf tfkqmd s]xL a9L x'g] ub{5 . tfkqmd a9L /x]sf] 5 . x'Fbf jfo' ultzLn /xg] tyf ;fk]lIfs cfb{|tf klg @)%% ;fnd} cTolws w"jfF kmfNg] l8h]naf6 rNg] t'ngfTds¿kdf 36g]ub{5 . o;f] x'Fbf jfo'k|b"if0fsf ljqmd6]Dkf]nfO{ sf7df8f}Faf6 lj:yfkg ug{sf nflu o'/f]– tŒj jf w"ns0f;d]t xn'sf eP/ jfo'd08nsf] dflyNnf] ! jf OlG8of– @))) dfkb08 k"/f u/]sf dfOqmf]a; txtkm{ lkmFlhG5g / To;sf] k|efj 365 . o;sf] ljk/Lt leq o fpg] lg0f{ o eP klg oxfF u' 8 g ] clwsfª z lr;f] df};ddf jiff{ sd x'g] x'Fbf jfo'df /x]sf k|b"ifstŒj ;jf/L;fwgn] k|b"if0f dfkb08 k"/f ub}{gg . jftfj/0fs} kvflng] ;Defjgf klg sd x'G5 . To;}u/L jfo'd08n b[ l i6n] pko' Q m dfg] / lr;f] x'g], jfo'sf] ult l:y/ leqofOPsf ltg} dfOqmf]a; jfo'k|b"if0fsf k|d'v c;/x¿ /xg], dflyNnf] txaf6 tNnf] klg yf] q f eO;s] s f 5g . • Zjf;k|Zjf;;DaGwL ;d:ofdf j[l4 . txtkm{ jfo'sf] rfk a9g], ;do–;dodf dd{ t ;Def/ ;fk]lIfs cfb{|tf klg clws gul/gfn] k'/fgf x'g jf gofF, • Zjf;k|Zjf;;DaGwL bL3{/f]uLsf] ;ªVofdf j[l4 . x' g ] / afSnf] s' l x/f] n ] tL uf8Ln] 7"nf] kl/df0fdf • d'6'sf /f]uLsf] ;ªVof j[l4 . k|b"if0fnfO{ ;d]6]/ /fVg] x'Fbf ljiffQm w"jfF pT;h{g ub{5g . • SofG;/ nfUg] ;Defjgfdf j[l4 . lr;f] df};ddf pkTosfsf] To;df klg hf8f] df};ddf o:tf afxgsf] OlGhg rfn' • /f]usf] pkrf/df nfUg] vr{ jf nufgLdf j[l4 . jfo' d 08n b" l ift w" j fF / -:6f6{_ x'g lgs} sl7g x'g] x'Fbf w"nf]n] emg k|b"if0fo'Qm x'G5 . OlGhg ttfpg w]/} nfdf] ;do £of/{–£of/{ kfg'{kg]{ x'G5 . %= ef}uf]lns cj:yf M jfo'k|b"if0f a9g'df ef}uflns o;/L hf8f]ofddf jfo'k|b"if0f cToflws j[l4 x'G5 . cj:yfn] klg dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x ub{5 . v'nf tyf #= O“6fe§fsf] pTkfbg df};d M sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf ;dy/ :yndf jfo'df /x]sf ljiffQm tyf k|b"lift s0f / ;x/Ls/0fsf] tLj| bf}8sf] dfu k"/f ug{ OF6fe§fsf] Uof;n] a[xt If]qdf km}lng kfpFb5g, t/ sf7df8f}F ;~rfngdf Jofks j[ l 4 eO/x] s f] 5 . pkTosfdf pkTosf rf/}lt/ r'lnPsf kxf8n] 3]/]/ srf}/f cfsf/df ;~rflnt sl/a @)) OF6fe§fn] k|b"if0f Go"gLs/0fsf /x]sf] sf/0f lr;f] df};ddf jfo'd08nsf] tNnf] ;txdf k| l jlw gckgfpgfn] ljiffQm w" j fF s f] sfnf] d' : nf] hDdf x'g] k|b"if0fn] km}ng] If]q kfpFb}g . o;/L pkTosfdf jfo'd08ndf lj;h{g eO/x]sf] 5 . hf8f] o fddf jfo' k | b " i f0fsf] 3gTj a9fpg oxfF s f] ef}uflns cj:yfn] klg ;xof]u k'¥ofpFb5 . sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf ;~rflnt clwsfªz OF6fe§fx¿ s[ l ife" l d df} ; dL 7] S sfdf lnP/ ;~rfng ePsf ^= jg:kltsf] sdL tyf Go"g k|sfz;+Zn]if0f k|lqmof M kfOG5g . jiff{bsf] ;dodf OF6f kf]Ng cg's"n jftfj/0f af]6la?jfn] jfo'rqmnfO{ sfod /fVg dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf gx'g] / s[life"lddf s[ifs cfk}mFn] wfgnufotsf afnL lgjf{x ub{5g . dflg;n] ;f; km]bf{ jf cGo ultljlwaf6 nufpg] x'Fbf OF6fe§fsf] ;~rfngsf nflu hf8f] df};d pT;lh{t sfa{g 8fOcS;fO8nfO{ lnP/ la?jfn] clS;hg jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 17
