DRR and CCA perspectives
Community complaints                (before 30 years and now)                      Hazards and impacts
How? a case for brainstorming                                        Living with 'uncertainty'
• Drinking water source sta...
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3. dinanath drr and cca prespectives


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3. dinanath drr and cca prespectives

  1. 1. DRR and CCA perspectives “The most widespread risk to settlements from climate change is flooding and landslides driven by projected increase in Climate change and disasters rainfall intensity and in coastal areas, sea level rise” IPCC, AR 4 Differing expressions Multiple h M lti l hazard environment d i t Need of integration Conversing understanding and synergy Dinanath Bhandari DPNet 15 April 2010 DPNet 15 April 2010 Climate change and disasters (risk) One word: (two) expressions Climate Change [will] further worsen weather induced • Mitigation – reduction of effect and impact of a hazards - disasters (strength of storm, heat stress, erratic hazard<>reduction of source of hazard i.e. GHG pattern of rainfall, drought etc), will increase number and • Vulnerability - considers initial vulnerability><considers frequency of small scale hazards and risks 'increased' vulnerability on top of 'usual' disaster context i.e net impacts of climate change (O'Brien et al, 2004). Disaster can make climate change impacts more profound • Impacts - long-term effects (generally negative) of disaster g to livelihoods and assets...< -> positive and negative Climate change will act alone and combined with other situation/consequence on ................ due to climate factors. change. • Exposure - closeness or nearness to hazard [or] scale of Will there be new hazard due to climate change interaction with hazard element [>due to climate change - completely unknown today? = may be. exposure of a system] - avoiding exposure is difficult/impossible Practitioners suffer of 'uncertainty' and broadness lying in the information on climate change DPNet 15 April 2010 DPNet 15 April 2010 Multiple hazards with and without CC Mean Daily Temperature Trend (Rampur) Annual Precipitation Trend (Rampur) 25.5 3000 25 cipitation (mm) 2500 24.5 perature (oC) 24 2000 23.5 Mean Daily Temp Annual Prec 1500 23 22.5 1000 22 Annual precipitation has increased by 426 mm in 30 years (1976-2005) [14.2 mm/yr] 21.5 500 Mean daily temperature has increased by 1.30C in 30years (1976-2005) [0.0430C/year] 21 0 20.5 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Year Year Source: Narayani Basin Office, DHM Source: Narayani Basin Office, DHM DPNet 15 April 2010 DPNet 15 April 2010 1
  2. 2. Community complaints (before 30 years and now) Hazards and impacts Causes Primary Impacts on • Increase in water shortage for crops Erratic Rainfall consequences livelihood assets • Thicker long lasting fog in winter Large Catchments, Flood land, house, shed, road... • Hotter summer, unexpected hot days Improper land use • More intense rainfall, more frequent floods Crop, livestock, Poor access /high Drought forests, water… demand of water • Longer g p between two successive rains g gaps Food & habitat shortage Mobility, health, Close to park/ for wildlife security… open boarder • Difficult to follow usual crop calendar Wildlife intrusion in • New weeds/invasive species, insects and diseases Species the community [on crops] migration Invasive weeds, diseases, new insect pests, plant Conflicts • Increased wildlife intrusion growth, flowering time Climate change (temperature, storms, precipitation) DPNet 15 April 2010 DPNet 15 April 2010 Contextual issues Need for integration • Single hazard can affect differently • Managing large watersheds and understanding climate • Different hazards affect individually change impacts in them - needs local to regional efforts and collectively • Identifying climate change its impacts in particular • Different hazards impact at different locality times of the year • Segregating the 'CC value' on hazard • Different people (and their assets) are vulnerable to different disasters • Development priority (integration of all sectors and differently and uniformly stakeholders stakeholders’ interests) - integration generates synergy • Policy and practice • In above picture what should we – Negligence to slow onset /creeping hazards recommend to do [CCA or DRR]? • Prevailing poverty – development activities are – crop resilient to inundation?? prerequisite to DRR and adaptation to climate change; – crop early maturing before flood come?? development will not be sustainable if underlying risk • In below picture what we should factors are not reduced and community have adaptive recommend to do (DRR or CCA?!) capacity to 'residual' environment. DPNet 15 April 2010 DPNet 15 April 2010 DRR & CCA: Conversing understanding Integration for synergy • Decreasing hazard, reducing exposure [and • Some people [may] prefer separate CCA and development to sensitivity] account for 'additionality' issue. They are different but have to go together. • Hazard as more or less temporary event; • Both CC and DRR have broad scopes; integrating each other multiple hazard environment is existing. can produce synergy: • Residual vulnerability (on top of usual hazards) – CC as one of the contributing factors to hazards – Additional requirements (bridge span, spill ways, landscape • Building adaptive capacity (to the changed capacity, more specific weather information etc) p y, p ) environment) as climate change is more or less – Small hazards are 'not neglected' (they claim more assets, some longer phenomena of them may rise because of CC) • Impacts of climate change can exacerbate – DRR as one of the objective on CCA • While one is getting major focus (as main sector of work) hazards and disasters>=< disaster can make issues of the other need to be mainstreamed climate change impacts more profound – • In mainstream development, both need mainstreamed feedback actions DPNet 15 April 2010 DPNet 15 April 2010 2
  3. 3. How? a case for brainstorming Living with 'uncertainty' • Drinking water source started drying off • Adopting 'no regret' options • There is perennial water source at hill slope which seepages down into debris during stream flow at the intake of irrigation – Minimize underlying risks channel between November and May. Thus no irrigation. – Natural hazards are physical processes that can be • There was scarcity of water for domestic use (Nov-May) - directly affected by social processes. from separate source in the same catchment. • In 2008, community connected water at hill slope to irrigation – Healthy ecosystems often provide natural defences; intake through a pipe - irrigation facility increased or drought degraded decrease community resilience. stress decreased? (where there was not 'disaster' situation) – Environmental degradation is a hazard in itself. • In 2009, drinking water at source further decreased (leading (UNEP/ISDR) to more stressful situation); community connected 'water for irrigation' to drinking water supply system. – Immediate and long-term actions – banned grazing and browsing in the 'catchment'; conservation • Development plans incorporate DRR/CCA measures initiated • Linkage between sectoral plans, local to national • Is it DRR or CCA?. If CCA, coping or adaptation? plans. • What happens if the 'drought' worsens? DPNet 15 April 2010 DPNet 15 April 2010 Thank You DPNet 15 April 2010 3