Psychoanalytic theory sigmundfreUd


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Psychoanalytic theory sigmundfreUd

  1. 1. Psychoanalytic TheoryThe term psychoanalysis is used to refer to many aspects of Freud’s work and research, including Freudian therapy and the research methodology he used to develop his theories. Freud relied heavily upon his observations and case studies of his patients when he formed his theory of personality development. BOYET B. ALUAN BOYET B. ALUAN BOYET B. ALUAN
  2. 2. Say sOMeTHing WhatEVer • coMES in your • M I n d
  3. 3. • Before we can understand Freud's theory of personality, we must first understand his view of how the mind is organized.
  4. 4. Psychoanalytic • means the importance of unconscious process and childhood experience • It is also means therapy( it attempts to provides insight into one’s thoughts and actions) and theory of personality • emphasizes unconscious motivation– the main causes of behavior lie buried in the unconscious mind.
  5. 5. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) • Founder of psychoanalysis • Proposed the first complete theory of personality. • A person’s thoughts and behaviors emerge from tension generated by unconscious motives and unresolved childhood conflicts.
  6. 6. Free association • Freudian technique of exploring the unconscious mind, by having the persons relax and say whatever comes to mind.
  7. 7. Express your thoughts, feelings and sensation about this moment @@@#####
  8. 8. • According to Freud, the mind can be divided into two main parts: • The conscious mind includes everything that we are aware of at this very moment This is the aspect of our mental processing that we can think and talk about rationally. • The conscious is able to receive information from both the external world and the unconscious.
  9. 9. Thinking time????? • Think of your childhood memories…. • Write your phone or cellphone number or your pin number.
  10. 10. • The preconscious is the intermediate between unconscious and conscious. In order to an aggressive or sexual impulse to reach the conscious, it must first pass through preconscious. In this situation, the preconscious has the power to decide whether the impulse may reach the conscious area or not. • It is also the region of mind holding information that is not conscious but easily retrievable into conscious awareness • Example your password and phone number.
  11. 11. Write your unacceptable thoughts, feelings, wishes and memories
  12. 12. The unconscious mind -slips of the tongue/Freudian slips • is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that outside of our conscious awareness. Most of the contents of the unconscious are unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict. According to Freud, the unconscious continues to influence our behavior and experience, even though we are unaware of these underlying influences. • The unconscious represents all contents which are not present in our consciousness. Freud believed that all childhood’s unacceptable wishes are driven out of conscious awareness and become part of unconscious. According to Freud’s theory, the unconscious is a reservoir of primitive impulses, sexual and aggressive. These unconscious thoughts are expressed in dreams, slips of the tongue. Of course, there still are specialists and researchers who refuse to accept this idea.
  13. 13. • According to Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality, personality is composed of three elements. These three elements of personality--known as the id, the ego and the superego--work together to create complex human behaviors.
  14. 14. The Psychodynamic Perspective: • Id • Ego • And Superego
  15. 15. The id – I want • is the only component of personality that is present from birth. • This aspect of personality is entirely unconscious and includes of the instinctive and primitive behaviors. • According to Freud, the id is the source of all psychic energy, making it the primary component of personality. • It operates according to pleasure principles.
  16. 16. The pleasure principles • which strives for immediate gratification of all desires, wants, and needs. • If these needs are not satisfied immediately, the result is a state anxiety or tension. For example, an increase in hunger or thirst should produce an immediate attempt to eat or drink. The id is very important early in life, because it ensures that an infant's needs are met. If the infant is hungry or uncomfortable, he or she will cry until the demands of the id are met. • However, immediately satisfying these needs is not always realistic or even possible. If we were ruled entirely by the pleasure principle, we might find ourselves grabbing things we want out of other people's hands to satisfy our own cravings. This sort of behavior would be both disruptive and socially unacceptable. According to Freud, the id tries to resolve the tension created by the pleasure principle through the primary process, which involves forming a mental image of the desired object as a way of satisfying the need. • Sources of energy (eros- life; thanos –death) • Libido- sexual energy or motivation.
  17. 17. The ego- develops out of the id in infancy-I will • is the component of personality that is responsible for dealing with reality. • The ego functions in both the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind. • The ego operates based on the reality principle, which strives to satisfy the id's desires in realistic and socially appropriate ways. The reality principle weighs the costs and benefits of an action before deciding to act upon or abandon impulses. In many cases, the id's impulses can be satisfied through a process of delayed gratification--the ego will eventually allow the behavior, but only in the appropriate time and place. • It understand reality and logic. • The ego also discharges tension created by unmet impulses through the secondary process, in which the ego tries to find an object in the real world that matches the mental image created by the id's primary process. • Mediator between id and superego.
  18. 18. The Superego– I should • The last component of personality to develop is the superego. • The superego is the aspect of personality that holds all of our internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from both parents and society--our sense of right and wrong. • The superego provides guidelines for making judgments. According to Freud, the superego begins to emerge at around age five.