  18. 18. jfo'kbif0f | " kmfNg] ub{5g . o;sf ;fy} jg:kltn] cfˆgf kftdf ;" I dw" n Ls0fx¿, gfO6« f ] h g 8fOcS;fO8, sfa{ g k|b"if0fsf s0fnfO{ ;f];]/ Psxb;Dd jfo'sf] z'4Ls/s df]gf]cS;fO8, cf]hf]g, l;;f, tLa|kl/jt{gzLn of}lusx¿ (purifier) sf ¿kdf sfd ub{5g . t/ ;x/L If]qdf (volatile compounds) tyf cGo ljifQm kbfy{n] oxfFsf] jfo' n fO{ k| b " l iftu/L hg:jf:Yodf k| l ts" n k| e fj >L % sf] ;/sf/sf] jfo'k|b"if0f;DaGwL dfkb08 kfl//x] s f] x' G 5 . cd] l /sf, o' / f] k , hfkfg tyf jfo'sf] :t/ lkPd !) -w"nf]_ sf] dfqf c:6«]lnofh:tf ljsl;t d'n'sdf kLPd !) sf] pkl:ylt k|lt3gld6/ jfo'df clwstd %) dfOqmf]u|fd;DdnfO{ /fd|f] ^) eGbf sd ;'/lIft dflgG5 . >L % sf] ;/sf/n] eg] o;sf] dfqf ;fdfGo ^! b]lv !@) !@) u|fd k|lt3gld6/nfO{ /fl6«o u'0f:t/ tf]s]sf] 5 . c:j:ys/ !@! b]lv #%) jf:tjdf jfo'df kLPd !) sf] h'g;'s} dfqfsf] pkl:ylt klg dfgj:jf :Yosf nflu xflgsf/s x'G5 . o;}sf/0f cToGt c:j:ys/ #%! b]lv $@% ljZj:jf:Yo ;ªu7gn] o;sf] u'0f:t/sf] s'g} dfkb08 eofjx $@% eGbf dfly lgwf{/0f ug{ gx'g] s'/fdf hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . ;|f]tM hg;ªVof tyf jftfj/0f dGqfno, g]kfn . sf7df8f}F dxfgu/ If]qdf kLPd !) sf s0fx¿sf] pkl:ylt df};dsf cfwf/df !@) dfOqmf]u|fdb]lv #!% jfg:klts pkl:ylt lg/Gt/ Go"g x'Fb} uPsf] 5 . clws dfOqmf]u|fd k|lt3gld6/aLr /xg] u/]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . lr;f] / ;f}o{ls/0f;d]t sd k|fKt x'g] x'Fbf la?jfsf] o:tf ljiffQm s0fx¿ :yfgljz]ifsf] jfo'df clws x'g] k|sfz;+Zn]if0f / cGo lqmofsnfk;d]t sd x'g]ub{5 . ub{5g . cWoogcg';f/ k'tnL;8s If]qsf] jfo' ;a}eGbf o;k|sf/ hf8f] df};ddf jfo' z'4Ls/0f ug]{ jfg:klts a9L k|b"lift /x]sf kfOPsf] 5 eg] dR5]ufpF If]q sd Ifdtf x|f; eP/ klg jfo'k|b"if0f a9g]ub{5 . k|b"lift b]lvPsf] 5 . >L % sf] ;/sf/n] 8]lg8fsf] pkTosfdf jfo'k|b"if0fsf] cj:yf M ;xof]udf pkTosfsf k'tnL;8s, dR5]ufpF, lqe'jg sf7df8f} F dxfgu/sf] jfo' k | b " i f0f ljZjsf sltko ljZjljBfno -sLlt{k'/_, eQmk'/, kf6g c:ktfn / dxfgu/sf] k|b"if0fnfO{ pl5Gg] cj:yftkm{ cu|;/ /x]sf] 7d]ndf jfo'k|b"if0fsf] :t/ b}lgs gfKg] / To;nfO{ 5 . oxfF ;~rfng x'g] ;jf/L;fwg, OF6fe§f, pBf]uwGbf ;fj{hlgs ug]{ sfo{ ul//x]sf] 5 . ;~rfng ug{ / 3/fo;L k|of]hgsf nflu OGwg aNbf plNnlvt tYofªssf cfwf/df pkTosfsf k|d'v tLg lg:sg] w"jfFaf6 ;Nkm/ 8fOcS;fO8 / …kLPd !)