This publication is designed for agencies and practitioners that aim to work withchildren on disaster risk reduction and c...
4CONTENTSIntroduction             1Planning for a ChildCentered Approach to     5CSDRMHow to IntroduceCSDRM to Children   ...
About the Climate Smart Disaster Risk Management ApproachThe Climate Smart Disaster Risk Management approach was developed...
ACRONYMSCC       Climate ChangeCCA      Climate Change AdaptationCSdrM    Climate Smart disaster risk ManagementCSo      C...
A child                  For children all over the world, climate   The Development of CSDRMcentered                      ...
“...the important thing is all our problems are                                                                       inte...
CSDRM: an                                          integrated                                           approach          ...
Why a child centered approach?                                         plan’s grassroots action research and development e...
A child centered           to ensure the CSdrM approach                           directly aligns with the realisation    ...
“…There is fulfilment. In our own simple          ways, we can make a difference”                             - 16 year ol...
7   A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM
A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM   8
9   A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM
A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM   10
CSDRM through the lens of child centereddevelopmentin the philippines, drr practitioners     More specifically, after the s...
“...children are more capable of understanding                                                                            ...
Child-centered CSDRM challengesand opportunitiesLet people discover for                          within the region, and pl...
Child-centered CSDRM                           Children’s Charter for DRRand the Children’s Charter                     th...
Facilitator’s           WORKSHOP LOGISTICS:Guide                        Ideal Workshop timing: A two day workshop would be...
“…I am happy because even though                                                                                       I a...
Exercise  6   : Recap of terms and definitions.                                                   the children are then pro...
Other questions to further their understanding include:           Exercise  9   : participants are supported to better    ...
At the workshop in the Philippines, one participant, a           In the Philippines’ workshop, the children were able to17...
Exercise   12     : Introduction to the concepts behind CSDRM, including   the three pillars and how they relate to child ...
ENDNOTES                                                                            REFERENCES1 the ten at-risk focus coun...
“We care about environmentalsustainability because of thefundamental injustice of onegeneration living at the expenseof ot...
Child Centered CSDRM
Child Centered CSDRM
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Child Centered CSDRM


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The Climate Smart Disaster Risk Management approach was developed by the
Strengthening Climate Resilience (SCR) programme, a DFID funded programme
implemented by the Institute of Development Studies (UK), Christian Aid and Plan
International. Through a period of two years (2010-2011), SCR worked extensively
with policy makers and practitioners to develop the Climate Smart Disaster Risk
Management (CSDRM) approach. The approach seeks to address the gap in
effectively incorporating climate change into disaster risk management (DRM) work,
to ensure development work is both climate smart and disaster proof. The CSDRM
approach was developed iteratively with over 1,000 policy makers, practitioners,
scientists and academics from ten at risk countries in Asia and Africa1.
For more information visit

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Child Centered CSDRM

  1. 1. This publication is designed for agencies and practitioners that aim to work withchildren on disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation.This resource was developed by Kelly Hawrylyshyn with Edwin Elegado and BaltzTribunalo. Editorial support and inputs were provided by IDS (Katie Harris andFrances Seballos) and Plan staff in Asia as part of the Strengthening ClimateResilience programme. This publication has been designed by Vicky Eleen Diopenes.Photos are taken by Plan International and Katie Harris.We would like to thank the girls and boys in the Philippines who shared their ideas,enthusiasm and commitment to promote a child centered approach to CSDRM.This material has been funded by UKAid from the Department for InternationalDevelopment, however the views expressed do not officially reflect thedepartment’s policies.copyright © 2011
  2. 2. 4CONTENTSIntroduction 1Planning for a ChildCentered Approach to 5CSDRMHow to IntroduceCSDRM to Children 11Annex: Introducing theChild Centred CSDRM 15Approach to Children –Workshop Guidelines
