04 - Psychoanalytical
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Transcript

  • 1. Psychoanalytical FREUD
  • 2. Psychoanalytic Approach To Personality Psychoanalytical Approach based on Freud’s work. The idea that behaviour can be influenced by an unconscious part of the mind.
  • 3. Freudian Theory of Personality Three Parts of the Mind Aspects of mind which houses our thoughts and cognitive activities 3 parts: the conscious, the preconscious, the unconscious
  • 4. The Conscious  Contains thoughts of which you are currently aware  Constantly changing as new thoughts enter the mind and others pass out of awareness
  • 5. The Preconscious Stores all the thoughts you could easily bring into consciousness if you wanted to. E.g. what you ate for breakfast, who your kindergarten teacher was, etc.
  • 6. The Unconscious  According to Freud, vast majority of our thoughts are in the unconscious  No immediate access to  Cannot bring into consciousness except under certain extreme situations.  Responsible for much of our everyday behaviour.
  • 7. Three parts of the Personality In Freud’s view, the human personality could be divided into three parts: Id, ego and superego According to Freud, these parts are often not at peace with one another
  • 8. Id The one and only part to the human personality AT BIRTH. Actions based on pleasure principle – the id is only concerned with satisfying personal desires, regardless of limitations or consequence. These reflexive actions are still present as adults, but held in check by other parts of the personality. Id uses wish fulfillment to satisfy its needs: if a baby is hungry with no food nearby, the id imagines the food and temporarily satisfies the need. Id impulses are unconscious, therefore we are unaware of all the impulses we might wish to act upon.
  • 9. Ego 0-2yrs + interaction with environment = ego Ego’s actions based on the reality principle – that is, the primary job of the ego is to satisfy the id impulse, but in a realistic way. Keeps unacceptable and dangerous id impulses in the unconscious
  • 10. Superego About five years = superego Represents society’s and parents’ values and standards Places more restrictions on what one can and cannot do. Primary weapon – guilt! According to Freud, some children fail to fully develop the superego due to poor child-rearing practices. Can also become too powerful (“supermoral”), with impossible standards of perfection.
  • 11. The Interaction of the Three Parts
  • 12. Putting it altogether… Freud’sTopographical Model
  • 13. Instincts and Tension Reduction Freud maintained that human behaviour is motivated by strong internal forces – drives/instincts Two major categories of instincts: 1) life/sexual instincts - Eros 2) death/aggressive instincts - Thanatos The two types combine to motivate behaviours. Freud attributed most human behaviour to the life/sexual instinct. Note: sexual includes anything resulting in pleasure. Death instinct: the desire we all have to die and return to the earth. Mostly unconscious. Expression: self destruction, aggression against others.
  • 14. Instinct Activation Increased psychological tension is created. Comparable to feelings of excitation, nervousness and arousal. Tension remains until the particular need is satisfied. Undesirable state = goal of most human behaviour to reduce the tension and return to a state of no tension.