Ú elgg] ;x/sf] k|b"if0fsf] ljZn]if0f ubf{ jfo'k|b"if0fsf nflu ;"Id ljiffn' s0f jf kbfy{x¿ pT;h{g eP/ jfo'nfO{ sf7df8f}F ;x/LIf]q g} cufl8 /x]sf] 5 . nlntk'/ klg b"lift agfpFb5 . ;x/L If]qdf ;Nkm/ 8fOcS;fO8 / sf7df8f}FnfO{ k5ofpFb} o;}sf] xf/fxf/Ldf cfpg yfn]sf] o;sf of} l usx¿, w" j fF , w" n f] , kLPd !) h:tf 5 / eQmk'/ eg] ;a}eGbf sd k|b"lift /x]sf] 5 . pkTosfsf] jfo'k|"'if0fsf] ;/b/ dfl;s :t/ -;g @))#_ :yfg hgj/L km]ac/L '| dfr{ ck|n ] d] h'g h'nfO{ cu:t ;]K6]Da/ cS6'a/ gf]eDa/ l8;]Da/ ] k'tnL8;8s @(% @%@ @#() @%# @&) @@) !!^ !@% !@^ !#% !(! @(! dR5]ufpF %^ ^^ ^^ ** *^ ^( @# @@ @$ #@ %! $^ sLlt{k/ ' !@! !)@ !!% !@) !!^ *) @^ @( #@ $( &% *& eQmk'/ @#! @!! @)) !(! !&% !)! #^ #( $$ ^* !)! !%$ kf6gc :ktfn @%^ @@% @#( @#& !&( !@@ !!& !@& !!( !&$ @$# 7d]n @$# !(* !&* @)) !@@ ^@ ^% ^( !)^ !^! @@! ;|f]tM hg;ªVof tyf jftfj/0f dGqfno, g]kfn . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 18
  19. 19. jfo'kbif0f | " pkTosfsf] k';sf] hf8f]df jfo'k|b"if0fsf] ;/b/ :t/ -@)^) ;fn_ c f w f / d f jfo'k|b"if0fn] :yfg k'; !# b]lv !( k'; @) b]lv @^ k'; @& b]lv df3 $ df3 % b]lv !! ;/b/ p;nfO{ s:tf] / k'tnL;8s #)^=)) #!%=$@ @&^=*# @$@=$@ @*%=!^ slt c;/ ub{ 5 dR5]ufpF $$=!$ %)=%& %(=@* ^)+&! %#+^& eGg] x' G 5 . o;} c f w f / d f sLlt{k'/ ()=!$ !)^=@* !!@=*% !!%=@* !)^=!# k| b " i f0fo' Q m jfo' eQmk'/ !%!=@* !(@=&! !*$=)) !(#=%& !*)=#( /x]sf] If]qdf a:g] dfG5] d f 6fpsf] kf6gc:ktfn @!%=&! @^^=%& @#%=@* @@*+$@ @#^=$( b' V g] , cfF v f 7d]n @!(=$@ @##=@* @!(=&! !*)=@* @#*=!& lrnfpg] , vf] s L ;|f]tM hg;ªVof tyf jftfj/0f dGqfno, g]kfn . nfUg] jf 3fF 6 L v;v;fpg] , gfs jfo'k|b"if0faf6 x'g] ;d:of M aGb x'g] jf lrnfpg], ysfO nfUg], jfsjfsL nfUg]h:tf jfo'df /xg] kLPd !) / cGo k|b"if0fsf ljiffQm s0fx¿ cNksfnLg c;/ b]vfkb{5g eg] d'6' tyf kmf]S;f]sf] Psbd} dl;gf x'g] x'Fbf dflg;sf] kmf]S;f] / /utdf ;lhn} ;d:of, bd, SofG;/h:tf bL3{sfnLg /f]u j[l4 ub{5 . k'u]/ Zjf;k|Zjf;, d'6' Pjd :gfo'k|0ffnLdf c;/ k'¥ofpg] jfo' k | b " i f0fn] dflg;df dfq geP/ cGo k| f 0fL / pkTosfsf] jfo'k|b'if0fsf] b}lgs :t/ -df3 @)^)_ :yfg df3 !@ df3 !# df3 !$ df3 !% df3 !^ df3 !& df3 !* ;/b/ k'tnL8;8s #$# #)( #%$ @$* @($ @(& #!& dR5]ufpF #$ ^! %& %& *! ^^ &! lslt{k/ ' && *( *! !)^ !@^ !!# !^* eQmk'/ !%# !$( !$# !$( !&% !^& @$& kf6gc:ktfn @!& @^& @@( @^! @@) @#^ #)) 7d]n !() @## !&& @)* @!% @@& @%^ ;|f]tM hg;ªVof tyf jftfj/0f dGqfno, g]kfn . ub{ 5 g . cd] l /sL j} 1 flgsx¿sf] cWoogcg' ; f/ jg:kltdf klg o:t} uDeL/ c;/ k'¥ofpF5 . l8h]naf6 lg:sg] w"jfF k]6«f]naf6 lg:sg] w"jfFeGbf !)) ;dfwfgsf pkfo / ;/sf/L bfloTj M u'gf a9L xlgsf/s x'G5 . l8h]naf6 lg:sg] w"jfFdf pkTosfsf ;x/L Onfsfdf jfo'k|b"if0f a9g'df oxfF j[l4 SofG;/ /f]u j[l4 ug]{ xfO8«f]sfa{gsf] dfqf clws x'g] eO/x]sf] ;jf/L;fwgsf] rfk g} k|d'v /x]sf] 5 . oxfFsf] s' / f hfkfgL j} 1 fgsx¿sn] kQf nufPsf 5g . jfo' d f x' g ] $# k| l tzteGbf a9L ljiffQm s0fx¿ jf:tjdf kLPd !) sf] k|d'v ;|f]t l8h]n g} ePsf] x'Fbf ;jf/L;fwgaf6} pT;lh{t x'G5 . jfo'k|b"if0fsf] afFsL c+z hxfF l8h]naf6 rNg] ;jf/L;fwg / sf/vfgf tyf lgdf{0fsfo{ / OF6fe§faf6 lg:sg] w"jfF w"nf], 3/fo;L pBf] u x¿ 5g , ToxfF o;sf] dfqf a9L x' g ] u b{ 5 . k|of]hgsf nflu bfp/f, sf]Onf / cGo OGwg afNbf jfo'k|b"if0faf6 dfgj :j:Yodf kg]{ c;/ jfo'df /x]sf] lg:sg] w" j fF , cf} B f] l us k| l ti7fgx¿af6 lg:sg] k|b"if0fsf] k|sf/ / dfqfdf e/ kb{5 . o:tf] k|b"if0fo'Qm jfo'k|b"ifs w"jfF–w"nf], w"d|kfg ubf{ lg:sg] w"jfF / ltgdf jfo'df slt ;do;Dd dflg;n] ;f; km]b{5g < To;/L /x]sf xflgsf/s tTj jfo'df ldl;Fbf x'g] u/]sf] 5 . k|b"if0fo'Qm :yfgdf a:g] dfG5]sf] pd]/ / :jf:Yosf] ctM ;x/L If]qsf] jfo'k|b"if0f /f]Sg ;a}eGbf klxn] cj:yf s:tf] 5 < / pm s:tf] sfo{df ;+nUg 5 eGg] ;jf/L;fwgaf6 lg:sg] ljzfQm s0f ldl>t w" j fF jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 19
  20. 20. jfo'kbif0f | " lgoGq0f ug'{ cfjZos b]lvG5 . C0f pknAw u/fpg]tkm{ sfo{ ug'{ kg]{df To;sf] ljkl/t :jR5 jftfj/0fdf afFRg kfpg' gful/s clwsf/ xf] . dfOqmf]a; cfoft ug{ lbg'nfO{ b'/ufdL ;f]r eGg ;x/df xf]; jf ufpFdf, gful/sn] :jR5 jfo'df ;f; ;lsFb}g . ;/sf/n] jftfj/0fsf ;fyL ;jf/L;fwgsf] km]g{ kfpg}kb{5 . ctM k| j ] z nfO{ k| f ] t ;flxt ;/sf/L kIfn] jfo'k|b"if0f lgoGq0f ug{ s] ug]{ < ug'{kg]{df s]xL jif{ kl5 jfo' k | b " i f0fsf b[ l i6n] • ;jf/L;fwgsf] rfk Go"g u/fpg lghL ;jf/L;fwgsf] g} jftfj/0fsf b' : dg Pp6f lglZrt dfkb08 k|of]unfO{ lg?T;flxt ug]{ . aGg;Sg] ;fwgsf] tof/ u/L To;sf] • ;x/L If]qdf pko'Qm k|sf/sf ;jf/L;fwgnfO{ dfq k|j]z cfoftdf ;'ljwf lbP/ sfof{ G jog s8fOsf ug{ lbg] . unt sfo{ u/] s f] 5 ;fy ug' { cfjZos • ;xfos dfu{sf] lj:tf/ ug]{ . eGg'kg]{ cj:yf b]lvPsf] eO;s] s f] 5 . xfn • ;fOsnh:tf OGwg/lxt ;fwgsf] k|of]unfO{ k|fyldstf lbg] . 5 . o;sf cltl/Qm eO/x] s f] oftfoft • k' / fgf ;jf/L;fwgnfO{ lgoldt k/LIf0fsf cfwf/df OF 6 fe§f, snsf/vfgf k| 0 ffnLnfO{ g} cflb ;~rfng ubf{ cF u fln/xg] xf] eg] qmlds¿kdf lj:yfkg ug]{ . pkTosfsf] jfo'k|b"if0f • ;jf/L;fwgsf] k|bif0f dfkb08nfO{ s8fOsf ;fy nfu" ug]{ . " k|b"if0f lgoGq0fsf nflu vf; k| l jlw cjnDag lg/Gt/ j[ l 4 eP/ • …jftfj/0fsf ;fyLÚ sf ¿kdf kl/lrt kl/jxgnfO{ eofjx cj:yf l;h{gf ;fj{hlgs If]qdf ;~rfng ug{ k|f]T;flxt ug]{ . ug'{ u/fpg' kb{5 . jfo' x'g] s'/fdf b'O{dt 5}g . • snsf/vfgf tyf pBf]udf k|b"if0f lgoGq0fsf pko'Qm jf cGo k| b " i f0f;d] t ctM oftfoft k|0ffnLdf k|ljlwsf] :yfkgf ug]{÷u/fpg] . lgoGq0f ug]{ zt{df dfq Jofks ;' w f/ ub} { • ul/aLdf afFRg ljjz gful/ssf] cfly{s pTyfg Pjd pBf] u ;~rfng ug{ ;xfos ;8sx¿sf] plrt a;f]af;sf] Joj:yf ug]{ / cfly{s lqmofsnfkdf cg'dlt lbg] / To;sf] lj:tf/ ug'{ klg h?