  3. 3. About the Climate Smart Disaster Risk Management ApproachThe Climate Smart Disaster Risk Management approach was developed by theStrengthening Climate Resilience (SCR) programme, a DFID funded programmeimplemented by the Institute of Development Studies (UK), Christian Aid and PlanInternational. Through a period of two years (2010-2011), SCR worked extensivelywith policy makers and practitioners to develop the Climate Smart Disaster RiskManagement (CSDRM) approach. The approach seeks to address the gap ineffectively incorporating climate change into disaster risk management (DRM) work,to ensure development work is both climate smart and disaster proof. The CSDRMapproach was developed iteratively with over 1,000 policy makers, practitioners,scientists and academics from ten at risk countries in Asia and Africa1.For more information visit www.csdrm.orgAbout Plan InternationalFounded in 1937, Plan is one of the largest child centred community developmentorganisations, working in 62 countries on projects and initiatives that addressthe causes of poverty and its consequences for children’s lives. Plan works withchildren, their families and communities to build a world where children are safe,healthy and capable of realising their full potential.Plan’s approach to sustainable development takes place through our child centredcommunity development programme framework, based on a rights-based approach,guided by the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Our interventions arefocused on integrated programmes centred on: health; education; governance;youth economic empowerment; gender; disaster risk reduction and emergencyresponse; and building relationships between the developing and developedcountries through development education and advocacy.For more information visit
  4. 4. ACRONYMSCC Climate ChangeCCA Climate Change AdaptationCSdrM Climate Smart disaster risk ManagementCSo Civil Society organizationdrM disaster risk Managementdrr disaster risk reductionGhG Greenhouse GasipCC intergovernmental panel on Climate ChangeiSdr international Strategy for disaster reductionSCr Strengthening Climate resilienceUnCrC United nations Convention on the rights of the ChildUniSdr United nations international Strategy for disaster reduction
  5. 5. A child For children all over the world, climate The Development of CSDRMcentered change means an unjust inheritance of a future which is far from predictable. Given this pressing need, planapproach to inevitably children in least developed international, joined the institute countries are at highest risk of the of development Studies (UK) and consequences of climate change. Christian Aid in the Strengtheningclimate smart Most recent figures estimate that Climate resilience (SCr) programme 175 million children will be adversely which developed the Climate Smartdisaster risk affected by climate change2. the disaster risk Management (CSdrM) changing climate is set to have a approach. CSdrM aims to enhance growing impact on the realisation the ability of governments and civil-management of the rights of girls and boys to society organisations in developing survival, development, protection and countries to build the resilience of participation. the priority of ensuring communities to disasters and climate that disaster risk reduction and climate change as part of their development adaptation measures are in line with work. efforts to reduce the underlying causes of poverty and exclusion, is being the Climate Smart disaster risk increasingly recognized. But efforts to Management Approach (CSdrM) ensure excluded groups, particularly is described as an approach that girls and boys, are empowered to supports organisations to think and adapt and to influence local, national work in integrated ways. With it you and international responses to climate are setting out on an integration change, require greater commitment journey, a pathway to more joined-up and action now. working3. it seeks to inform strategic planning, program development and policymaking in order to ensure much1 A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM
  6. 6. “...the important thing is all our problems are interconnected and so are our solutions” - Edwin Elegado, SCR SEA Regional Coordinator, Plan Internationalneeded integration of disaster risk reduction (drr) and climatechange adaptation (CCA). integrated programmes can moreeffectively address the underlying vulnerability which rendersgovernments and communities at high risk to the changingclimate and other disasters. it is an approach that encouragesvarious stakeholders to look into and tackle changing disasterrisks and uncertainties, enable adaptive capacities, and toaddress poverty and vulnerability and their structural causes. Allthese are seen as critical measures needed to truly strengthenclimate resilience.the CSdrM approach consists of three pillars divided into 12action points (see Figure 1: The Climate Smart DRM Approachand Action Points, page 3). CSdrM guiding questions andCSDRM indicators can help you assess and reflect on yourorganisation’s work and operational environment in relation toCSdrM. they help you identify your strengths and weaknessesin relation to the 12 action points.the CSdrM approach not only facilitates the process ofanalysing whether existing programs and initiatives are climate-smart or not, it also facilitates the identification of pathways forintegration that can help institutions in ensuring greater resilienceof their planned interventions. “Changing Climate, Changingdisasters, pathways to integration” a global SCr publicationprovides guidance on how to use the approach for identifyingintegration pathways, developing action plans and monitoring andevaluating your move towards integrated policy or programmes. A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM 2
  7. 7. CSDRM: an integrated approach to promote resilience3 A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM
  8. 8. Why a child centered approach? plan’s grassroots action research and development education work supports evidence that children are effective leaders of change. opportunities for their learning, action and influence on issues around climate change and sustainable development should thus be maximized. • Many studies from around the world show that children are concerned about the environment, inequality, and poverty, and that they want to do something about these problems4. • in most vulnerable localities, well educated and informed children are often better placed than their parents to engage in drr and CCA decision making processes and actions. • research shows that children have a clearer appreciation about long term risks compared to their elders who are usually, due to poverty constraints, most focused on short and medium term risks. Children also generally display a better capacity than adults to communicate risk information amongst their peers, families, neighbours and their community5. With children’s health, education, livelihood prospects and well-being already significantly affected by climate change, we at Plan are committed to involving girls and boys in finding solutions to ensure their rights to survival, development, protection, and participation are safeguarded and upheld within a changing order to align the CSdrM approach engaged in child rights programming (such As a result, plan has contextualisedcloser to plan’s mandate of child centred as education, health, child protection, the CSdrM approaches’ action points,community development, we have among others) - CSdrM for children; and guiding questions and indicators (seeadapted the approach to reflect both: pages 6-10) so these promote both 2) the need for children to better CSdrM actions that contribute to the1) the need to ensure that the understand the implications of climate realization of children’s rights (CSdrM forpromotion of an integrated approach to and disaster risks on their rights and children) and CSdrM actions that supportclimate adaptation and drr also focuses how the CSdrM approach can promote children to be better informed and to beon and contributes to the realisation of the greater resilience of programme able to contribute to building resiliencerights and needs of girls and boys. this interventions which aim to fulfill children’s through CSdrM (CSdrM with children).includes the need to ensure much greater rights - CSdrM with children.integration in CSdrM work of sectorsCSDRM for children CSDRM with childrenCSDRM strategies that are child centred reflect the CSDRM strategies that are child centred are those where childrenrecognition of children as one of the main vulnerable groups and young people are also granted the space and support toto disaster and climate risks. It ensures that specific attention contribute to reducing disaster and climate risks. This can includeis paid to the unique needs and rights of girls and boys of supporting children:different ages within a changing climate. This requires, for • to design and deliver CSDRM awareness raising activitiesexample, setting up appropriate mechanisms to safeguard through community radio programmes, theatre, participatorychildren’s protection and wellbeing -- such as the provision video – thereby contributing to CSDRM Pillar 1 Action Pointof gender and age sensitive social protection services – in INFORM;line with the CSDRM approach’s pillar 3: Address poverty and • to learn and adopt new DRR technologies or behaviouralvulnerability and their underlying causes. It would also require changes through school curricula, extra-curricular activities andthe need to ensure climate change adaptation and disaster job-creation –, thereby contributing to CSDRM Pillar 1 Actionmanagement policy and services safeguard the individual Point INFORM, Pillar 2 Action Point EXPERIMENT and Pillar 3needs of girls and boys through more resilient public services Action Point DEVELOP;that support their survival and development – such as health, • and supporting children to contribute to, lead and mobiliseeducation and social protection -- in line with the CSDRM community action for local CSDRM interventions – therebyapproach’s pillar 2: Enhance Adaptive Capacity. contributing to CSDRM Pillar 3 Action Points EMPOWER and ADVOCATE A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM 4
  9. 9. A child centered to ensure the CSdrM approach directly aligns with the realisation & CCA planning (e.g. Ministry of environment, Civil defence, Ministryversion of of child rights, plan adapted the of Agriculture etc). approach’s 12 action points and guiding questions, as well as the CSDRM Pillar 2the CSDRM corresponding indicators. this process of contextualisation of the Enhance Adaptive Capacity there is a need to ensure theapproach approach to child rights required inclusion of children and youth identifying interventions that support groups (school based and in both CSdrM actions for children informal education) as important and with children. organisations and networks which need to be strengthened to the following are examples of how tackle changing disaster risks and CSdrM actions, from each of the uncertainties through innovation and three pillars of the approach, have experiment (CSdrM Action point been adapted by Plan to reflect a EXPERIMENT). child centred approach: CSDRM Pillar 3 CSDRM Pillar 1 Address Poverty & Vulnerability Tackle Changing Disaster Risks and their Structural Causes and Uncertainties the role of schools and informal in calling for the strengthening of learning mechanisms for children collaboration and integration and youth must be highlighted in between diverse stakeholders ensuring skills development for working on disaster, climate and the protection of ecosystems, take development (CSdrM Action point up of renewable energy and other COLLABORATE), it is necessary to low carbon development options highlight the role of the specific child- (CSdrM Action point DEVELOP). rights sectors (ie: education, health and social affairs) which, as a norm, See the full table of the Child are not integrating with other more Centred version of the CSdrM standard sectors engaged in drM approach on the following pages.5 A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM
  10. 10. “…There is fulfilment. In our own simple ways, we can make a difference” - 16 year old girlA Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM 6
  11. 11. 7 A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM
  12. 12. A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM 8
  13. 13. 9 A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM
  14. 14. A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM 10
