+ Psychology should: Be focused on strength as well as weakness Be interested in improving as well as repairing Help normal people live fulfilling lives as well as healingBELIEFS From Authentic Happiness to Well-Being theory
+ Authentic Happiness Authentic Happiness Theory: Topic: happiness Measure: life satisfaction Goal: increase life satisfaction Suggests happiness could be analysed into three different elements – three „happy lives‟ These lives can be independent of each other.
+ The Pleasant Life Having as many positive emotions as you can: pleasure, rapture, ecstasy, warmth, comfort, etc. Shopping, watching tv, etc. Learning skills that amplify them
+ The Good Life About engagement and flow During flow, you cannot feel anything – time stops, loses self-consciousness during an absorbing activity. Seligman believes that the concentrated attention that flow requires uses up all the cognitive and emotional resources that make up thought and feeling. Using highest strengths to recraft your life (work, relationships, etc)
+ The Meaningful Life Pursuit of pleasure and the pursuit of engagement are often solitary endeavours. Meaningful life involves others. The Meaningful Life consists in belonging to and serving something you believe is bigger than the self, and humanity creates all the positive institutions to allow this: religion, political party, being green, the family, etc Knowing your signature strength and using them to belong to something larger than you are
+ Life Satisfaction Does Life Satisfaction = Pleasure + Engagement + Meaning? 15 replications over thousands of participants To what extent do these each pursuits contribute to life satisfaction? Pursuit of pleasure very little Engagement and Meaning highest Pleasure matters when you have both engagement and meaning – “the cherry on top”!
+ Well-Being Theory Well-Being Theory: Topic: well-being Measures: positive emotion, engagement, positive relationships, meaning, and accomplishment (PERMA) Goal: increase flourishing by increasing PERMA Five elements…
+ 1) Positive Emotion Similar to the authentic happiness theory BUT happiness and life satisfaction are now under this element rather than being the goal of the entire theory 2) Engagement Again, like in authentic happiness theory, one‟s thoughts and feelings are absent during the flow state and only in retrospect do they say “that was fun/wonderful”. 3) Meaning As retained from the Authentic Happiness Theory
+ 4) Positive Relationships Premise that high points of ones life involves the presence of others. 5) Accomplishment Often pursued for its own sake – „winning for winning‟s sake‟ People who lead the achieving life are often absorbed in what they do, often pursue pleasure and feel positive emotion when they win and they may win in the service of something larger
+ GOAL – TO FLOURISH What is „flourish‟? An individual must have all the „core features‟ and three of the six „additional features‟: Core Features Additional Features Positive emotions Self-esteem Engagement Optimism Interest Resilience Meaning Vitality Purpose Self-Determination Positive relationships Administered items to > 2000 in numerous nations…
+ Authentic Happiness vs Well-Being Theory Authentic happiness is one-dimensional: about feeling good and claims that our goal in life is to maximise how we feel Well-being is about all five elements (PERMA) and about a combination of feeling good as well as having meaning, good relationships and accomplishment. The goal is to maximise all five elements. In authentic happiness theory, the strengths and virtues fall under engagement – in well-being, these strengths underpin all five elements. Therefore, it is about using your strengths to pursue more positive emotion, more meaning, more accomplishment and to better relationships.
+ What are these „STRENGTHS‟? Values in Action (VIA) Strengths Survey and The Authentic Happiness Inventory Questionnaire (amongst many others) on www.authentichappiness.org Over 1.8 million surveys completed These tests measure various elements. Data collected helps form further studies to examine and measure differences in affectivity after participating in positive psychology interventions.