/L cu|;/ u/fpg] . lg/Gt/ cg' u dg ug] { 5 . vf;–vf; k|sf/sf sfo{ ;/sf/sf] ;jf/L;fwgnfO{ dfq leqL ;x/L If]qdf k|j]z cg'dlt bfloTjleqsf] s'/f xf] . o;df ;/sf/ rgfvf], k|ltj4 lbP/ tTsfn} s]xL xb;Dd ;fjf/Lrfk sd ug{ ;lsG5 . / OdfGbf/ ePg eg] hlt;'s} k|of; ul/P klg To;n] cTolws jfo'k|b"if0f ug]{ ;jf/L;fwg, rfx] Tof] gofF g} k|ltkmng lbg;Sb}g . lsg gxf];, ltgsf] lgoldt k/LIf0f gu/L ;x/L If]qsf 6«flkms k|x/Laf6 oftfoft;fwgsf] k|b"if0f:t/ k/LIf0f ;8sdf u'8g gkfpg] Joj:yf ul/g'kb{5 . pkTosfdf ug]{ jt{dfg k|0ffnLdf ;'wf/ u/L o;sf] bfloTj oftfoft / cGo ;x/L If] q df ;d] t jif] { g L j[ l 4 eO/x] s f Joj:yf ljefun] lng' pko'Qm x'G5 . o;sf] sfof{Gjog ;jf/L;fwgsf] rfknfO{ lg?T;flxt ug{ lglZrt sfg'sL 6«flkms k|x/Laf6 s8fOsf ;fy ul/ jf 6«flkms k|x/L g} cfwf/ tof/ ug] { / ljB' t Lo ;jf/L;fwgnfO{ To; ljefucGtu{t /fvL sfof{GjogkIfnfO{ k|efjsf/L k|fyldstfsf ;fy ;~rfng ug'{ klg cfjZos x'G5 . agfpg]tkm{ ;/sf/L gLlt cu|;/ x'g'kb{5 . o;sf nflu 6«nLa;sf] ;]jfnfO{ lj:tf/ ug]{, ;kmf ul/aLdf afFRg ljj; gful/ssf] cfly{s pTyfg Pjd 6]Dkf]nfO{ cem k|efjsf/L ¿kdf lj:tf/ ug]{ / ltgsf] plrt Joj:yfkg ug'{ klg ;/sf/L bfloTjleq kg]{ s'/f Ifdtfsf] ljsf;sf nflu ljz]if sfo{qmd Nofpg]tkm{ xf] . ;/sf/n] k|ltj4 / OdfGbf/ eP/ o;tkm{ sfoqmd ;/sf/n] zL3| sfo{ ug'{kb{5 . xfn s]xL ;/sf/L tyf Nofpg' cfjZos x' G 5 . o;sf cltl/Qm ;d:of u}/;/sf/L lgsfoaf6 sf7df8f}Fsf] k|b"if0f 36fpgsf ;dfwfgsf pko'Qm k|ljlw, hgzlQmsf] ljsf;, r]tgf nflu k| b " i f0f/lxt ;jf/L;fwgsf] ljsf; / df} h ' b f clej[l4h:tf ljifodf Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ ;/sf/n] kxn oftfoft k|0ffnLdf ;'wf/ ug{ eO/x]sf] k|of; k|z+;gLo ug'{ h?/L 5 . ★ t 5Fb}5, To; k|of;nfO{ ;a} kIfsf] ;xof]u x'g' klg h?/L 5 . ;/sf/n] l8h] n af6 rNg] 6] D kf] x ¿ sªuf?sf] aRrf hGd“bf b'O{ ;]lG6ld6/ dfq sf7df8f}Faf6 lj:yfkg ubf{ To;sf] ;§fdf Ps÷Ps nfdf] x'G5 eg] jo:s sªuf? ple“bf kf“r yfg ;kmf6]Dkf] ;~rfngsf nflu cg'bfg tyf lgAof{hL lkm6eGbf cUnf] x'G5 . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 20
  21. 21. jfo'kbif0f | " jftfj/0fnfO{ x/]s kIfaf6 ;+/If0f ug]{ jg:kltn] klg jftfj/0fdf k|bif0f a9fpg] sfo{ ub{5g eGg] ;'Gbf " w]/nfO{ cfZro{ nfUg;S5 . cem s'g}–s'g} la?jfn] k[YjLsf] ;txdf cf]hf]g pTkGg u/L xflgsf/s t'jfFnf]sf] } l;h{gf ug]{ s'/fn] cfZro{sf] ;LdfnfO{ cem a9fpg' c:jfefljs xf]Og . t/, la?jfn] klg jfo'kbif0f a9fpg] | " ljleGg xflgsf/s tŒj tyf /;fog pTkfbg u/]/ jftfj/0fLo x|f;nfO{ tLj| kfg{ ;xof]u ug]{ s'/f xfn} k|sfzdf cfPsf] cWoogn] k|dfl0ft u/]sf] 5 . a]nfotsf] n]gr]:6/ ljZjljBfnosf k|fkm];/ lgs x]lj6 / pgsf ;xof]uLn] xfn} u/]sf] cWoogcg';f/ vf; ] k|hfltsf jg:kltn] jfo'kbif0f ug]{ s'/f kQf nfu]sf] 5 . ;fdfGotof jg:kltn] k|bif0fsf s0fx¿ / sfa{g | " " 8fOcS;fO8h:tf Uof;nfO{ ;f];]/ jfo'kbif0fnfO{ 36fpg] tyf k|fs[lts jftfj/0fnfO{ ;Gt'lnt agfpg] ub{5g | " t/ vf; k|sf/sf