  19. 19. There are two parts of the superego: • The ego ideal includes the rules and standards for good behaviors. These behaviors include those which are approved of by parental and other authority figures. Obeying these rules leads to feelings of pride, value and accomplishment. • The conscience includes information about things that are viewed as bad by parents and society. These behaviors are often forbidden and lead to bad consequences, punishments or feelings of guilt and remorse. • The superego acts to perfect and civilize our behavior. It works to suppress all unacceptable urges of the id and struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards rather that upon realistic principles. The superego is present in the conscious, preconscious and unconscious.
  20. 20. The Interaction of the Id, Ego and Superego • With so many competing forces, it is easy to see how conflict might arise between the id, ego and superego. Freud used the term ego strength to refer to the ego's ability to function despite these dueling forces. A person with good ego strength is able to effectively manage these pressures, while those with too much or too little ego strength can become too unyielding or too disrupting. • According to Freud, the key to a healthy personality is a balance between the id, the ego, and the superego.
  21. 21. • Freud’s theory suggests that we are driving by sexual and aggressive instincts. Our behavior is guided by the impulses and desires we have in our unconscious.
  22. 22. • After he described the theory regarding the human personality, Freud kept working. He explained the development of our personality. Freud’s theory says that our personality begins to develop when we are born and it is established when we are five, six years old. He believed our childhood is the most important part of our life. • Freud described five stages of psychosexual development – the oral stage, the anal stage, the phallic stage, the latency stage, and the genital stage.
  23. 23. What’s on your mind?????
  24. 24. Psychosexual development • is an important element of the psychoanalytic theory. According to Sigmund Freud, human beings are driven by primary instincts, mostly sexual and aggressive. Since we are born, we all possess an instinctual libido, a sexual appetite. Freud believed that personality is established by the age of five. Early experiences play an important role in personality development. • Sigmund Freud proposed five psychosexual development stages. The stages are called psychosexual because Freud believed that each is dominated by the prominence of its own particular erogenous zone. The personality during each stage revolves around the significant erogenous zone.
  25. 25. • The oral stage is from birth to about one year of age. In this case the erogenous zone is the mouth. According to Freud, the baby does not just receive nutrition from the breast but also achieves gratification from the experience of sucking. In this case, sucking satisfies the sex drive. • If the baby receives comfort and love from his mother, he will complete this stage. Otherwise, if the mother does not feed the baby regularly a neurosis may develop. The baby becomes obsessed with achieving the gratification of what he feels deprived. The neurosis has a great impact on the personality development. The baby will fixate at the oral stage; he will not progress fully to the next stages. He grows up to be an oral personality. Oral stage
  26. 26. • Freud called the second stage of psychosexual development the anal stage because in this case the erogenous stage is the anus. The stage from one to three years is experienced only by those who did not fixate at the oral stage. • At this age a child starts using the toilet. If his parents give him too many rewards for this action the child may come to feel possessive about his defecation. As a result, the child will get pleasure thanks to his feces. • If the parents are too strict, the child could fixate. A child who had received a strict treatment from his parent during the anal stage could develop into an anal expulsive personality and grow up to be messy and irresponsible. Alternatively, the child could develop into an anal retentive personality, growing up to be obstinate, over-orderly, and righteous. • The ego appears for the first time during the anal stage. From now on the id will no longer have direct rule over every action. Anal stage
  27. 27. Phallic stage • The phallic stage is from three to five years of age. The erogenous zone becomes the region of the genitals. Freud believed children possess sexual feelings. According to the Freudian theory, children direct their sexual feelings at the parent of the opposite sex and try to annihilate the parent of the same sex. • In the case of boys, Freud called this the Oedipus complex. The boy starts to feel attraction for his mother and consider his father a rival. He feels like his father should not exist. The child is afraid of a particular kind of punishment from his father – castration. The boy may suffer from castration anxiety. • In the case of girls, we talk about the Elektra complex. It is slightly different because girls do not suffer from castration anxiety from obvious reasons. Freud suggested that girls believe that they have already been castrated. As a result they suffer from penis envy. • During this stage, the superego appears for the first time. The moral norms of the parent are assimilated into the child’s personality. • If a girl fixates at this stage, she might continue to suffer from penis envy. A boy who fixates at the phallic stage might continue to fear castration. As a consequence, boys and girls may become frigid lovers.
  28. 28. Resolving problem in phallic stage • Through identification- let the child imitate one’s father’s values, attitudes, and mannerisms. • Girl having penis envy- thus fixation can lead to excessive masculinity in males and need for attention and domination for females.
  29. 29. Latency stage • The latency stage develops from age six until puberty. During this period the libido interests are suppressed. This stage is defined as a period of calm. At six years old the child enters into school and becomes more interested in developing relationships. The latency stage is important in the development of social skills.
  30. 30. Genital stage • Freud called the last stage of psychosexual development the genital stage. The stage begins during puberty and last for rest of a person’s life. People start to develop a strong sexual interest in the opposite sex. If the previous stages were completed, the individual should now be well- balanced. • Sigmund Freud proposed five interesting stages in order to explain the psychosexual development of human beings. His theory was criticized mostly because it is too vague and it is based just on case studies and not on empirical research.
