MORAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PIAGET/KOHLBERG / LOEVINGER Presented by: Khadija GOUALI Nadia BAT Ikram AIT DRA Mustapha OMARAKLY Brahim MEZGAR
THE OUTLINE Piaget’s theory of Moral development. Kohlberg’s stages of Moral reasoning. Moral Development in the classroom. Criticisms of Kohlbergs theory. Loevinger’s Social Development.
PIAGET’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT MORALITY: ones ability to distinguish between right and wrong, and to be able to act on this distinction. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development also include a theory about the development of moral reasoning. Moral development depends on cognitive development that is, one have to understand right from wrong if he/she is to be expected to act in right or wrong ways.
EXPERIMENT To understand childrens moral reasoning, , Piaget spent a great deal of time watching children play marbles and ask them about the rules of the game. He pretended to be ignorant of the rules of the game and asked children to explain them to him.
FINDINGS Before age of 6, children play by their own idiosyncratic rules. Very young children are incapable of interacting in cooperative ways and therefore unable to engage in moral reasoning. By the age of 6, children acknowledged the existence of rules. children did not conscientiously use and follow rules until the age of 10 or 12 years, when they are capable of formal operations.
STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENTHeteronomous morality In Piagets theory of moral development, the stage at which children think that rules are unchangeable and that breaking them leads automatically to punishment.Autonomous morality In Piagets theory of moral development, the stage at which children understand that people make rules and that punishments are not automatic.
DISTINCTIONHeteronomous Morality Autonomous Morality Based on relations of Based on relations of cooperation and mutual recognition of equality. constraint. Reflected in rational moral Reflected in attitudes of attitudes: moral realism: rules are viewed as products of rules are seen as mutual agreement inflexible requirements open to recognition external in origin and made legitimate by personal authority acceptance and common consent not open to negotiation, “right” is a matter of acting in “right” is a matter of literal accordance with the obedience to adults and requirements of cooperation rules. and mutual respect.
Badness is judged in Badness is viewed as terms of the objective relative to the actor’s form and consequences intentions; of actions; fairness is defined as fairness is equated with equal treatment or taking the content of adult account of individual decisions needs arbitrary and severe fairness of punishment is punishment are seen as defined by fair. appropriateness of the Punishment is seen as offense. automatic consequences Punishment is seen as of the offense and justice affected by human is seen as inherent. intention.
Story A Story B A little boy who is called Once there was a little John is in his room. He boy whose name was is called to dinner. He Henry. One day when his goes into the dining mother was out he tried room. But behind the dining room door there to reach some jam out of was a chair, and on the the cupboard. He chair there were 12 cups. climbed onto a chair and John couldnt have stretched out his arm. known that there was all But the jam was too high this behind the door. He up and he couldnt reach goes in, the door knocks it.... While he was trying against the tray, bang go to get it, he knocked over the 12 cups, and they all a cup. The cup fell down get broken. and broke
PIAGET’S METHOD: SAMPLE DIALOG BETWEEN A RESEARCHER AND A CHILD The following dialog is revealing (from Piaget, 1932/1962, pp. 124-125): Q: Is one of the boys [who broke teacups] naughtier than the other? A: The first is because he knocked over twelve cups. Q: If you were the daddy, which one would you punish most? A: The one who broke twelve cups. Q: Why did he break them? A: The door shut too hard and knocked them. He didn’t do it on purpose. Q: And why did the other boy break a cup? A: He wanted to get the jam. He moved too far. The cup got broken. Q: Why did he want to get the jam? A: Because he was all alone. Because his mother wasn’t there. Q: Have you got a brother? A: No, a little sister. Q: Well, if it was you who had broken the twelve cups when you went into the room and your little sister who had broken one cup when she was trying to get the jam, which of you would be punished more severely? A: Me, because I broke more than one cup.