  15. 15. CSDRM through the lens of child centereddevelopmentin the philippines, drr practitioners More specifically, after the session to explore their perception of thefrom the Plan Country office and children were expected to: disaster risks facing their community;Eastern Samar field office undertook and how these challenges arethe task of tailoring the CSdrM • have increased their awareness presently being addressed. thisapproach to make it accessible to on local climate and disaster risks included identifying good practiceschildren and inclusive of their specific • have identified concerns and and reviewing the role of duty bearersrights. they aimed to look at CSdrM initiatives to manage or address and right holders and the children’sthrough the lens of child-centred these risks own roles and contributions to makingdevelopment. Using the Convention of • provided inputs and their communities more resilient tothe rights of the Child (UnCrC) and recommendations on how their disaster and climate risks. once thisthe “Children’s Charter for drr” as issues and concerns can be common knowledge base was sharedthe main entry points, it was possible reflected in the approach and agreed, the children were thento share the approach, the concepts • be able to demonstrate and supported to review in more detail thebehind it and the latest thinking on recommend how best the actions taking place to address theirintegration with children. approach or its messages can community’s risks; including what has be communicated to their peers, been done/is being done (appreciativeplan philippines’ staff were able to families, in their schools and their inquiry); what could have been donesuccessfully share the approach, the communities. differently to achieve positive resultsconcepts behind it and the overall (forward looking); and finally, whatmessaging of an integrated approach Children were supported to first additional things can they, as children,to resilience to a group of 13 children understand disaster risks and how do by themselves and in partnership(6 girls and 7 boys) from the province these relate to their situation with their community to supportof eastern Samar, the philippines. and that of their community – by CSdrM (strategic planning). exploring recent disaster occurrencesObjectives of the session with and/or drr intervention they, or the process began with a review ofchildren: to contextualize the other members of their community basic disaster risk managementCSdrM approach to children’s rights were engaged in, and how these and climate change concepts,and their perspectives, with the interventions relate to national and terminologies and interventions.general aim of contributing to building local policies, and institutional and the children were asked what was thecommunity and children’s resilience to operational frameworks in their first thing that came to their mind whendisaster and climate risks. country. they were then supported they heard the words ‘climate change’, 11 A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM
  16. 16. “...children are more capable of understanding integration of climate change and DRM than some staff members” - Baltz Tribunalo, DRR Advisor, Plan Philippines‘disaster’, ‘hazard’ or ‘vulnerability’. the children were then asked to example, they felt that tree plantingthrough their sharing and inputs from explain why they feel disasters and helped tackle changing disaster risksthe workshop’s facilitation, a better climate change have an effect on the and uncertainties, helped enhanceunderstanding of these terms was realisation of their rights. adaptive capacity; and helped addresssecured. root causes of vulnerability. only after these rich discussions andthe children were then asked what activities ensured the girls and boys the children were then given freethey felt their rights were, or should were fully comfortable with the issues reign to come up with differentbe. Their inputs included: right to being discussed, were the concepts ways to communicate climate andeducation, right to have an identity, behind the CSdrM approach disaster resilience to their peers andright to be protected, right to express introduced. the facilitators introduced the wider community. their creativityour voice. (see photo, below right) the CSdrM approach by sharing the flourished as they developed role definition of each of the three pillars plays, visual message boards andAfter establishing this common of the approach and how they relate community messaging that they feltunderstanding on the rights of to child rights, and to barriers which would effectively promote the CSdrMall children, using stickers and prevent the realization of children’s approach and its call for greaterdrawings, they investigated the rights to survival, development, programme integration (within sectoralinterconnectedness of disasters and protection and participation. the interventions and with scales – fromclimate change and the fulfilment of children were then tasked to local to national).their identified rights. categorise - under each of the three CSdrM pillars - each of the activities A step by step guide on how tothis activity was followed by a they, their family or their community facilitate a CSDRM workshop withdiscussion that introduced the CSdrM are doing to address their rights: children is available in the Annex.concept of integration - which meansensuring that CSdrM actions are • CSdrM pillar 1: tackle changingintegrated within existing policy, disaster risks and uncertainties;planning and programming, and • CSDRM pillar 2: enhance adaptiveensuring that greater integration within capacity; anddifferent interventions are taking place • CSDRM pillar 3: address povertyto address each of the three pillars of and vulnerability and theirthe CSdrM approach. underlying ensure full understanding of the The children identified some activitiesdiscussions, together the group that they felt corresponded todecided on the local language (waray- achieving two or more of the CSdrMwaray) term sarasalado, to convey the pillars and identified activities thatmeaning of the word integration. integrated all three CSdrM pillars. For A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM 12