  31. 31. Defense Mechanisms • Daily, people deal with different levels of anxiety. According to Freud’s theory, we develop several defense mechanisms in order to cope with anxiety. • The list of basic defense mechanism includes: denial, displacement, repression, regression, projection, intellectualization, rationalization, reaction formation, sublimation, introjection, identification, isolation of affect, conversion, fantasy.
  32. 32. Denial • is a simply is simply refusing to acknowledge that an event has occurred. A person may act as nothing has happened. For example, a mother finds out that her little child was killed, and yet she refuses to believe this. The mother still prepares breakfast for her child every morning. Optimistic people deny that things may go wrong. Pessimistic people deny that they may succeed.
  33. 33. Displacement • is the shifting of actions from a desired target to a substitute target. It appears when the first target is not permitted or not available and the person focuses her attention to other target. The second target will resemble the original target in some way. For example, the boss gets angry at work and shouts at his employees. An employee goes home and starts shouting at her wife or kids. A woman, rejected by her boyfriend will go out with another boy.
  34. 34. Repression • involves placing uncomfortable thoughts in relatively inaccessible areas of the subconscious mind. Even if we forget painful things, they do not disappear. Repressed memories can have several effects such as anxiety or dysfunctional behavior. They may appear in altered forms, such as dreams or slips of the tongue. For example, a child who is abused by a parent later has no recollection of the event, but has trouble forming relationships.
  35. 35. Regression • involves taking the position of a child in some problematic situation, rather than acting in an adult way. For example, a person who suffers a mental break breakdown assumes a fetal position, rocking and crying, without trying to do anything for her health.
  36. 36. Projection • appears when a person who has uncomfortable thoughts or feelings and she starts to project these onto other people. It may also appear when we see our own traits in other people. The most common example is a couple’s behavior. Usually when a partner is nervous he thinks that his partner is nervous, not himself. He projects his own state of mind on his partner.
  37. 37. Intellectualization • involves avoiding uncomfortable emotions by focusing on facts and logic. The emotional aspects are completely ignored. A woman who finds out that she suffers of infertility she starts reading many books in order to find out a rational way to cure herself.
  38. 38. Rationalization • appears when we find difficult to accept an event and we start making up a logical reason to understand why it has happened. A man who bought an expensive car starts telling people that his old car was very unsafe. He tries to find a logical reason to explain why he bought such an expensive car.
  39. 39. Reaction formation • occurs when a person feels an urge to do or say something and then actually does or says something that is effectively the opposite of what she really wants. If I want to sustain an idea at a school class and I am afraid that I will be criticized, it is possible to sustain another idea, the opposite of the original.
  40. 40. Sublimation • is the transformation of unwanted impulses into something less harmful. Artists express their feeling through music or painting. If I am angry I go out to run and by doing this I make sure that I express my angry and nobody will be harmed.
  41. 41. Introjection • involves the internalization of significant aspects of a person as a way to accept the loss of that person. For example, if a child loses his father he will take over his father’s qualities. We use to attribute our own unacknowledged feelings to others.
  42. 42. Identification • is the internalization of another person’s qualities. Commonly, children follow their parent’s model. In order to do that, they will internalize their parent’s qualities, in their attempt to be just like mom and/or dad.
  43. 43. Isolation of affect • involves separating an idea of its associated emotional state in order to avoid emotional turmoil. For example, a person is acting indifferent toward someone when she really dislikes that person.
  44. 44. Conversion • occurs when internal conflicts are presented by physical symptoms. A person may complain of muscle pain, numbness of different parts of the body, but in fact she has no major medical problems. Her suffering is caused by internal unsolved conflicts.
  45. 45. Fantasy • occurs when a person chooses to live in her own internal world, in order to avoid anxiety caused by interpersonal relations.
  46. 46. Sigmund Freud (German pronunciation: [ˈziˈkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏ̯t] born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist who became known as the founding father of psychoanalysis. Freud qualified as a doctor of medicine at the University of Vienna in 1881,[1] and then carried out research into cerebral palsy, aphasia and microscopic neuroanatomy at theVienna General Hospital.[2] He was appointed a university lecturer in neuropathology in 1885 and became a professor in 1902.
  47. 47. • Today, Sigmund Freud is also known as The Father of Psychoanalysis. • Freud’s theory was one of the most controversial ones. His theory was and still is strongly criticized. However, there are many people in the world who study psychoanalysis and many people who are cured through this way of treatment.
  48. 48. Theng Q.. • Powerpoint presentation • Presented by: • Mr. Boyet B. Aluan • • et.aluan • etAluan
  49. 49. • onality/a/consciousuncon.htm • onality/a/personalityelem.htm • OThmY/Psychoanalytic_Theory_powerpoint_ppt _presentation • • psychosexual-development/ • mechanisms/