* Clearly this child understand that the boy whobroke twelve cups did not do this intentionally, yethe still claims that this boy was more guilty(deserved greater punishment) than the one whobroke just a single cup while doing something hewasn’t supposed to be doing.*Guilt is determined by the extent of violation of rules rather than by intention.
KOHLBERGS THEORY OF MORALDEVELOPMENT Kohlberg believed much of Piagets theory but thought it should be extended into adolescence and adulthood. Kohlberg was less interested in what the subjects decision was than in the underlying rationale. What is important is HOW they EXPLAINED their judgments. 1) Like Piaget, Kohlberg developed stages of Moral development which follow some invariant sequences. 2) Because each successive stage is built upon the foundation of an earlier one, each stage must be followed in a particular order. 3) Again, according to Kohlberg, each stage represents a METHOD OF THINKING about a moral dilemma rather than a particular TYPE of moral decision.
THE HEINZ DILEMMA:A woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctorsthought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recentlydiscovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times whatthe drug cost him to produce. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a smalldose of the drug. The sick womans husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrowthe money, but he could only get together about $1,000 which is half of what it cost. He toldthe druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. Butthe druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and Im going to make money from it." So Heinzgot desperate and broke into the mans store to steal the drug for his wife.
WHAT WOULD YOU DO?_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
KOHLBERG’S 3 LEVELS OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT Pre-Conventional Moral Development Stage 1 Stage 2 Conventional Moral Development Stage 3 Stage 4 Post-Conventional Moral Development Stage 5 Stage 6
LEVEL 1: PRE-CONVENTIONAL MORALITY 0-9 YEARSStage 1 - Obedience and PunishmentEspecially common in young children, but adults are capable of expressing this type ofreasoning. At this stage, children see rules as fixed and absolute. Obeys rules in order to avoid punishment Determines a sense of right and wrong by what is punished and what is not punished Obeys superior authority and allows that authority to make the rules, especially if that authority has the power to inflict pain Is responsive to rules that will affect his/her physical well-beingStage 2 – Naively egotisticalAt this stage of moral development, children account for individual points of view and judgeactions based on how they serve individual needs. Is motivated by vengeance or “an eye for an eye” philosophy Is self-absorbed while assuming that he/she is generous Believes in equal sharing in that everyone gets the same, regardless of need Believes that the end justifies the means Will do a favor only to get a favor Expects to be rewarded for every non-selfish deed he/she does
I will do what I am supposed to do In order to avoid punishment.
LEVEL 2: CONVENTIONAL MORALITY 10-15 YEARSStage 3 - "good boy-good girl" orientationThis stage of moral development is focused on living up to social expectationsand roles. There is an emphasis on conformity, being "nice," and considerationof how choices influence relationships. Attitude which seeks to do what will gain the approval of others Feels that intensions are as important as deeds and expects others to accept intentions or promises in place of deeds Begins to put himself/herself in another’s shoes and think from another perspectiveStage 4 – Law and Social OrderAt this stage of moral development, people begin to consider society as a wholewhen making judgments. The focus is on maintaining law and order by followingthe rules, doing one’s duty, and respecting authority. Respects authority and obeys it without question Supports the rights of the majority without concern for those in the minority Is part of about 80% of the population that does not progress past stage 4
I will do what I am supposed to do as things work out better when everyone follows the rules.
LEVEL 3: POST-CONVENTIONAL MORALITY – 16+Stage 5 - Legalistic Social ContractAt this stage, people begin to account for the differing values, opinions, and beliefs ofother people. Rules of law are important for maintaining a society, but members of thesociety should agree upon these standards. Is motivated by the belief in the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people Believes in consensus (everyone agrees), rather than in majority rule Respects the rights of the minority especially the rights of the individual Believes that change in the law is possible but only through the systemStage 6 – Universal ethical PrinciplesKohlbergs final level of moral reasoning is based upon universal ethical principles andabstract reasoning. At this stage, people follow these internalized principles of justice,even if they conflict with laws and rules. Believes that there are high moral principles than those represented by social rules and customs Is willing to accept the consequences for disobedience of the social rule he/she has rejected Believes that the dignity of humanity is sacred and that all humans have value
I will do (or wont do) what I am supposed to dobecause I think ( or don’t think) it is the right thing to do.