jg:kltn] eg]+ k|ltlqmofzLn tTj tyf /;fogsf] pTkfbg u/L jfo'd08ndf lj;h{g klg ub{5g . la?jfsf] k|sfz;+Zn]if0f lqmofåf/f To:tf] k|bif0f ug]{ cToGt kl/jt{glzn h}ljs kbfy{ (Volatile " Organic Compounds) sf] lg:sfzg x'G5 . hªunLuGw lgd{nLs[t ug]{ o:t} h}ljs kbfy{sf] pkef]uaf6 :gfg ubf{ lkmFh lg:sg]] t/n ;fa'g -;]Dkmf]_ pTkfbgdf k|of]u x'g] ub{5 . x]lj6sf] 6f]nLn] ;x/L If]qdf /x]sf jg:kltsf] k|hflt, pd]/, cjyf, prfO{ / sf08sf] df]6fOsf] ljj/0f /fvL #@,))) ¿vx¿sf] cWoog u/]/ pQm /x:of]b3f6g u/]sf] xf] . o;/L la?jfn] pTkfbg ug]{ VOC sf] ;/b/ pTkfbgb/ ltgLx¿sf] kftsf] km/flsnf]kgdf cfwfl/t x'g] ub{5 . pbfx/0fsf nflu cf]ssf ¿vnfO{ lng xf]; u/f}F x} Û jg:kltn] klg jfo'k|b"if0f u5{ ;lsG5 . logn] ;x/L If]qdf xl/ofnL / ;f}Gbo{ sfod /fVg] sfo{df dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]Nb5g / xflgsf/s tŒj pT;h{g u/]/ cTolws jfo'kbif0f klg ul//x]sf x'G5g . t/ Slver birch jf cGo w]/} kft x'g] jg:kltn] eg] | " o:tf xflgsf/s VOC pTkfbg gug]{ s'/f cWoogn] b]vfPsf] 5 . jf:tjdf lj?jfaf6 pTkfbg x'g] VOC g} 7"nf] ;d:of xf]Og . ;d:of ta l;h{gf x'G5, hj o;sf] k|ltlqmof jfo'd0ndf ePsf cGo tŒj tyf /;fog;Fu x'G5 . VOC jfo'd08ndf lj;lh{t ePkl5 p;sf] cGo /;fog;Fu x'g] k|ltlqmofsf sf/0f ljiffn' / b"lift kbfy{sf] pT;h{g x'G5 . o;k|sf/sf] /f;folgs k|ltlqmofdf jfo'd08ndf /x]sf gfO6«fhg cS;fO8sf] k|dv xft /xG5 . VOC / gfO6«fhg cS;fO8aLr x'g] /f;folgs k|ltlqmofaf6 ] ' ] oL c0f' lj3l6t eP/ cf]hf]gsf c0f'x¿ pTkGg x'G5g / 3dfOnf] lbgdf klg t'jfFnf] nfUg]ub{5 jfo'd08nsf] dflyNnf] ;txdf /x]sf] cf]hf]gn] ;"oaf6 k[YjLdf cfpg] k/fj}hgL ljsL/0fnfO{ /f]s/ To;af6 { ] hLjd08nnfO{ arfpg] sfo{ ub{5, To;}sf/0f cf]hf]g txnfO{ k[YjLsf] /Iffsjr klg elgG5 . t/, k[YjLsf] ;tx / jfo'd08nsf] tNnf] ;txdf cf]hf]gsf] dfqf a9]df To;n] t'jfFnf] a9fpg] tyf ljleGg k|sf/sf k|bif0f " a9fpg] ub{5 . ;x/L If]qdf /f]lkg] l;Gb'/] ¿v (Oak) af6 pTkGg x'g] VOC / ;jf/L;fwgdf vlgh OGwg aNbf pT;h{g x'g] gfO6«fhg cS;fO8sf sf/0f jfo'kbif0f a9g] s'/f o;af6 :k:6 x'G5 . ] | " cg';Gwftfsf] egfOdf ;d:of TolQ uDeL/ eg] 5}g . lsgeg] s]xL vf; k|hfltsf la?jfn] dfq jftfj/0fdf k|lts"n k|efj kf/]sf] b]lvG5 . jf:tjd} eGg] xf] eg] ;x/L If]qdf jg:kltsf] pk:yltn] k|bif0f Go"g g} ub{5 . " t;y{ la?jf tyf jg:kltaf6 pTkGg x'g] s]xL xflgsf/s tŒjnfO{ bf]if lbg'eGbf To;;Fusf] /f;folgs k|ltlqmofåf/f cGo xflgsf/s tŒj tyf /;fog pTkfbg ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ gfO6«fhg cS;fO8h:tf Uof;sf] ] pTkfbgd} lgoGq0f ug]{ pkfosf] vf]hL ug'{ ;fGble{s x'g5 . ] –zfb'{n jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 21
  22. 22. k|fs[lts k|sf]k ljgf;sf/L e'Orfnf] “ ;'/Iffsf pkfox¿ uf]kfnk|;fb b'nfn æs] ePsf] xf] eGg] yfx} ePg . y//{ == wtL{ sfFKof] Û pbok' / sf] d' s ' { R r] s ] G b| l aGb' eO{ uPsf] ljgf;sf/L leQfsf P]gfx¿ emg{ yfn] Û ;a} j:t' xNngyfn] Û s6s6 e'OFrfnf]nfO{ ef]u]sf w/fgsf Ps kLl8tsf] xf] . pgn] ub}{ 3/n] g} lkª v]n]h:tf] nfUof] . o:tf] a]nfdf gcfFlQg] To; e' O F r fnf] d f cfˆgf] 3/ dfq xf] O g, kl/jf/sf s'/} ePg . /fd Û /fd Û ====== eGbfeGb} lhGbuLe/ hf]xf] ;b:ox¿;d]t u'dfP . æcfk"meg] b}js} bof eP/ xf]nf u/]/ 6fpsf] n'sfpg agfPsf] 3/ If0fe/d} eUgfjz]ifdf afFlrof] . of] 5f]/L ev{/ # jif{sL lyO{ . o;sf] klg v'§f ablnof] . To;kl5 ;x/el/ lrTsf/} lrTsf/ Û st} efFlRrof] .Æ cfˆgf] ctLtsf] syf ;DemFbf vf6f] a;]sf] 3fOt]sf] lrTsf/ Û st} cfkmGtx¿ 3/df k'l/P/ lg:s]sf] 3fp k]ml/ alNemPsf] cg'e"t ub}{ pgL emg uDeL/ eP . lrTsf/ Û o:tf] qf;bLk"0f{ b[ioaLr cfˆgf] sxfnLnfUbf] ;f] e'OFrfnf]af6 hGd]sf] of] kL8fbfoL cg'ej pgL eljio ;DemFb} lg:s]sf] s;}sf] PSn} s f] dfq xf] O g . o:tf] j]bgfdoL lrTsf/ Û zfGt t cg'ej @)$% ;fndf w/fgsf s] j n e' O F r fnf] d f k/] / k| f 0f w] / } n ] u/] s f 5g / ;+ ; f/df Tofu ul/;s]sfx¿ lyP . zfGt e' O F r fnf] a f6 lagf; ePsf t kmut clGtd w' s w' s L al:tx¿sf] ;femf cg'ej o:t} afF l r/x] s fx¿ dfq lyP . x' g ] u 5{ . g] k fndf !(() e'OFrfnf]df elTsP/ nyflnªu ;fnkl5sf] of] ljgf;sf/L ag] s f 3/x¿ klg k] m l/ e' O F r fnf] n ] w/fgsf &#! cfpg;Sg] em6sfsf] k|tLIffdf hgfnfO{ Ps} I f0fdf sfnsf] czfGt g} lyP .Æ d'vdf lnP/ uPsf] lyof] . Tof] of] cg' e j @)$% ;fndf !(() ;fnsf] e'O“rfnf]af6 w/fgdf uPsf] klx/f] lbg ;DemFbf w/fgaf;L cem} jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 22
  23. 23. k|fs[lts k|sf]k ql;t x'g]ub{5g . clxn] klg s'g} sf/0faf6 3/ ys]{sf] sd ug{ k"j{tof/L / p4f/sfo{sf ;DaGwdf klg ;dfh cfefif x'Fbf e'OFrfnf] cfof] ls eg]/ em:sg] ub{5g– qmlds¿kdf ;r] t aGb} uPsf] kfOG5 . o;k| s f/ w/fgaf;Lx¿ . lgoldt¿kdf cfpg] k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf] /fd|f] of]hgf xfdLnfO{ e' m SofP/ e' O F r fnf] sfnf] la/fnf] h;/L x'g] xf] eg] tfTsflns p4f/ / k'g:yf{kgf klg ;dfhdf cfO/xG5 . s'ga]nf, sxfF, s;/L cfpF5, kQ} x'bg . s] F } TolQ sl7g x'Fb}g . e'OFrfnf] cfkm}F dfgj ;+xf/s g} xf] t < s] e'Orfnf] ærfx] klg kfOFbg Û kfP klg rflxFbg ÛÆ eg]h:t} e'Orfnf] } } F cfpg] s'/fsf] k"jcg'dfg ug{ ;lsPnf < xfdLn] e'Orfnf] { F To:tf] k|sf]k xf], hf] hlxn] klg cfpg;S5 . af9Lklx/f] /fSg} kf] ;S5f}F ls < e'Orfnf]af6 x'g] hgwgsf] Ifltdf F hfg, jiff{ / l;tnx/ rNg lxpFb nfUg'k5{, t/ e'Orfnf] F xfdL r}F slt lhDd]jf/ 5f}F < oL k|Zgx¿sf] hjfkm gvf]Hg] hf8f], udL{, jiff{b h'g;'s} df};ddf klg hfg;S5 . o;sf / ;'/Iffsf plrt pkfo cjnDag gug]{ xf] eg] xfdLn] nflu g v8]/L kg'k5{, g t x'/L–atf; g} rNg'k5{ . o;sf] { o:tf :d/0fx¿sf] ;Fw} k'g/fj[l[ Qdfq ul//xg'kg]{ x'G5 . /x:o eg] ;w}F k[YjLsf] ue{df