+DEREK PARFITBRITISH PHILOSOPHEROXFORD UNIVERSITY
+ 1) HEDONIC WELLBEINGTHREE THEORIES 2)DESIREOF SELF-INTEREST FULFILLMENTWHAT MAKES SOMEONE’S LIFE GOBEST? 3) OBJECTIVE LIST
+ HEDONIC WELLBEING Argues that: The best life is one filled with the best subjective mental states. Only facts about an individual’s mental state matter, not facts about the external world. Two types of hedonic mental states:
+ Two types Narrow hedonism: Happiness ismaximising pleasure andminimising pain. Preference hedonism – the best mental states are simply those that individuals desire the most. -Life goes well if you experience getting the things you want Eg. Near the end of his life, Freud refused painkillers, preferring to think in torment than to be confusedly euphoric. A Preference-Hedonist would claim that since Freud preferred to think clearly though in torment, his life went better if it went as preferred.
+ DESIRE FULFILLMENT Argues that the best life is one that fulfills an individual’s greatest desires. Success theory – only the satisfaction of your desires about yourself count Can converge with preference hedonism if the desire is to achieve certain subjective mental states (i.e. “I want to be in love”) In other cases, desires can be about objective states of the world (i.e. “I want my spouse to be faithful”) Even if one never knows the truth, it is bad for them and results in a worse life.
+ OBJECTION TO D-FT & PHT SOMEONE COULD PREFER WHAT IS NOT BEST FOR THEM EVEN IF THEY KNOW ALL OF THE FACTS!
+ OBJECTIVE LIST ACCOUNT Certain things are good or bad for people. We prefer x (good) because it is valuable whereas in DFT & PHT, x is valuable because we prefer it Good – moral goodness, rational activity, awareness of true beauty, knowledge Bad – betrayal, manipulation, slander, deceit, deprivation of freedom, enjoying sadistic pleasure Preference-Hedonism – “I do not want to feel deceived” Desire fulfillment – “ I do not want to be deceived” Objective list – “I do not want to be deceived because it Is bad for me”
+ OBJECTION TO OBJECTIVE LIST! WHAT DESERVES TO BE ON THE LIST OF WHAT IS GOOD OR BAD??
+ Theory Description Hedonistic Happiness Desire-fulfillment Getting what you wantIn sum… Objective list Getting X, Y, Z (sometimes regardless of whether you want them or how they make you feel)
+ Your father gives your rooster to a chicken farm. It dies a cruel death. Hedonism - Doesn’t matter as long as you never find out Success theory – Matters if you wanted to be a successful rooster owner Object list – Matters because deceit isHypothetical bad and you want good!