Kohlberg believed that individuals could only progress through these stages one stage at a time. That is, they could not "jump" stages. They could not, for example, move from an orientation of selfishness to the law and order stage without passing through the good boy/girl stage. They could only come to a comprehension of a moral rationale one stage above their own. Thus, according to Kohlberg, it was important to present them with moral dilemmas for discussion which would help them to see the reasonableness of a "higher stage" morality and encourage their development in that direction. The last comment refers to Kohlbergs moral discussion approach. He saw this as one of the ways in which moral development can be promoted through formal education. Note that Kohlberg believed, as did Piaget, that most moral development occurs through social interaction. The discussion approach is based on the insight that individuals develop as a result of cognitive conflicts at their current stage.
LET’S PRACTICE! SITUATION 1 Sophia borrowed her father’s car. She and her friend Soumia were very late coming home that evening. They were further delayed at a stop light on a quiet street. After what seemed to be an unnecessary long wait, Soumia reminded Sophia that they were late. Sophia continued to wait, insisting that if everyone ignored stop lights when it was personally convenient to do so, no street would be safe. At what stage do you think Sophias decision was? Why? 25
LET’S PRACTICE! SITUATION 2 Brahim was not prepared for a difficult exam, so he wrote some important formulas on a slip of paper which he put in his pocket before the test. Just before the test began, the teacher informed the class that any student caught cheating would automatically fail the test. Even though Brahim needed the information he wrote, he didn’t use it because the teacher stood too close to his desk during the entire exam. At what stage do you think Brahims decision was? Why?
VALUE TO PRACTITIONERS Educators (and families) have grappled with the important distinction that theories deal with moral reasoning rather than actual moral behavior. Successful programs have incorporated values education at the global, local, and individual levels.1/Global Level-Districtwide Approach. Many schools have chosen to institutionalize a global, inclusive approach to character building with input from teachers, administrators, parents, and, at the higher grade levels, even students. This emphasizes the individual citizen as a member of the social institution and advocate particular levels of moral behavior.
2/ Local Level-Classroom Instruction. A teacher might choose to capitalize on students’ natural curiosity and might teach values and decision making through “What if…?” discussions. The classroom is an ideal laboratory in which students can test hypothetical situations and potential consequences. Teachers must recognize the cognitive abilities of those in their class and maximize these abilities through problem-solving activities. An effective moral educator is no easy task. Teachers must reexamine their teaching role; they must be willing to create cognitive conflict in their classrooms and to stimulate social perspective taking in students.
3/ Individual Level-Conflict Management. Families want schools to provide students with the necessary tools to mediate serious conflicts without violence, and teachers and administrators are evaluating or initiating conflict resolution programs in many schools (see Bodine, Crawford, & Schrumpf, 1994).
WHAT THE STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT MEAN TO A TEACHER In the classroom having a basic understanding of a student is important. Decisions based on trust could be based on how “ morally developed” a student is . Using this theory to improve a student and progress them morally could be useful.
HOW TO APPLY KOHLBERGS THEORY IN THE CLASSROOM can be applied to the classroom where rules, standards, and consequences are concerned. The theory tracks an individuals level of moral reasoning by assigning him to one of six stages, where the first stage is a basic submission to authority and the last is universal ethics for all. As an educator: - consider where your students personal development lies in terms of Kohlbergs six stages. - Then work toward achieving optimal moral character along the lines of Kohlbergs level six.
INSTRUCTIONS 1/- Give students the opportunity to help create a classroom code of conduct.- By creating classroom policy, students canadvance from stage one submission to stagethree where they are accountable within the smallclassroom community.