  17. 17. Child-centered CSDRM challengesand opportunitiesLet people discover for within the region, and played the dual elements of the CSdrM approach thethemselves role of sharing the lessons learnt from children absorbed and found important tothe process designed for communicating the previous programmes with a new share. it also gave the children a chancethe CSdrM approach with the children of audience. Although this may seem a very to learn new and innovative ways toeastern Samar centred on the concept of obvious way of explaining something communicate ideas.rights. it didn’t actually involve introducing new, this takes time to do effectively -the approach until quite late in the investing in preparation is key. Embrace differentworkshop sessions. this was intentional interpretationsand very effective. it allowed the children Don’t gloss over the difficulties One specific activity in the workshop withto consider for themselves the impact the concept of adaptive capacity was the children provided the space for theof disaster risk and climate change, and new to the majority of the children and children to define for themselves DRRhow these interact with development even to some plan drr staff. Many of or CCA interventions that they or theirinterventions in their communities. the the children misunderstood adaptive community had been engaged with, andchildren began to develop for themselves capacity to mean simply capacity. As one categorise them under the three understanding of the interconnections of the more challenging concepts, further this provided the opportunity for debatebetween climate change, disasters explanation was needed for the term to and discussion around what programmesand development, which made the be truly understood. Using examples had actually achieved, and often theintroduction of the three pillars of the relevant to the local context, scenarios realisation of multiple benefits. One thingCSdrM approach seem like common and a game (to demonstrate change, plan philippines learnt from this processsense. the interdependence of different parts was the importance of not to try and in a system and flexibility) a lot of time ‘correct’ the children’s interpretationsBuild on what the children was invested into ensuring everyone of the interventions. in some ways, thealready know understood the meaning behind the term. children’s interpretations of interventionsUsing examples that the children were provided a more realistic outcome toalready familiar with was the most If they can share it, they know it measure against what the interventioneffective way to explain the three pillars A fun and interactive way to determine was intended to achieve. Moreover,of the CSdrM approach. An example the level of understanding of the CSdrM rather than being told that gaps betweenused in the eastern Samar process approach is to ask the participants to the different sectors exist, the childrenwas to use videos (which some of the explain how they would communicate were able to see for themselves both thechildren were involved with making) from the approach (or integration) to their silos and overlaps, and thus had a betterclimate change awareness projects and community. hearing the children explain grasp of the level of integration betweenpublic service announcements. this also the concepts behind the approach different interventions in their area.helped to ensure continuity between allowed plan staff to truly assess howthe programmes plan are implementing much they understood, and what Katie Harries, SCR Programme Manager Adapted from: Changing Climate, Changing Disasters, Pathways to Integration” (SCR: 2011) 13 A A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM 13 Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM
  18. 18. Child-centered CSDRM Children’s Charter for DRRand the Children’s Charter the Children’s Charter for drr was developed through consultations with more than 600 children in 21 countries in Africa, Asia, the Middlethe entry point for communicating CSdrM East and Latin America and identifies children’s priorities for Disaster Riskto the Filipino children was the Children’s reduction. this is a Charter for children developed with children. it is anCharter and the CSDRM’s pillar three: important reflection of what children themselves are talking about and howAddressing Poverty and Vulnerability and their priorities should shape the views of decision-makers at the highestTheir Underlying Causes. plan’s drr level. the Charter was launched during the 2011 Global platform forpractitioners were able to explore how drr in Geneva and was promoted by iSdr during the international dayintegrated programming is required in for Disaster Reduction on 13th October 2011. The five priorities for DRRorder to achieve the rights of the child and identified by children include:similarly, how climate change will causeadded complexities in achieving the five 1. Schools must be safe and education must not be interrupted.priorities of the Children’s Charter for 2. Child protection must be a priority before, during and after a disaster.drr. the children who took part in the 3. Children have the right to participate and to access the informationworkshop recognised for themselves that they need.the current policies for reducing disaster 4. Community infrastructure must be safe, and relief and reconstructionrisk aren’t sufficient under a changing must help reduce future risk.climate. the children made the case that 5. disaster risk reduction must reach the most vulnerable people.local planning should incorporate all issuesthat come under the three pillars of the the aim of this charter is to raise awareness of the need for a child-CSdrM approach, especially those that centred approach to drr. All governments, donors and CSos are beingcut across the pillars. Moreover, there was challenged to take appropriate steps to protect children and utilise theircommon agreement that the fulfilment of energy and knowledge to engage in drr and climate change adaptation.their rights can be enabled through theoperationalisation of the CSdrM approach. For more information see: A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM 14