n'ls/fv]sf] x'G5 . …s'df/L s]6Ln] cfˆgf] gfhfoh ;GtfgnfO{ uf]Ko¿kdf k]6df e'O“rfnf] s] xf] < M x'sf{Pem}F k[YjLn] o;sf] /x:onfO{ n'sfO/fv]sf] x'G5 . ha k[ Y jLdf /x] s f k| f 0fLn] lgoldt¿kdf y' k | } k| s f/sf k[YjL k|zj j]bgfn] 56kl6G5], elTsg yfN5g xfd|f 3/, k| f s[ l ts ljklQsf] ;fdgf ug' { k l//x] s f] 5 . o:tf clg ;'? x'G5 xfxfsf/ ÛÚ ljklQn] df};ddf cfwfl/t eP/ vf;–vf; :yfgdf x/]s k[YjLsf] leqL ;txdf tftf], n]bf] kbfy{ / ;fgf–7"nf y'k}| jif{ w] / yf] / Iflt k' ¥ ofO/x] s f x' g 5g . l;tnx/n] r§fgx¿ /x]sf 5g . k[YjLsf] ue{df /x]sf oL kbfy{x¿df hf8f] o fddf g] k fnsf] t/fO{ If] q x' F b } ef/t, ljleGg sf/0fn] ljrng k}bf x'G5 . o;/L ljrng k}bf aªunfb]z;DDfsf] ;dy/ If]qsf] hghLjgnfO{ k|efljt x'bf tL kbfy{x¿aLr w/flknf] cGt/fn jf c;xh:j¿k F kfb{5 . jiff{sf] df};ddf af9Ln] t/fO{ If]qs}} ;Dk"0f{ pTkGg x'G5 . ToxL w/flknf] cGt/fn jf c;xh cj:yf hghLjg cfqmfGt agfOlbG5 / ToxL ;dodf kxf8L ;fdfGo x'g] k|lqmofdf 7"nf] zlQm pTkGGf x'G5 / To;sf] k[YjLdf x/]sf jif{ slt e'O“rfnf] hfG5g < rfkn] e"–;txdf ;d]t sDkg k}bf x'G5 . sDkg slt 7"nf] -;g !(() b]lv !(() ;Ddsf] cWoogdf cfwfl/t_ x'g] xf] < To;n] slt If]qnfO{ k|efljt kfg]{ xf] < slt ;do sfod /xg] xf] < eGg] s'/f] ToxL ljrngaf6 l;lh{t :t/ dfk -/]S6/:s]n_ ;/b/ ;ªVof w/flknf] cj:yf / To;sf sf/0f pTkGg zlQmdf lge{/ ljgf;sf/L * eGbf dfly ! ub{5 . ctM k[YjLsf] e"ue{df pTkGg x'g] xnrnsf sf/0f 7"nf] & b]lv &=( !& aGg] c;xh cj:yfaf6 pTkGg zlQmsf sf/0f aflx/L ;txdf cfpg] 7"nf] jf ;fgf] sDkg jf ;tx xlNng] zlQmzfnL ^ b]lv ^=( !#$ k|lqmofnfO{ g} e'Orfnf] elgG5 . F xn'sf % b]lv %=( !#!( e'O“rfnf];DaGwL kf}/fl0fs syg M ;fgf] $ b]lv $=( !#,))) cfhsf] j}1flgs hutn] cGo ljifodf h:t} e'OFrfnf] ;fdfGo # b]lv #=( !#),))) hfg] j}1flgs sf/0f;DaGwL Jofks cWoog ul/;s]sf] clt ;fdfGo @ b]lv @=( !,#)),))) 5 . j}1flgs vf]hdf k|fKt pknlAw;Fu} k[YjL r]K6f] geO{ ;'Gtnfh:tf] uf]nf] cfsf/ ePsf] ;To w]/} klxn] k|dfl0ft If]qnfO{ klx/f]n] rk]6fdf kf/]/ hgwgsf] c;Lldt Iflt eO;s]sf] 5 . tyflk, cg';Gwfg / vf]hsf] c1fgtfj; ul/lbG5 . s'g}–s'g} :yfgdf t ;'Vvf df};ddf klg klx/f] clxn] klg xfd|f ?l9u|:t ufpF–;dfhdf …b]jLb]jtf hfg] ub{5 . o;sf cltl/Qm v8]/L, tftf] xfjf -n'_, l/;fP/ jf xfQLn] sfFw km]bf{ e'OFrfnf] cfpF5Ú eGg] /f]usf] dxfdf/L, ef]sd/Lh:tf ljleGg k|sf/sf k|sf]kn] dfGotf lj:yfkg x'g;s]sf] 5}g . …x]/ slnsf] nLnf Û x/]s jif{ lgoldt¿kdf hgwgsf] 7"nf] Iflt ub{5g . htftt} kfk}kfk dfq 5, clg cfpFb}g t e'OFrfnf] .Ú sl/a–sl/a lgoldt¿kdf cfpg] o:tf k|sf]ksf af/]df o:tf cGwljZjf;k"0f{ af]nL cem} klg ufpF3/df ;'lgg dflg;x¿ rgfvf] xF'b} uP/ o:tf k|sf]kaf6 x'g] Iflt 5f]8]sf] 5}g . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 23

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