2/- Allow for a written self evaluation as part ofany disciplinary consequence.- - This type of action relates to Kohlbergsfourth stage of morality, in which individualsdo their part to maintain order by reflecting onthe impact of their words and actions.
3/-Plan group projects where students worktogether toward the understanding of curriculuminstead of sitting back and listening to the teachertalk at them.- Kohlbergs fifth morality stage on upholding asocial contract.
4/-Make time for role play, whether it berelated to the curriculum or used as aproblem solving tool.-Kohlbergs sixth stage, in which theneeds of every person in society are worthconsidering.
THE CRYING BABYIt is wartime, and you’re hiding in abasement with your baby and a group ofother people.Enemy soldiers are outside and will bedrawn to any sound. If you are found.You will be killed immediately. Your babystarts to cry loudly and cannot bestopped. Smothering him to death is theonly way to silence him and save thelives of everyone in the room. Could youdo so? Assume the baby is not yours,the parents are unknown and there willbe no penalty for killing him. Could yoube the one who smother this baby if noone else would?Your baby someone else’s baby Yes Yes No No
Criticisms of the moral development theory Kohlberg’s work involves only boys Some research on girls‘ moral reasoning finds patterns that are somewhat different from those proposed by Kohlberg. Whereas boys moral reasoning revolves primarily around issues of justice, girls are more concerned about issues of caring and responsibility for others (Gilligan, 1982, 1985; Gilligan & Attanucci, 1988; Haspe & Baddeley, 1991). Kohlberg’s theory is heavily dependent on an individual’s response to an artificial dilemma. This brings question to the validity of the results obtained through this research.
Young children can often reason about moral situations in more sophisticated ways than a stage theory : Children as young as 3 or 4 years old use intentions to judge the behavior of others.
Turiel(1998) demonstrated in his reasearch that children as young as 2 to 3 years old make distinctions between moral and social- conventional rules: young children make a distinction between moral rules, such as not lying and stealing, that are based on principles of justice, and social-conventional rules, such as not wearing pajamas to school, that are based on social consensus and etiquette.
kohlberg’s theory deals with moral reasoning rather than with actual behavior Behavior may be affected by many other factors other than reasoning such as the ability to interpret correctly what is happening in a social situation, the motivation to behave in a moral fashion, and the social skills necessary to actually carry out a moral plan of action. Many individuals at different stages behave in the same way, and individuals at the same stage often behave in different ways
JANE LOEVINGER CONCEPTUALIZED THETHEORY OF EGO DEVELOPMENT IN WHICHTHE EGO WAS THEORIZED TO MATURE ANDEVOLVE THROUGH A PROCESS ACROSSTHE LIFESPAN AS A RESULT OF A DYNAMICINTERACTION BETWEEN THE INNER SELFAND THE OUTER ENVIRONMENT
• INCLUDING NINE SEQUENTIAL STAGES,EACH OF WHICH REPRESENTS APROGRESSIVELY MORE COMPLEX WAY OFPERCEIVING ONESELF IN RELATION TO THEWORLD.. EACH NEW EGO STAGE ORFRAME OF REFERENCE BUILDS ON THEPREVIOUS ONE AND INTEGRATES IT,
1- pre-social² stageduring infancy. babies have a very id-like ego that is very focused on gratifying immediate needs. They tend to be very attached to the primary caregiver, often the mother, and while they differentiate her from the rest of the world, they tend experience a cognitive confusion and emotional fusion between the caregiver and the self.
2- The impulsive stageToddlers The ego continues to be focused on bodily feelings, basic impulses,and immediate needs. They experience the world in egocentric terms, in terms of how things are affecting me. If something or someone meets my needs, it is good; if something or someone frustrates my needs, it is bad. Thus, their thinking is very simplistic and dichotomous.
3- The self-protective stageearly and middle childhood self potective ego is still using his/her greater awareness of cause and effect, of rules and consequences, to get what they want from others. Therefore, they tend to be exploitive, manipulative, and opportunistic.
3- The self-protective stage (continue)early and middle childhood The self-protective ego is more cognitively sophisticated than the impulsive ego. Children are self-protective in the sense of externalizing blame--blaming others when anything goes wrong.
4-THE CONFORMIST STAGEaround five or six Conformistindividuals are very invested in belonging to and obtaining the approval of important reference groups, such as peer groups. Theytend to view and evaluate themselves and others in terms of externals—how one looks, the music that you listen to ....
4- THE CONFORMIST STAGE (CONTINUE) More generally, they tend to view the world in simple, conventional, rule-bound and moralistic ways. What is right and wrong is clear to them— namely, what their group thinks is right or wrong. Their feelings also tend to be simple and rule- governed, in the sense that there are some situations in which one feels happy, and other situations in which one feels sad.
4-The conformist stage (continue) both feelings of happiness and feelings of shame tend to peak at this stage. Shame peaks because individuals are so concerned about approval from their group as long as their place in the group is not threatened, conformist egos are quite happy, even happier than egos at the later stages, where right and wrong can never again be so simple and clear.
5-THE SELF-AWARE STAGE The self-aware ego shows an increased but still limited awareness deeper issues and the inner lives of themselves and others. The being to wonder what do I think as opposed to what my parents and peers think about such issues as God and religion, morality, love and relationships.
5-THE SELF-AWARE STAGE (CONTINUE) They tend to not be at the point where they reach much resolution on these issues, but they are thinking about them.
5- THE SELF-AWARE STAGE (CONTINUE ) They are also more aware that they have unique feelings and motives, different from those that might be prescribed by the feeling rules they have learned from society. They recognize that just because one is part of the group does not mean that one always feels or thinks the same as the other group members
5- THE SELF-AWARE STAGE (CONTINUE) they are appreciating themselves and others as unique. Increasing awareness of one’s unique feelings and motives creates tension between the “real me” and the “expected me”, which can lead to increased conflicts with family and peers.
6- THE CONSCIENTIOUS STAGE The tendency towards self-evaluation and self-criticism continues. The conscientious ego values responsibility, achievement and the pursuit of high ideals and long-term goals. Moralityis based on personally-evaluated principles, and behavior is guided by self- evaluated standards
6-THE CONSCIENTIOUS STAGE(CONTINUE)with increasing awareness of the depth and uniqueness of others’ feelings and motives as well comes increasing concern with mutuality and empathy in relationships.
7-The individualistic stage the focus on relationships increases, and although achievement is still valued, relationships tend to be more valued even more. The individualistic ego shows a broad- minded tolerance of and respect for the autonomy of both the self and others.
7-The individualistic stage (continue) The heightened sense of individuality and self-understanding can lead to vivid and unique ways of expressing the self as well as to an awareness of inner conflicts and personal paradoxes. But this is an incipient awareness of conflicting wishes and thoughts and feelings
8-The autonomous stage there is increasing respect for one’s own and others’ autonomy. The autonomous ego cherishes individuality and uniqueness and self-actualization; individuals’ unique paths are a source of joy. these independent paths are no longer seen in opposition to depending on each other; rather relationships are appreciated as an interdependent system of mutual support
8-The autonomous stage (continue) conflicts—both inner conflicts and conflicts between people—are appreciated as inevitable expressions of the fluid and multifaceted nature of people and of life in general the heightened and acute awareness of one’s own inner space is manifest in vivid ways of articulating feelings.
9- The integrated stage the ego shows wisdom, broad empathy towards oneself and others a capacity to reconcile a number of inner conflicts and make peace with those issues that will remain unsolvable and those experiences that will remain unattainable. The integrated ego finally has a full sense of identity
9-The integrated stage (continue) seeking to understand and actualize my own potentials and to achieve integration of all those multi-faceted aspects of myself that have become increasing vivid as I’ve moved through the preceding three stages. In Loevinger’s research this highest stage is reached by less than 1% of adults in the United States.