  19. 19. Facilitator’s WORKSHOP LOGISTICS:Guide Ideal Workshop timing: A two day workshop would be the ideal. this excludes travel time for the children, and it should preferably take place on a weekend or during school holidays to avoid disruption to the children’s schooling. the sessions below can be adjusted to facilitate a shorter workshop. Facilitation: at least 2 facilitators (male and female) trained in child rights, child protection, child participation, drr & CCA Group size: maximum size of 20 children – ideally disaggregate groups by gender Materials required: videos, projector, laptop, metacards, markers, flip-chart paper, flip-chart, tape, scissors, colored papers, glue WORKSHOP METHODOLOGY: Exercise 1 : Getting to know you – Following a welcome and introduction to the workshop and its facilitators, a fun introduction of participants takes place. participants are instructed to form two lines and are then made to face each other to find a partner. Using the local songs as a background participants say hello and introduce their names to their partners, add a few personal details and conclude the brief conversation by describing oneself using the first letter of their names. When the song stops they move down to the next partner until almost everyone has met and introduced themselves to every participant. Exercise 2 : Sharing their expectations and hopes for the workshop - the facilitator shares the objective of the workshop and outlines the sessions to take place. participants are tasked to list their expectation on metacards. they are then requested to post their expectations on the flip-chart paper posted on the wall, placing them under the appropriate categories: Activity, Participants and Facilitators. they are encouraged to use the local language when elaborating or explaining their answers.15 A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM
  20. 20. “…I am happy because even though I am an out of school youth, I feel like I’m studying” - 18 year old boyExercise 3 : Child friendly Videos on DRR and • What projects have you been involved with – what topics did these include?CCA to be screened which serve as an introduction • What was your involvement / role / participation?to the topic of drr and CCA, and a refresher to the • What were your friends, families, school’s involvement /participants of previous work they may have been role / participation?involved in this area. (See useful video resources • How did you find the activity – were you happy, sad etc.?available on page 17 that can be used for this session. • What benefits did it bring you, your friends, families, theThe screening should be followed by a brief discussion whole community?on the children found interesting/surprising/etc.) • What were the limitations / negative results? What are yourExercise 4 : Review of basic disaster risk • concerns as a result of these activities? What could have been done differently to come up withmanagement and climate change concepts, better results?terminologies and interventions. the children sit in acircle and are asked to share what comes first to theirmind when they hear the following words: disaster,hazard, vulnerability, risk, climate change, disasterrisk management, GhGs, climate change adaptation,climate change mitigation and resilience. the facilitatorshould ensure all participants contribute to defining anddemystifying the terms, and he/she is responsible forproviding technical input and practical examples to aidin understanding as needed.Exercise 5 : Sharing and providing feedback onchildren’s past and current disaster risk reductionand climate change initiatives. this session providesthe participating girls and boys an opportunity torefresh their memories on recent activities related todrr or CCA they may have been engaged in. thefollowing questions are posed for discussion andbrainstorming: A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM 16
  21. 21. Exercise 6 : Recap of terms and definitions. the children are then provided with explanations of the formal definitions of terms – using the definitions of terminologies from UniSdr and the ipCC but explanations to use examples related to the local context and local dialect to ensure better understanding by the children. Children can also be involved in a group game using drr terms such as hazard, vulnerability and disaster as cue to make an action: the children are asked to form a circle while standing and then to connect their hands and stretch out their arms to perfect the circle with enough distance. they are instructed to place the palm of their right hand facing up, and the palm of their left hand facing down. the facilitator then gives them the instructions for the game: “When I say ‘hazard’, you have to rub your palms with each other’s. When i say ‘vulnerability’ you have to bounce your hands so you are clapping with each other. When i shout ‘disaster’, your left hand will try to catch the right hand of the person near you, and your right hand will try to escape from being caught by your neighbour’s left hand.” the facilitator shouts out the different words randomly a few times. to make it more fun, one of those first persons caught can be tasked to lead the game. After four or five rounds, the facilitator then shares the messaging of the game: those who can catch their neighbour are illustrating the concept of ‘capacity’. those who cannot escape are illustrating the concept of ‘vulnerability’. the facilitator leads a discussion using the following guiding questions: • What do you think are the reasons why you were caught? When i shouted “disaster”, were you ‘prepared’? • What do you think was the hazard(s) in this situation? Are they preventable? • What do you think were your vulnerabilities? • how was the risk (of being caught) developed out of the hazards and your vulnerabilities? Here is a list of videos you may find relevant to screen for exercise 3: Philippines Bangladesh Flood: Menace to Education Flood Children of Holdibari: Barobo, The sinking Barangay Laily DRR Comic Video The Pock-marked Face of Barangay Caga-ut El Salvador Children on the Frontline: Philippines Children on the Frontline: El Salvador Child Centred HVCA approach: re=channel1717 A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM
  22. 22. Other questions to further their understanding include: Exercise 9 : participants are supported to better understand the interconnectedness of disasters and• When disaster strikes are you really helpless? climate change to everyday development issues. Using• What capacities do you have to prevent or avoid it? stickers, the children are tasked to identify which of the• At your home, or in your schools and communities, blockages / hindrances identified in exercise number eight what do you think are the hazards? are affected by disasters (to be indicated with a yellow star)• What are the things making people vulnerable? or by climate change (to be indicated with green square).• Why do you consider them as such? once all blockages/hindrances are assess the facilitator• What are the causes of disasters? is it purely the reviews with the group the identified impacts of disasters. hazard? or are there human factors?• With the identified hazards and risks, what then the photo on page 20 illustrates how children in the can you do to minimize its impacts, what can your Philippines identified their rights (pink metacard), the communities do to avoid or prevent that? What are factors that inhibit the attainment of those rights (white the resources you have or that you can find in your metacard) and identification of those affected by disasters communities or in your schools or at home? (yellow star) and climate change (green square).• Given all this, what do you think, needs to be done so that disasters are reduced? or even prevented? this activity is to be followed by a discussion drawing• What can be your role as children in this? on the children’s realisation of the interconnectedness between their rights, disasters and climate change, andit is important that the facilitator writes down the children’s serves as an introduction to the concept of integration.answers on flip chart paper and then connects all theiranswers so they see their own ideas contributing to buildingcommunity resilience to disaster risks. this method ensuresappreciation that they themselves can really do somethingin support of drr and CCA – leading to ownership andboosting their confidence.Exercise 7 : Brainstorming session on child rights.the children are asked what they feel their rights are, orshould be. these are listed on meta-cards. the facilitatorsalign the cards matching similar answers and followingthis a discussion is held with the children focusing on thefollowing questions: What are the consequences of takingaway a right? how would you feel? in what situationsare rights taken away (e.g. education stopped duringdisasters)?Exercise 8 : the next session focuses on answeringthe question “what causes you to lose your rights orrender them unattainable?” through a group exercise thechildren are tasked to brainstorm all the issues that act asa blockage or hindrance to attaining their rights. These links are available as of December 201l.Vietnam Dominican Republic Systematising the DRR summer camps: Film A Ngo : General project video (13 min version): film xa Thuan Communication strategies in DRR: Mozambique A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrMstudy-challenge/217-madera.html 18
  23. 23. At the workshop in the Philippines, one participant, a In the Philippines’ workshop, the children were able to17 year old boy, chose to draw lines linking the different effectively explain why they felt the provision of adequatefactors inhibiting rights – including between shelter, climate food is being affected by climate change and disasters.change, drought, hazards and floods. He found the process They identified issues such as floods and landslides‘exciting, challenging and inspiring...’ and the facilitator destroying crops. For one of the barriers they identifiedshared that this helped illustrate to others the complexity to the realisation of their rights, poverty, the childrenof the concept of integration. Furthermore, together the identified infrastructural weaknesses that acted asgroup in the Philippines decided on the local language constraints to livelihood activities (e.g. blocked roads,(waray waray) term ‘sarasalado’ to convey the meaning lack of access routes to markets). They also identifiedof integration. It is advisable to include a discussion on financial challenges – a 13 year old girl explained thatthe appropriate terminology to convey the concept of she felt disasters affected her level of poverty becauseintegration in your local language. government budgets that could/should be used to improve their livelihood conditions are used instead for recovery operations.Exercise 10 : Discussion and explanation. the children are tasked to explain why they feel disasters and/or climatechange would affect their rights.Exercise 11 : Group work brainstorming the question: “What actions are being taken by you, your family andyour community to address the issues that limit you from attaining your rights?” Separate groups are tasked tobrainstorm one actor (one group discussed their own action, another group actions by their families, another group actionby the wider community). Groups present to the plenary and get inputs from others and the facilitator. it is advisable toseparate the groups by gender if feasible to ensure strong participation and sharing of their views by girls and boys.19 A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM
  24. 24. Exercise 12 : Introduction to the concepts behind CSDRM, including the three pillars and how they relate to child rights. the facilitator can explain CSdrM in the context of child rights using the metaphor of pillars of a house. he/she describes the upper portion of the house/or the roof as where their rights are located; that in order to protect their rights, there must be stable pillars that serve as strong foundations for the house. each CSdrM pillar then is explained as what comprise a strong foundation for the house and its roof. Exercise 13 : Conveying adaptive capacity. As one of the more challenging concepts, further explanation is needed for the term adaptive capacity because it may be new to both staff and the children. this can be explained through examples, action and a game. the facilitator should also share with the children examples of situations where local steps to improve adaptive capacity are taking place. through a game, the concept of adaptive capacity can be further explained by requiring participants to form a circle standing up and holding each others hands. they are requested to perform some actions while holding each others hands. The facilitator will call out the actions such as: “raise your right knee as high as you can, bring your left leg up behind you, move 2 steps forward and try to sit down. As the children struggle to keep holding hands and performing the different actions, the game shows that some tasks are difficult to do Exercise 9: Identifying climate and disaster risks and how these affect child rights without doing some adjustments. the facilitator shares with the children examples of situations where local steps to improve adaptive capacity are taking place.In the Philippines, the facilitator shared In the Philippines, the children came up withthe situation of lahar affected areas where the following outputs:affected people have to continuously Group 1 narrated through a skit a tale onelevate their houses after every major disaster and preparedness which waslahar flow. Another example provided was represented using bold cartoon-like shapesthe situation of indigenous communities that moved to create a series of scenes asin the Philippines where houses are their story progressed.located along river banks or coastal areas. Group 2 impersonated teachers and gave aFloating houses of indigenous peoples mock lesson on terminologies and conceptscan be found in Agusan river for example including: risk hazard, vulnerability, capacity.wherein they tie their houses to big trees Group 3 created a pictorial representation ofso that these will not be carried away the concepts they learnt and how these canby strong river flows during the typhoon be applied to the context of their school andseason. community. Exercise 14 : the children are Exercise 15 : Group discussion What actions can/should we prioritise and how can we enhance our then tasked with categorising each of to explain the choices made and their strengths? the activities they, their family or their rationale for placing metacards under community are doing to realise their rights (as identified in exercise 11) each of the pillars. As a result of the children’s discussion and inputs from Exercise 16 : Children as CSDRM communicators. through under each of the three pillars of the the facilitator the children may decide a creative activity the children are CSdrM approach. they can identify to change the location of some of the challenged to express how they some activities that corresponded to activities to different pillars. Following would communicate what they’ve achieving two or more pillars and can this the facilitator should lead a learnt throughout the workshop to create separate piles between the plenary discussion focusing on the others. Without prescribing what it is pillars for these if necessary. following questions: What can help to they have to communicate, or how, build resilience within a community? the children are given free-rein to be how can we become ‘climate smart’? creative. A Child Centered ApproACh to CSdrM 20
  25. 25. ENDNOTES REFERENCES1 the ten at-risk focus countries engaged in the SCr Gracey, Kyle. Green Jobs for Youth: A preliminary analysisprogramme were: Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, of youth in the green economy: 2011.Cambodia, indonesia, philippines, Sudan, Kenya,tanzania. plan international, Child Centred DRR: Building Resilience through participation: 2011.2 Legacy of Disasters: The impact of climate change onchildren. (Save the Children, 2007) plan international, Child Centred DRR – Toolkit: 2011.3 Changing Climate, Changing disasters, pathways to Save the Children, Legacy of Disasters: The impact ofintegration (Strengthening Climate resilience, 2011) climate change on children: 2007.4 See Strengthening Climate resilience, Changing climate, changing disasters: pathways to integration, institute of5 Tanner, Thomas. Shifting the Narrative: Child-led Development Studies: 2011responses to Climate Change and disasters in elSalvador and the philippines (Children & Society tanner, thomas. Shifting the Narrative: Child-ledVolume 24, (2010) pp. 339–351 Responses to Climate Change and Disasters in El Salvador and the Philippines (Children & Society Volume 24, (2010) pp. 339–351 UniSdr, Global Assessment Report: 2011. Websites: emergencies
  26. 26. “We care about environmentalsustainability because of thefundamental injustice of onegeneration living at the expenseof others. People born today shouldnot have a greater claim on Earth’sresources than those born a hundredor a thousand years from now.”The 2011 Human Development ReportS������������ C������ R���������Email: info@csdrm.orgWebsite: www.csdrm.orgP��� I������������Website: